[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Positioning of release factor eRF1 toward adenines and the ribose-phosphate backbone of the UAAA stop signal in the ribosomal decoding site was studied using messenger RNA (mRNA) analogs containing stop signal UAA/UAAA and a photoactivatable cross-linker at definite locations. The human eRF1 peptides cross-linked to these analogs were identified. Cross-linkers on the adenines at the 2nd, 3rd or 4th position modified eRF1 near the conserved YxCxxxF loop (positions 125-131 in the N domain), but cross-linker at the 4th position mainly modified the tripeptide 26-AAR-28. This tripeptide cross-linked also with derivatized 3'-phosphate of UAA, while the same cross-linker at the 3'-phosphate of UAAA modified both the 26-28 and 67-73 fragments. A comparison of the results with those obtained earlier with mRNA analogs bearing a similar cross-linker at the guanines indicates that positioning of eRF1 toward adenines and guanines of stop signals in the 80S termination complex is different. Molecular modeling of eRF1 in the 80S termination complex showed that eRF1 fragments neighboring guanines and adenines of stop signals are compatible with different N domain conformations of eRF1. These conformations vary by positioning of stop signal purines toward the universally conserved dipeptide 31-GT-32, which neighbors guanines but is oriented more distantly from adenines.
Nucleic Acids Research 05/2011; 39(16):7134-46. · 8.28 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To study positioning of the polypeptide release factor eRF1 toward a stop signal in the ribosomal decoding site, we applied photoactivatable mRNA analogs, derivatives of oligoribonucleotides. The human eRF1 peptides cross-linked to these short mRNAs were identified. Cross-linkers on the guanines at the second, third, and fourth stop signal positions modified fragment 31-33, and to lesser extent amino acids within region 121-131 (the "YxCxxxF loop") in the N domain. Hence, both regions are involved in the recognition of the purines. A cross-linker at the first uridine of the stop codon modifies Val66 near the NIKS loop (positions 61-64), and this region is important for recognition of the first uridine of stop codons. Since the N domain distinct regions of eRF1 are involved in a stop-codon decoding, the eRF1 decoding site is discontinuous and is not of "protein anticodon" type. By molecular modeling, the eRF1 molecule can be fitted to the A site proximal to the P-site-bound tRNA and to a stop codon in mRNA via a large conformational change to one of its three domains. In the simulated eRF1 conformation, the YxCxxxF motif and positions 31-33 are very close to a stop codon, which becomes also proximal to several parts of the C domain. Thus, in the A-site-bound state, the eRF1 conformation significantly differs from those in crystals and solution. The model suggested for eRF1 conformation in the ribosomal A site and cross-linking data are compatible.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report NMR assignments of the protein backbone of the C-terminal domain (163 a.a.) of human class 1 translation termination factor eRF1. It was found that several protein loop residues exist in two slowly interconverting conformational states.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Class 1 eukaryotic release factor 1 (eRF1) recognizes all three stop codons (UAA, UAG, and UGA) in standard-code organisms.
In some ciliates with variant genetic codes, one or two stop codons are used to encode amino acids and are not recognized
by eRF1; e.g., UAA and UAG are reassigned to Gln in Stylonychia and UGA is reassigned to Cys in Euplotes. Stop codon recognition is due to the N-terminal domain of eRF1 in standard-code organisms. Since variant-code ciliates most
likely originate from universal-code ancestors, the N-domain sequence of their eRF1 was assumed to harbor the residues that
are responsible for the changes in stop codon recognition specificity. To identify the N-domain regions determining the UGA-only
specificity of Euplotes aediculatus eRF1, chimeric proteins were constructed by swapping various N-domain fragments of the E. aediculatus for their human counterparts; the MC domain was from human eRF1. Functional analysis of the chimeric eRF1 in vivo revealed
two regions (residues 38–50 and 123–145) restricting the E. aediculatus eRF1 specificity to UAR. The change in stop codon recognition specificity of eRF1 was regarded as the first step in the origin
of the variant genetic code in ciliates.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In universal-code eukaryotes, a single-translation termination factor, eukaryote class-1 polypeptide release factor (eRF1), decodes the three stop codons: UAA, UAG, and UGA. In some ciliates, like Stylonychia and Paramecium, eRF1s exhibit UGA-only decoding specificity, whereas UAG and UAA are reassigned as sense codons. Because variant-code ciliates may have evolved from universal-code ancestor(s), structural features should exist in ciliate eRF1s that restrict their stop codon recognition. In omnipotent eRF1s, stop codon recognition is associated with the N-terminal domain of the protein. Using both in vitro and in vivo assays, we show here that chimeric molecules composed of the N-terminal domain of Stylonychia eRF1 fused to the core domain (MC domain) of human eRF1 retained specificity toward UGA; this unambiguously associates eRF1 stop codon specificity to the nature of its N-terminal domain. Functional analysis of eRF1 chimeras constructed by swapping ciliate N-terminal domain sequences with the matching ones from the human protein highlighted the crucial role of the tripeptide QFM in restricting Stylonychia eRF1 specificity toward UGA. Using the site-directed mutagenesis, we show that Paramecium eRF1 specificity toward UGA resides within the NIKS (amino acids 61-64) and YxCxxxF (amino acids 124-131) motifs. Thus, we establish that eRF1 from two different ciliates relies on different molecular mechanisms to achieve specificity toward the UGA stop codon. This finding suggests that eRF1 restriction of specificity to only UGA might have been an early event occurring in independent instances in ciliate evolutionary history, possibly facilitating the reassignment of UAG and UAA to sense codons.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 07/2007; 104(26):10824-9. · 9.74 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In universal-code eukaryotes, a single class-1 translation termination factor eRF1 decodes all three stop codons, UAA, UAG, and UGA. In some ciliates with variant genetic codes one or two stop codons are used to encode amino acid(s) and are not recognized by eRF1. In Stylonychia, UAG and UAA codons are reassigned as glutamine codons, and in Euplotes, UGA is reassigned as cysteine codon. In omnipotent eRF1s, stop codon recognition is associated with the N-terminal domain of eRF1. Because variant-code ciliates most likely evolved from universal code ancestor(s), structural features should exist in ciliate eRF1s that restrict their stop codon recognition. To find out amino acid residues which confer UAR-only specificity to Euplotes aediculatus eRF1, eRFI chimeras were constructed by swapping eRF1 E. aediculatus N-terminal domain sequences with the matching ones from the human protein. In these chimeras the MC-domain was from human eRF1. Functional analysis of these chimeric eRFI highlighted the crucial role of the two regions (positions 38-50 and 123-145) in the N-terminal domain of E. aediculatus eRF1 that restrict E. aediculatus eRF1 specificity toward UAR codons. Possibly, restriction of eRF1 specificity to UAR codons might have been an early event occurring in independent instances in ciliate evolutionary history, possibly facilitating the reassignment of UGA to sense codons.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Translation termination in eukaryotes is governed by two proteins, belonging to the class-1 (eRF1) and class-2 (eRF3) polypeptide release factors. eRF3 catalyzes hydrolysis of GTP to GDP and inorganic phosphate in the ribosome in the absence of mRNA, tRNA, aminoacyl-tRNA and peptidyl-tRNA but needs the presence of eRF1. It's known that eRF1 and eRF3 interact with each other in vitro and in vivo via their C-terminal regions. eRF1 consists of three domains - N, M, and C. In this study we examined the influence of individual domains of the human eRF1 on induction of the human eRF3 GTPase activity in the ribosome in vitro. It was shown that none of the N-, M-, C- and NM-domains induces eRF3 GTPase activity in presence of the ribosomes. MC-domain does induce GTPase activity of eRF3 but four times less efficient than full-length eRF1, therefore, MC-domain (and very likely M-domain) binds to the ribosome in the presence of eRF3. Based on these data and taking into account the data available in literature, a conclusion was drawn that the N domain of eRF1 is not essential for eRF1-dependent induction of the eRF3 GTPase activity. A working hypothesis is formulated, postulating that GTPase activity eRF3 during the translation termination is associated with the intermolecular interactions of GTP/GDP, GTPase center of the large ribosomal subunit (60S), MC-domain of eRF1, C-terminal region and GTP-binding domains of eRF3, but without participation of the N-terminal region of eRF3.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Thermal denaturation of eukaryotic class-1 translation termination factor eRF1 and its mutants was examined using differential scanning microcalorimetry (DSK). Changes of free energy caused by mutants in the N domain of human eRF1 were calculated. Melting of eRF1 molecule composed of three individual domains is cooperative. Some amino acid substitutions did not affect protein thermostability and in some other cases even slightly stabilize the protein globule. These imply that these amino acid residues are not involved in maintenance of the 3D structure of human eRF1. Thus, in Glu55Asp, Tyr125Phe, Asn61Ser, Glu55Arg, Glu55A1a, Asn61Ser + Ser64Asp, Cys127Ala and Ser64Asp mutants selective inactivation of release activity is not caused by a destabilization of protein 3D structure and, most likely, is associated with local stereochemical changes introduced by substitutions of amino acid side chains in the functionally essential sites of N-domain molecule. Some residues (Asn129, Phe131) as shown by calorimetric measurements are essential for preservation of stable protein structure, but at the same time they affect selective stop codon recognition probably via their neighboring amino acids. Recognition of UAG and UAA stop codons in vitro is more sensitive to preservation of protein stability than the UGA recognition.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used to study thermal denaturation of the human class 1 translation termination
factor eRF1 and its mutants. Free energy changes caused by amino acid substitutions in the N domain were computed for eRF1.
The melting of eRF1, consisting of three domains, proved to be cooperative. The thermostability of eRF1 was not affected by
certain substitutions and was slightly increased by certain others. The corresponding residues were assumed to play no role
in maintaining the eRF1 structure, which agreed with the published X-ray data. In these mutants (E55D, Y125F, N61S, E55R,
E55A, N61S + S64D, C127A, and S64D), a selective loss of the capability to induce hydrolysis of peptidyl-tRNA in the ribosomal
P site in the presence of a stop codon was not associated with destabilization of their spatial structure. Rather, the loss
was due to local changes in the stereochemistry of the side groups of the corresponding residues in functionally important
sites of the N domain. Two amino acid residues of the N domain, N129 and F131, proved to play an important role in the structural
stability of eRF1 and to affect the selective recognition of mRNA stop codons in the ribosome. The recognition of the UAG
and UAA stop codons in vitro was more tightly associated with the stability of the spatial structure of eRF1 as compared with that of the UGA stop codon.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In eukaryotic ribosome, the N domain of polypeptide release factor eRF1 is involved in decoding stop signals in mRNAs. However, structure of the decoding site remains obscure. Here, we specifically altered the stop codon recognition pattern of human eRF1 by point mutagenesis of the invariant Glu55 and Tyr125 residues in the N domain. The 3D structure of generated eRF1 mutants was not destabilized as demonstrated by calorimetric measurements and calculated free energy perturbations. In mutants, the UAG response was most profoundly and selectively affected. Surprisingly, Glu55Arg mutant completely retained its release activity. Substitution of the aromatic ring in position 125 reduced response toward all stop codons. This result demonstrates the critical importance of Tyr125 for maintenance of the intact structure of the eRF1 decoding site. The results also suggest that Tyr125 is implicated in recognition of the 3d stop codon position and probably forms an H-bond with Glu55. The data point to a pivotal role played by the YxCxxxF motif (positions 125-131) in purine discrimination of the stop codons. We speculate that eRF1 decoding site is formed by a 3D network of amino acids side chains.
Nucleic Acids Research 02/2005; 33(19):6418-25. · 8.28 Impact Factor