[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Type 1 narcolepsy, an autoimmune disease affecting hypocretin (orexin) neurons, is strongly associated with HLA-DQB1*06:02. Among polymorphisms associated with the disease is single-nucleotide polymorphism rs2305795 (c.*638G>A) located within the P2RY11 gene. P2RY11 is in a region of synteny conserved in mammals and zebrafish containing PPAN, EIF3G and DNMT1 (DNA methyltransferase 1). As mutations in DNMT1 cause a rare dominant form of narcolepsy in association with deafness, cerebellar ataxia and dementia, we questioned whether the association with P2RY11 in sporadic narcolepsy could be secondary to linkage disequilibrium with DNMT1. Based on genome-wide association data from two cohorts of European and Chinese ancestry, we found that the narcolepsy association signal drops sharply between P2RY11/EIF3G and DNMT1, suggesting that the association with narcolepsy does not extend into the DNMT1 gene region. Interestingly, using transethnic mapping, we identified a novel single-nucleotide polymorphism rs3826784 (c.596-260A>G) in the EIF3G gene also associated with narcolepsy. The disease-associated allele increases EIF3G mRNA expression. EIF3G is located in the narcolepsy risk locus and EIF3G expression correlates with PPAN and P2RY11 expression. This suggests shared regulatory mechanisms that might be affected by the polymorphism and are of relevance to narcolepsy.European Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 11 February 2015; doi:10.1038/ejhg.2015.4.
European journal of human genetics: EJHG 02/2015; 23(11). DOI:10.1038/ejhg.2015.4 · 4.35 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective:
Cases of narcolepsy in association with psychotic features have been reported but never fully characterized. These patients present diagnostic and treatment challenges and may shed new light on immune associations in schizophrenia.
Our case series was gathered at two narcolepsy specialty centers over a 9-year period. A questionnaire was created to improve diagnosis of schizophrenia or another psychotic disorder in patients with narcolepsy. Pathophysiological investigations included full HLA Class I and II typing, testing for known systemic and intracellular/synaptic neuronal antibodies, recently described neuronal surface antibodies, and immunocytochemistry on brain sections to detect new antigens.
Ten cases were identified, one with schizoaffective disorder, one with delusional disorder, two with schizophreniform disorder, and 6 with schizophrenia. In all cases, narcolepsy manifested first in childhood or adolescence, followed by psychotic symptoms after a variable interval. These patients had auditory hallucinations, which was the most differentiating clinical feature in comparison to narcolepsy patients without psychosis. Narcolepsy therapy may have played a role in triggering psychotic symptoms but these did not reverse with changes in narcolepsy medications. Response to antipsychotic treatment was variable. Pathophysiological studies did not reveal any known autoantibodies or unusual brain immunostaining pattern. No strong HLA association outside of HLA DQB1*06:02 was found, although increased DRB3*03 and DPA1*02:01 was notable.
Narcolepsy can occur in association with schizophrenia, with significant diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. Dual cases maybe under diagnosed, as onset is unusually early, often in childhood. Narcolepsy and psychosis may share an autoimmune pathology; thus, further investigations in larger samples are warranted.
Journal of clinical sleep medicine: JCSM: official publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine 09/2014; 10(9). DOI:10.5664/jcsm.4040 · 3.05 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Author Summary
Narcolepsy-hypocretin deficiency results from a highly specific autoimmune attack on hypocretin cells. Recent studies have established antigen presentation by specific class II proteins encoded by (HLA DQB1*06:02 and DQA1*01:02) to the cognate T cell receptor as the main disease pathway, with a role for H1N1 influenza in the triggering process. Here, we have used a large and well-characterized cohort of Chinese narcolepsy cases to examine genetic architecture not observed in European samples. We confirmed previously implicated susceptibility genes (T cell receptor alpha, P2RY11), and identify new loci (ZNF365, IL10RB-IFNAR1), most notably, variants at the beta chain of the T cell receptor. We found that one HLA variant, (DQB1*03:01), is associated with dramatically earlier disease onset (nearly 2 years). We also identified differences in HLA haplotype frequencies among cases with onset following the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic as compared to before the outbreak, with fewer HLA DQB1*06:02 homozygotes. This may be the first demonstration of such an effect, and suggests that the study of changes in GWAS signals over time could help identify environmental factors in other autoimmune diseases.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Essential hypersomnia (EHS), a sleep disorder characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness, can be divided into two broad classes based on the presence or absence of the HLA-DQB1*06:02 allele. HLA-DQB1*06:02-positive EHS and narcolepsy with cataplexy are associated with the same susceptibility genes. In contrast, there are fewer studies of HLA-DQB1*06:02 negative EHS which, we hypothesized, involves a different pathophysiological pathway than does narcolepsy with cataplexy. In order to identify susceptibility genes associated with HLA-DQB1*06:02 negative EHS, we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of 125 unrelated Japanese EHS patients lacking the HLA-DQB1*06:02 allele and 562 Japanese healthy controls. A comparative study was also performed on 268 HLA-DQB1*06:02 negative Caucasian hypersomnia patients and 1761 HLA-DQB1*06:02 negative Caucasian healthy controls. We identified three SNPs that each represented a unique locus- rs16826005 (P = 1.02E-07; NCKAP5), rs11854769 (P = 6.69E-07; SPRED1), and rs10988217 (P = 3.43E-06; CRAT) that were associated with an increased risk of EHS in this Japanese population. Interestingly, rs10988217 showed a similar tendency in its association with both HLA-DQB1*06:02 negative EHS and narcolepsy with cataplexy in both Japanese and Caucasian populations. This is the first GWAS of HLA-DQB1*06:02 negative EHS, and the identification of these three new susceptibility loci should provide additional insights to the pathophysiological pathway of this condition.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Author Summary
While there is now broad consensus that narcolepsy-hypocretin deficiency results from a highly specific autoimmune attack on hypocretin cells, little is understood regarding the initiation and progression of the underlying autoimmune process. We have taken advantage of a unique high-density genotyping platform (the ImmunoChip) designed to study variants in genes known to be important to autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. Our study of nearly 2000 narcolepsy cases compared to 10,000 controls underscored important roles for HLA DQB1*06:02 and the T cell receptor alpha genes and implicated two additional genes, Cathepsin H and TNFSF4/OX40L, in disease pathogenesis. These findings are particularly important, as these encoded proteins have key roles in antigen processing, presentation, and T cell response, and they suggest that specific interactions at the immunological synapse constitute the pathway to the disease. Further studies of these genes and encoded proteins may therefore reveal the mechanism leading to this highly selective and unique autoimmune disease.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In Japanese, Koreans and Caucasians, narcolepsy/hypocretin deficiency is tightly associated with the DRB1*15:01-DQA1*01:02-DQB1*06:02 haplotype. Studies in African-Americans suggest a primary effect of DQB1*06:02, but this observation has been difficult to confirm in other populations because of high linkage disequilibrium between DRB1*15:01/3 and DQB1*06:02 in most populations. In this study, we studied human leucocyte antigen (HLA) class II in 202 Chinese narcolepsy patients (11% from South China) and found all patients to be DQB1*06:02 positive. Comparing cases with 103 unselected controls, and 110 and 79 controls selected for the presence of DQB1*06:02 and DRB1*15:01, we found that the presence of DQB1*06:02 and not DRB1*15:01 was associated with narcolepsy. In particular, Southern Chinese haplotypes such as the DRB1*15:01-DQA1*01:02-DQB1*06:01 and DRB1*15:01-DQA1*01:02-DQB1*05 were not associated with narcolepsy. As reported in Japanese, Koreans, African-Americans and Caucasians, additional protective effects of DQA1*01 (non-DQA1*01:02) and susceptibility effects of DQB1*03:01 were observed. These results illustrate the extraordinary conservation of HLA class II effects in narcolepsy across populations and show that DRB1*15:01 has no effect on narcolepsy susceptibility in the absence of DQB1*06:02. The results are also in line with a previously proposed 'HLA-DQ allelic competition model' that involves competition between non-DQA1*01:02, non-DQB1*06:02 'competent' (able to dimerize together) DQ1 alleles and the major DQα*01:02/ DQβ*06:02 narcolepsy heterodimer to reduce susceptibility.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxia, deafness and narcolepsy (ADCA-DN) is characterized by late onset (30-40 years old) cerebellar ataxia, sensory neuronal deafness, narcolepsy-cataplexy and dementia. We performed exome sequencing in five individuals from three ADCA-DN kindreds and identified DNMT1 as the only gene with mutations found in all five affected individuals. Sanger sequencing confirmed the de novo mutation p.Ala570Val in one family, and showed co-segregation of p.Val606Phe and p.Ala570Val, with the ADCA-DN phenotype, in two other kindreds. An additional ADCA-DN kindred with a p.GLY605Ala mutation was subsequently identified. Narcolepsy and deafness were the first symptoms to appear in all pedigrees, followed by ataxia. DNMT1 is a widely expressed DNA methyltransferase maintaining methylation patterns in development, and mediating transcriptional repression by direct binding to HDAC2. It is also highly expressed in immune cells and required for the differentiation of CD4+ into T regulatory cells. Mutations in exon 20 of this gene were recently reported to cause hereditary sensory neuropathy with dementia and hearing loss (HSAN1). Our mutations are all located in exon 21 and in very close spatial proximity, suggesting distinct phenotypes depending on mutation location within this gene.
Human Molecular Genetics 02/2012; 21(10):2205-10. DOI:10.1093/hmg/dds035 · 6.39 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The loss of hypothalamic hypocretin/orexin (hcrt) producing neurons causes narcolepsy with cataplexy. An autoimmune basis for the disease has long been suspected and recent results have greatly strengthened this hypothesis. Narcolepsy with hcrt deficiency is now known to be associated with a Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) and T-cell receptor (TCR) polymorphisms, suggesting that an autoimmune process targets a single peptide unique to hcrt-cells via specific HLA-peptide-TCR interactions. Recent data have shown a robust seasonality of disease onset in children and associations with Streptococcus Pyogenes, and influenza A H1N1-infection and H1N1-vaccination, pointing towards processes such as molecular mimicry or bystander activation as crucial for disease development. We speculate that upper airway infections may be common precipitants of a whole host of CNS autoimmune complications including narcolepsy.
Current opinion in neurobiology 09/2011; 21(6):897-903. DOI:10.1016/j.conb.2011.09.003 · 6.63 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Narcolepsy is caused by the loss of hypocretin/orexin neurons in the hypothalamus, which is likely the result of an autoimmune process. Recently, concern has been raised over reports of narcolepsy in northern Europe following H1N1 vaccination.
The study is a retrospective analysis of narcolepsy onset in subjects diagnosed in Beijing, China (1998-2010). Self-reported month and year of onset were collected from 629 patients (86% children). Graphical presentation, autocorrelations, chi-square, and Fourier analysis were used to assess monthly variation in onset. Finally, 182 patients having developed narcolepsy after October 2009 were asked for vaccination history.
The occurrence of narcolepsy onset was seasonal, significantly influenced by month and calendar year. Onset was least frequent in November and most frequent in April, with a 6.7-fold increase from trough to peak. Studying year-to-year variation, we found a 3-fold increase in narcolepsy onset following the 2009 H1N1 winter influenza pandemic. The increase is unlikely to be explained by increased vaccination, as only 8 of 142 (5.6%) patients recalled receiving an H1N1 vaccination. Cross-correlation indicated a significant 5- to 7-month delay between the seasonal peak in influenza/cold or H1N1 infections and peak in narcolepsy onset occurrences.
In China, narcolepsy onset is highly correlated with seasonal and annual patterns of upper airway infections, including H1N1 influenza. In 2010, the peak seasonal onset of narcolepsy was phase delayed by 6 months relative to winter H1N1 infections, and the correlation was independent of H1N1 vaccination in the majority of the sample.
Annals of Neurology 09/2011; 70(3):410-7. DOI:10.1002/ana.22587 · 9.98 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a sensorimotor disorder with an age-dependent prevalence of up to 10% in the general population above 65 years of age. Affected individuals suffer from uncomfortable sensations and an urge to move in the lower limbs that occurs mainly in resting situations during the evening or at night. Moving the legs or walking leads to an improvement of symptoms. Concomitantly, patients report sleep disturbances with consequences such as reduced daytime functioning. We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWA) for RLS in 922 cases and 1,526 controls (using 301,406 SNPs) followed by a replication of 76 candidate SNPs in 3,935 cases and 5,754 controls, all of European ancestry. Herein, we identified six RLS susceptibility loci of genome-wide significance, two of them novel: an intergenic region on chromosome 2p14 (rs6747972, P = 9.03 × 10(-11), OR = 1.23) and a locus on 16q12.1 (rs3104767, P = 9.4 × 10(-19), OR = 1.35) in a linkage disequilibrium block of 140 kb containing the 5'-end of TOX3 and the adjacent non-coding RNA BC034767.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Narcolepsy is characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness, symptoms of dissociated REM sleep (sleep paralysis, hypnagogic hallucinations), disrupted nocturnal sleep, and cataplexy (brief episodes of muscle weakness triggered by emotions). Onset of narcolepsy is most often in childhood, peaking between 10 and 25 years of age, and once established the disease is life-long. Significant strides have recently been made in understanding narcolepsy, which can now formally be considered an autoimmune disease based the identification of strong predisposing genetic variants within the HLA and T-cell receptor loci, as well as the identification of increased levels of specific autoantibodies near disease onset.
Sleep Medicine Clinics 06/2011; 6(2):217–228. DOI:10.1016/j.jsmc.2011.03.001
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nondipping nocturnal blood pressure (BP) is associated with target organ damage and cardiovascular disease. We hypothesized that β1- and β2-AR-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) would associate with nondipping BP patterns. Participants (n = 497, age range 30-74 years, 40% female) of the Wisconsin Sleep Cohort Study with at least one ambulatory BP monitoring test were included. Nondipping was defined as less than a 10% dip in sleep BP compared with wake BP. Dipping ratios were calculated as sleep/wake BP. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the β1-AR (rs7076938, tagging for Gly389Arg) and β2-AR (rs17778257 and rs2400707, tagging for Arg16Gly and Gln27Glu) were selected. β2-AR SNP rs2400707 A-positive subjects (tagging for Glu27) had higher systolic and diastolic dipping ratios in a dose-response fashion. Systolic dipping ratios were: GG = 0.846; AG = 0.854; AA = 0.861 (P = .015). Diastolic dip ratios were: GG = 0.807; AG = 0.815; AA = 0.824 (P = .026). The β2-AR rs17778257/rs2400707 A/A haplotype was associated with dipping ratios and systolic nondipping status (nondipping odds radio 2.0 [1.0-3.8] for A/A versus A/G). Results were similar when models included participants on antihypertensive medications. Higher dipping ratios indicating a lack of nocturnal BP dipping are associated with β2-AR polymorphisms. Nocturnal dipping patterns may be modulated by β2-AR polymorphisms.
Journal of the American Society of Hypertension 03/2011; 5(2):114-22. DOI:10.1016/j.jash.2011.01.005 · 2.61 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Growing evidence supports the hypothesis that narcolepsy with cataplexy is an autoimmune disease. We here report genome-wide association analyses for narcolepsy with replication and fine mapping across three ethnic groups (3,406 individuals of European ancestry, 2,414 Asians and 302 African Americans). We identify a SNP in the 3' untranslated region of P2RY11, the purinergic receptor subtype P2Y₁₁ gene, which is associated with narcolepsy (rs2305795, combined P = 6.1 × 10⁻¹⁰, odds ratio = 1.28, 95% CI 1.19-1.39, n = 5689). The disease-associated allele is correlated with reduced expression of P2RY11 in CD8(+) T lymphocytes (339% reduced, P = 0.003) and natural killer (NK) cells (P = 0.031), but not in other peripheral blood mononuclear cell types. The low expression variant is also associated with reduced P2RY11-mediated resistance to ATP-induced cell death in T lymphocytes (P = 0.0007) and natural killer cells (P = 0.001). These results identify P2RY11 as an important regulator of immune-cell survival, with possible implications in narcolepsy and other autoimmune diseases.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Narcolepsy with cataplexy, characterized by sleepiness and rapid onset into REM sleep, affects 1 in 2,000 individuals. Narcolepsy was first shown to be tightly associated with HLA-DR2 (ref. 3) and later sublocalized to DQB1*0602 (ref. 4). Following studies in dogs and mice, a 95% loss of hypocretin-producing cells in postmortem hypothalami from narcoleptic individuals was reported. Using genome-wide association (GWA) in Caucasians with replication in three ethnic groups, we found association between narcolepsy and polymorphisms in the TRA@ (T-cell receptor alpha) locus, with highest significance at rs1154155 (average allelic odds ratio 1.69, genotypic odds ratios 1.94 and 2.55, P < 10(-21), 1,830 cases, 2,164 controls). This is the first documented genetic involvement of the TRA@ locus, encoding the major receptor for HLA-peptide presentation, in any disease. It is still unclear how specific HLA alleles confer susceptibility to over 100 HLA-associated disorders; thus, narcolepsy will provide new insights on how HLA-TCR interactions contribute to organ-specific autoimmune targeting and may serve as a model for over 100 other HLA-associated disorders.