Chien-Hsing Chang

Radboud University Nijmegen, Nijmegen, Provincie Gelderland, Netherlands

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Publications (73)478.15 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: PAM4 is a monoclonal antibody showing high specificity for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Humanized PAM4 labeled with 90Y in combination with low-dose gemcitabine has shown promising therapeutic activity, and is being evaluated in a phase III clinical trial. Prior efforts have suggested that PAM4 potentially reacts with MUC5AC, a secretory mucin expressed de novo in early pancreatic neoplasia and retained throughout disease progression. In present study, we provide further evidence validating MUC5AC as the PAM4 antigen, and locate PAM4-reactive epitope within the N-terminal cysteine-rich subdomain 2 (Cys2), thus differentiating PAM4 from most anti-MUC5AC antibodies known to-date. Specifically, we show (i) PAM4-antigen and MUC5AC were co-localized in multiple human cancer cell lines, including Capan-1, BxPC-3, and CFPAC-1; (ii) MUC5AC-specific siRNA prominently reduced the expression of both MUC5AC and PAM4-antigen in CFPAC-1 cells; (iii) PAM4 preferentially binds to the void-volume fractions from Sepharose-CL2B chromatography of Capan-1 culture supernatants, which were revealed by Western blot to display the ladder pattern characteristic of oligomeric MUC5AC; and (iv) the N-terminal Cys2 within several recombinant MUC5AC fragments is essential for binding to PAM4. These findings shed light on the mechanism of PAM4-based diagnosis and treatment for pancreatic cancer, and guide further exploration of its clinical utility.
    Oncotarget 12/2014; · 6.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Epratuzumab has demonstrated therapeutic activity in patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma, acute lymphoblastic leukemia, systemic lupus erythematosus, and Sjögren's syndrome, but its mechanism of affecting normal and malignant B cells remains incompletely understood. We reported previously that epratuzumab displayed in vitro cytotoxicity to CD22-expressing Burkitt lymphoma cell lines (Daudi and Ramos) only when immobilized on plates or combined with a crosslinking antibody plus a suboptimal amount of anti-IgM (1 μg/mL). Herein, we show that, in the absence of additional anti-IgM ligation, extensive crosslinking of CD22 by plate-immobilized epratuzumab induced intracellular changes in Daudi cells similar to ligating B-cell antigen receptor with a sufficiently high amount of anti-IgM (10 μg/mL). Specifically, either treatment led to phosphorylation of CD22, CD79a and CD79b, along with their translocation to lipid rafts, both of which were essential for effecting caspase-dependent apoptosis. Moreover, such immobilization induced stabilization of F-actin, phosphorylation of Lyn, ERKs and JNKs, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), decrease in mitochondria membrane potential (Δψm), upregulation of pro-apoptotic Bax, and downregulation of anti-apoptotic Bcl-xl and Mcl-1. The physiological relevance of immobilized epratuzumab was implicated by noting that several of its in vitro effects, including apoptosis, drop in Δψm, and generation of ROS, could be observed with soluble epratuzumab in Daudi cells co-cultivated with human umbilical vein endothelial cells. These results suggest that the in vivo mechanism of non-ligand-blocking epratuzumab may, in part, involve the unmasking of CD22 to facilitate the trans-interaction of B cells with vascular endothelium.
    mAbs 10/2014; 7(1). DOI:10.4161/19420862.2014.979081 · 4.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: After demonstrating, with karyotyping, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and fluorescence in-situ hybridization, the retention of certain human chromosomes and genes following the spontaneous fusion of human tumor and hamster cells in-vivo, it was postulated that cell fusion causes the horizontal transmission of malignancy and donor genes. Here, we analyzed gene expression profiles of 3 different hybrid tumors first generated in the hamster cheek pouch after human tumor grafting, and then propagated in hamsters and in cell cultures for years: two Hodgkin lymphomas (GW-532, GW-584) and a glioblastoma multiforme (GB-749). Based on the criteria of MAS 5.0 detection P-values ≤0.065 and at least a 2-fold greater signal expression value than a hamster melanoma control, we identified 3,759 probe sets (ranging from 1,040 to 1,303 in each transplant) from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections of the 3 hybrid tumors, which unambiguously mapped to 3,107 unique Entrez Gene IDs, representative of all human chromosomes; however, by karyology, one of the hybrid tumors (GB-749) had a total of 15 human chromosomes in its cells. Among the genes mapped, 39 probe sets, representing 33 unique Entrez Gene IDs, complied with the detection criteria in all hybrid tumor samples. Five of these 33 genes encode transcription factors that are known to regulate cell growth and differentiation; five encode cell adhesion- and transmigration-associated proteins that participate in oncogenesis and/or metastasis and invasion; and additional genes encode proteins involved in signaling pathways, regulation of apoptosis, DNA repair, and multidrug resistance. These findings were corroborated by PCR and reverse transcription PCR, showing the presence of human alphoid (α)-satellite DNA and the F11R transcripts in additional tumor transplant generations. We posit that in-vivo fusion discloses genes implicated in tumor progression, and gene families coding for the organoid phenotype. Thus, cancer cells can transduce adjacent stromal cells, with the resulting progeny having permanently transcribed genes with malignant and other gene functions of the donor DNA. Using heterospecific in-vivo cell fusion, genes encoding oncogenic and organogenic traits may be identified.
    PLoS ONE 09/2014; 9(9):e107927. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0107927 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Trop-2 is highly expressed in diverse epithelial cancers with limited presence on normal tissues. (E1)-3s is a T-cell-redirecting trivalent bispecific antibody (bsAb), comprising an anti-CD3 scFv covalently linked to a stabilized dimer of a Trop-2-targeting Fab using DOCK-AND-LOCK(TM). We show for the first time that a bsAb-mediated bi-directional trogocytosis occurs between target and T cells and involves immunological synapses. We studied the effects of interferon-alpha on (E1)-3s-mediated T-cell killing of human gastric and pancreatic cancer cell lines. T-cell activation, cytokine induction and cytotoxicity were evaluated ex vivo using PBMCs or T cells with NCI-N87 gastric cancer as target cells. In vivo activity was assayed with NCI-N87 and Capan-1 (pancreatic) xenografts. In presence of target cells and PBMCs, (E1)-3s did not cause excess cytokine production. When combined with (E1)-3s, peginterferonalfa-2a, which alone did not increase T-cell activation or raise cytokine levels over baseline, increased CD69 expression, but did not significantly increase cytokine induction. (E1)-3s mediated a highly potent T-cell lysis of NCI-N87 target cells in vitro. Inclusion of peginterferonalfa-2a, or a more potent form of interferon-alpha, 20*-2b, significantly potentiated the activity of (E1)-3s by more than 2.5- or 7-fold, respectively. In vivo, combining peginterferonalfa-2a with (E1)-3s delayed Capan-1 growth longer than each single agent. Similarly, combination therapy delayed tumor proliferation of NCI-N87 compared to (E1)-3s or peginterferonalfa-2a single-treatment groups. (E1)-3s effectively induced T-cell-mediated killing of Trop-2-expressing pancreatic and gastric cancers, which was enhanced with interferon-alpha.
    Molecular Cancer Therapeutics 07/2014; 13(10). DOI:10.1158/1535-7163.MCT-14-0345 · 5.60 Impact Factor
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    Edmund A Rossi, Chien-Hsing Chang, David M Goldenberg
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    ABSTRACT: The humanized anti-CD22 antibody, epratuzumab, has demonstrated therapeutic activity in clinical trials of lymphoma, leukemia and autoimmune diseases, treating currently over 1500 cases of non-Hodgkin lymphoma, acute lymphoblastic leukemias, Waldenström's macroglobulinemia, Sjögren's syndrome, and systemic lupus erythematosus. Because epratuzumab reduces on average only 35% of circulating B cells in patients, and has minimal antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity and negligible complement-dependent cytotoxicity when evaluated in vitro, its therapeutic activity may not result completely from B-cell depletion. We reported recently that epratuzumab mediates Fc/FcR-dependent membrane transfer from B cells to effector cells via trogocytosis, resulting in a substantial reduction of multiple BCR modulators, including CD22, CD19, CD21, and CD79b, as well as key cell adhesion molecules, including CD44, CD62L, and β7 integrin, on the surface of B cells in peripheral blood mononuclear cells obtained from normal donors or SLE patients. Rituximab has clinical activity in lupus, but failed to achieve primary endpoints in a Phase III trial. This is the first study of trogocytosis mediated by bispecific antibodies targeting neighboring cell-surface proteins, CD22, CD20, and CD19, as demonstrated by flow cytometry and immunofluorescence microscopy. We show that, compared to epratuzumab, a bispecific hexavalent antibody comprising epratuzumab and veltuzumab (humanized anti-CD20 mAb) exhibits enhanced trogocytosis resulting in major reductions in B-cell surface levels of CD19, CD20, CD21, CD22, CD79b, CD44, CD62L and β7-integrin, and with considerably less immunocompromising B-cell depletion that would result with anti-CD20 mAbs such as veltuzumab or rituximab, given either alone or in combination with epratuzumab. A CD22/CD19 bispecific hexavalent antibody, which exhibited enhanced trogocytosis of some antigens and minimal B-cell depletion, may also be therapeutically useful. The bispecific antibody is a candidate for improved treatment of lupus and other autoimmune diseases, offering advantages over administration of the two parental antibodies in combination.
    PLoS ONE 05/2014; 9(5):e98315. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0098315 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pretargeted radioimmunotherapy (PRIT) with bispecific antibodies (bsMAb) and a radiolabeled peptide reduces the radiation dose to normal tissues. Here we report the accuracy of an (111)In-labeled pretherapy test dose for personalized dosing of (177)Lu-labeled IMP288 following pretargeting with the anti-CEA × anti-hapten bsMAb, TF2, in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC). In 20 patients bone marrow absorbed doses (BMD) and doses to the kidneys were predicted based on blood samples and scintigrams acquired after (111)In-IMP288 injection for individualized dosing of PRIT with (177)Lu-IMP288. Different dose schedules were studied, varying the interval between the bsMAb and peptide administration (5 days vs. 1 day), increasing the bsMAb dose (75 mg vs. 150 mg), and lowering the peptide dose (100 μg vs. 25 μg). TF2 and (111)In/(177)Lu-IMP288 clearance was highly variable. A strong correlation was observed between peptide residence times and individual TF2 blood concentrations at the time of peptide injection (Spearman's ρ = 0.94, P < 0.0001). PRIT with 7.4 GBq (177)Lu-IMP288 resulted in low radiation doses to normal tissues (BMD <0.5 Gy, kidney dose <3 Gy). Predicted (177)Lu-IMP288 BMD were in good agreement with the actual measured doses (mean ± SD difference -0.0026 ± 0.028 mGy/MBq). Hematological toxicity was mild in most patients, with only two (10 %) having grade 3-4 thrombocytopenia. A correlation was found between platelet toxicity and BMD (Spearman's ρ = 0.58, P = 0.008). No nonhematological toxicity was observed. These results show that individual high activity doses in PRIT in patients with CEA-expressing CRC could be safely administered by predicting the radiation dose to red marrow and kidneys, based on dosimetric analysis of a test dose of TF2 and (111)In-IMP288.
    European Journal of Nuclear Medicine 03/2014; DOI:10.1007/s00259-014-2742-6 · 4.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Ranpirnase (Rap) is an amphibian ribonuclease with reported antitumor activity, minimal toxicity, and negligible immunogenicity in clinical studies, but the unfavorable pharmacokinetics and suboptimal efficacy hampered its further clinical development. To improve the potential of Rap-based therapeutics, we have used the DOCK-AND-LOCKTM (DNLTM) method to construct a class of novel IgG-Rap immunoRNases. In the present study, a pair of these constructs, (Rap)2-E1-(Rap)2 and (Rap)2-E1*-(Rap)2, comprising four copies of Rap linked to the CH3 and CK termini of hRS7 (humanized anti-Trop-2), respectively, were evaluated as potential therapeutics for triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). The DNL-based immunoRNases, (Rap)2-E1-(Rap)2 and (Rap)2-E1*-(Rap)2, were characterized and tested for biological activities in vitro on a panel of breast cancer cell lines and in vivo in a MDA-MB-468 xenograft model. (Rap)2-E1-(Rap)2 was highly purified (>95%), exhibited specific cell binding and rapid internalization in MDA-MB-468, a Trop-2-expressing TNBC line, and displayed potent in vitro cytotoxicity (EC50 <= 1 nM) against diverse breast cancer cell lines with moderate to high expression of Trop-2, including MDA-MB-468, BT-20, HCC1806, SKBR-3, and MCF-7. In comparison, structural counterparts of (Rap)2-E1-(Rap)2, generated by substituting hRS7 with selective non-Trop-2-binding antibodies, such as epratuzumab (anti-CD22), were at least 50-fold less potent than (Rap)2-E1-(Rap)2 in MDA-MB-468 and BT-20 cells, both lacking the expression of the cognate antigen. Moreover, (Rap)2-E1-(Rap)2 was less effective (EC50 > 50 nM) in MDA-MB-231 (low Trop-2) or HCC1395 (no Trop-2), and did not show any toxicity to human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. In a mouse TNBC model, a significant survival benefit was achieved with (Rap)2-E1*-(Rap)2 when given the maximal tolerated dose. A new class of immunoRNases was generated with enhanced potency for targeted therapy of cancer. The promising results from (Rap)2-E1-(Rap)2 and (Rap)2-E1*-(Rap)2 support their further investigation as a potential treatment option for TNBC and other Trop-2-expressing cancers.
    Molecular Cancer 03/2014; 13(1):53. DOI:10.1186/1476-4598-13-53 · 5.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Various constructs of bispecific antibodies (bsAbs) to redirect effector T cells for the targeted killing of tumor cells have shown considerable promise in both preclinical and clinical studies. The single-chain variable fragment (scFv)-based formats, including bispecific T-cell engager (BiTE) and dual-affinity re-targeting (DART), which provide monovalent binding to both CD3 on T cells and to the target antigen on tumor cells, can exhibit rapid blood clearance and neurological toxicity due to their small size (~55 kDa). Herein, we describe the generation, by the modular DOCK-AND-LOCK(TM) (DNL(TM)) method, of novel T-cell redirecting bispecific antibodies, each comprising a monovalent anti-CD3 scFv covalently conjugated to a stabilized dimer of different anti-tumor Fabs. The potential advantages of this design include bivalent binding to tumor cells, a larger size (~130 kDa) to preclude renal clearance and penetration of the blood-brain barrier, and potent T-cell mediated cytotoxicity. These prototypes were purified to near homogeneity, and representative constructs were shown to provoke the formation of immunological synapses between T cells and their target tumor cells in vitro, resulting in T-cell activation and proliferation, as well as potent T-cell mediated anti-tumor activity. In addition, in vivo studies in NOD/SCID mice bearing Raji Burkitt lymphoma or Capan-1 pancreatic carcinoma indicated statistically significant inhibition of tumor growth compared with untreated controls.
    mAbs 12/2013; 6(2). DOI:10.4161/mabs.27385 · 4.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Epratuzumab, a humanized anti-CD22 antibody, is currently in clinical trials of B-cell lymphomas and autoimmune diseases, demonstrating therapeutic activity in non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Thus, epratuzumab offers a promising option for CD22-targeted immunotherapy, yet its mechanism of action (MOA) remains poorly understood. Here we report for the first time that epratuzumab promptly induces a marked decrease of CD22 (>80%), CD19 (>50%), CD21 (>50%), and CD79b (>30%) on the surface of B cells in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) obtained from normal donors or SLE patients, and of NHL cells (Daudi and Raji) spiked into normal PBMCs. Although some Fc-independent loss of CD22 is expected from internalization by epratuzumab, the concurrent and prominent reduction of CD19, CD21, and CD79b is Fc-dependent, and results from their transfer from epratuzumab-opsonized B cells to FcγR-expressing monocytes, NK cells, and granulocytes via trogocytosis. The findings of reduced levels of CD19 are implicative for the efficacy of epratuzumab in autoimmune diseases, because elevated CD19 has been correlated with susceptibility to SLE in animal models as well as in patients. This was confirmed herein by the finding that SLE patients receiving epratuzumab immunotherapy had significantly reduced CD19, compared to those of treatment-naïve patients.
    Blood 07/2013; 122(17). DOI:10.1182/blood-2012-12-473744 · 9.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The type III interferons (IFNs), comprising IFN-λ1, IFN-λ2, and IFN-λ3, behave similarly to IFN-α in eliciting antiviral, antitumor, and immune-modulating activities. Due to their more restricted cellular targets, IFN-λs are attractive as potential alternatives to existing therapeutic regimens based on IFN-αs. We have applied the DOCK-AND-LOCK™ method to improve the anti-proliferative potency of IFN-λ1 up to 1,000-fold in targeted cancer cell lines by tethering stabilized Fab dimers, derived from hRS7 (humanized anti-Trop-2), hMN-15 (humanized anti-CEACAM6), hL243 (humanized anti-HLA-DR), and c225 (chimeric anti-EGFR), to IFN-λ1 site-specifically, resulting in novel immunocytokines designated (E1)-λ1, (15)-λ1, (C2)-λ1, and (c225)-λ1, respectively. Targeted delivery of IFN-λ1 via (15)-λ1 or (c225)-λ1 to respective antigen-expressing cells also significantly increased antiviral activity when compared with non-targeting (C2)-λ1, as demonstrated in human lung adenocarcinoma cell line A549 by (15)-λ1 against encephalomyocarditis virus (EC50 = 22.2 pM versus 223 pM), and in human hepatocarcinoma cell line Huh-7 by (c225)-λ1 against hepatitis C virus (EC50 = 0.56 pM versus 91.2 pM). These promising results, which are attributed to better localization and stronger binding of IFN-λ1 to antibody-targeted cells, together with the favorable pharmacokinetic profile of (E1)-λ1 in mice (T1/2 = 8.6 h), support further investigation of selective prototypes as potential antiviral and antitumor therapeutic agents.
    PLoS ONE 05/2013; 8(5):e63940. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0063940 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Advanced or metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has a poor prognosis, because it is relatively resistant to conventional chemotherapy or radiotherapy. Treatments with human interferon-alpha2b alone or in combination with mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors have led to only a modest improvement in clinical outcome. One observation made with mTOR inhibitors is that carcinomas can overcome these inhibitory effects by activating the insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) signaling pathway. Clinically, there is an association of IGF-I receptor (IGF-IR) expression in RCC and poor long-term patient survival. We have developed a humanized anti-IGF-IR monoclonal antibody, hR1, which binds to RCC, resulting in effective down-regulation of IGF-IR and moderate inhibition of cell proliferation in vitro. In this work, we evaluate the anti-tumor activity of two novel IGF-1R-targeting agents against renal cell carcinoma given alone or in combination with an mTOR inhibitor. METHODS: hR1 was linked by the DOCK-AND-LOCKTM (DNLTM) method to four Fabs of hR1, generating Hex-hR1, or to four molecules of interferon-alpha2b, generating 1R-2b. Eight human RCC cell lines were screened for IGF-1R expression and sensitivity to treatment with hR1 in vitro. Synergy with an mTOR inhibitor, temsirolimus, was tested in a cell line (ACHN) with low sensitivity to hR1. RESULTS: Hex-hR1 induced the down-regulation of IGF-IR at 10-fold lower concentrations compared to the parental hR1. Sensitivity to growth inhibition mediated by hR1 and Hex-hR1 treatments correlated with IGF-1R expression (higher expression was more sensitive). The potency of 1R-2b to inhibit the in vitro growth of RCC was also demonstrated in two human cell lines, ACHN and 786-O, with EC50--values of 63 and 48 pM, respectively. When combined with temsirolimus, a synergistic growth-inhibition with hR1, Hex-hR1, and 1R-2b was observed in ACHN cells at concentrations as low as 10 nM for hR1, 1 nM for Hex-hR1, and 2.6 nM for 1R-2b. CONCLUSIONS: Both Hex-hR1 and 1R-2b proved to be more potent than parental hR1 in inhibiting growth of RCC in vitro. Synergy was achieved when each of the three hR1-based agents was combined with temsirolimus, suggesting a new approach for treating RCC.
    BMC Cancer 04/2013; 13(1):170. DOI:10.1186/1471-2407-13-170 · 3.32 Impact Factor
    This article is viewable in ResearchGate's enriched format
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    Chien-Hsing Chang, Edmund A Rossi, David M Goldenberg
    mAbs 03/2013; 5(3). DOI:10.4161/mabs.24106 · 4.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report the in-vivo fusion of two Hodgkin lymphomas with golden hamster cheek pouch cells, resulting in serially-transplanted (over 5-6 years) GW-532 and GW-584 heterosynkaryon tumor cells displaying both human and hamster DNA (by FISH), lymphoma-like morphology, aggressive metastasis, and retention of 7 human genes (CD74, CXCR4, CD19, CD20, CD71, CD79b, and VIM) out of 24 tested by PCR. The prevalence of B-cell restricted genes (CD19, CD20, and CD79b) suggests that this uniform population may be the clonal initiating (malignant) cells of Hodgkin lymphoma, despite their not showing translation to their respective proteins by immunohistochemical analysis. This is believed to be the first report of in-vivo cell-cell fusion of human lymphoma and rodent host cells, and may be a method to disclose genes regulating both organoid and metastasis signatures, suggesting that the horizontal transfer of tumor DNA to adjacent stromal cells may be implicated in tumor heterogeneity and progression. The B-cell gene signature of the hybrid xenografts suggests that Hodgkin lymphoma, or its initiating cells, is a B-cell malignancy.
    PLoS ONE 02/2013; 8(2):e55324. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0055324 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The prospects for using pretargeted immuno-SPECT to monitor the response to pretargeted radioimmunotherapy were examined. In this study, a bispecific anticarcinoembryonic antigen (CEACAM5; CD66e) × antihapten monoclonal antibody, TF2, was used in combination with a small (1.5 kD) peptide, IMP288, labeled with (111)In and (177)Lu. METHODS: First, tumor uptake of (111)In-IMP288 and (177)Lu-IMP288, as determined by immuno-SPECT, was validated by ex vivo counting. Two groups of female BALB/c nude mice had LS174T tumors implanted in the peritoneal cavity. They received intravenous injections of TF2, followed by 10 MBq of (111)In-IMP288 or 90 MBq of (177)Lu-IMP288. A control group of non-tumor-bearing mice received TF2 and (111)In-IMP288. One hour after the radiolabeled IMP288 was given, small-animal SPECT/CT images were acquired, and subsequently animals were dissected. Furthermore, a survival study was performed in 3 groups of 10 mice with intraperitoneal tumors: mice received TF2 and (177)Lu-IMP288 (60 MBq), nonpretargeted (177)Lu-IMP288 (60 MBq), or phosphate-buffered saline. Immuno-SPECT scans were acquired directly after therapy and at 14 and 45 d after therapy. Tumor growth was analyzed in the successive scans in each animal. RESULTS: (111)In- and (177)Lu-labeled IMP288 had similar in vivo distribution. The activity measured in the pretargeted immuno-SPECT images correlated well with the uptake measured in the dissected tumors (Pearson r = 0.99, P < 0.05). In the therapy study, the SPECT images showed rapid and selective tumor targeting with high tumor-to-background contrast (30 ± 12) as early as 1 h after injection. The successive images of the treated mice showed delayed tumor growth in the pretargeted radioimmunotherapy group, corresponding with their prolonged survival. CONCLUSION: Pretargeted immuno-SPECT with TF2 and (111)In- or (177)Lu-IMP288 can be used to predict and confirm tumor targeting and monitor the therapeutic effect of pretargeted radioimmunotherapy.
    Journal of Nuclear Medicine 10/2012; DOI:10.2967/jnumed.112.106278 · 5.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Prevention and treatment of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) remains a major challenge, given that current T cell depletion and mainstay immunosuppressive therapies compromise preexisting T cell immunity, often leading to severe infections and disease relapse. Thus, there is a critical need for novel anti-GVHD agents that can spare protective T cell memory. Here we show that milatuzumab (hLL1), a humanized anti-CD74 antagonist monoclonal antibody, can moderately reduce the numbers of CD74-expressing B cells and myeloid dendritic cells, but has no effect on the survival of T cells that are CD74(-). Consequently, milatuzumab inhibits allogeneic T cell proliferation in mixed leukocyte reactions. In a human/mouse xenogeneic SCID mouse model in which GVHD is induced and mediated by engrafted human CD4(+) T cells and dendritic cells, milatuzumab effectively prevents the onset and manifestations of acute GVHD, suppresses serum levels of human IFN-γ and IL-5, eliminates the infiltration of human lymphocytes into GVHD target organs (ie, lung, liver, and spleen), and significantly promotes survival (90% versus 20% for controls; P = .0012). Importantly, exposure to milatuzumab does not affect the number of cytomegalovirus-specific, IFN-γ-producing human CD8(+) T cells in allogeneic mixed leukocyte reactions. These encouraging results warrant further exploration of milatuzumab as a possible new therapeutic agent for GVHD.
    Biology of blood and marrow transplantation: journal of the American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation 09/2012; 19(1). DOI:10.1016/j.bbmt.2012.09.015 · 3.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: RS7 is an internalizing anti-Trop-2 pancarcinoma antibody capable of targeting most epithelial cancers. Because pretargeting strategies could improve the tumor localization of radionuclides, a new anti-Trop-2 × antihapten bispecific antibody for pretargeting, based on humanized RS7, was prepared and evaluated with a radiolabeled hapten-peptide in vitro and in vivo to determine whether its internalization properties would interfere with pretargeting. The anti-Trop-2 × antihapten bispecific antibody, TF12, was prepared using the modular dock-and-lock method. TF12 and humanized RS7 binding was assessed by cell binding assays and fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis in a variety of human carcinoma cell lines. The internalization of TF12 was evaluated in vitro using a fluorescent TF12 conjugate or hapten-peptide and (111)In-labeled TF12 and RS7. The biodistribution of TF12 and its use as a pretargeting agent with an (111)In-labeled hapten-peptide were assessed in several human epithelial cancer xenografts. Dose optimization was examined in 2 tumor models. TF12 internalizes, but a substantial fraction remained accessible on the tumor surface. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis showed only a minor change in fluorescent signal when the tumor was probed with a fluorescent hapten-peptide over 4 h, and microscopy showed substantial membrane staining when reassessed at 24 h after TF12 exposure. Only 40.1% of (111)In-TF12 was internalized after 24 h. In vivo, excellent tumor localization of the (111)In-labeled peptide was observed in several tumor models. TF12 was retained sufficiently on the cell surface in several epithelial cancers, thereby making it suitable for pretargeted imaging and therapy of various Trop-2-expressing carcinomas.
    Journal of Nuclear Medicine 09/2012; 53(10):1625-32. DOI:10.2967/jnumed.112.104364 · 5.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A major mechanism of monoclonal antibodies that selectively target the insulin-like growth factor type 1 receptor (IGF-1R) to inhibit tumor growth is by downregulating the receptor, regardless whether they are capable (antagonistic) or incapable (agonistic) of blocking the binding of cognate ligands. We have developed and characterized a novel agonistic anti-IGF-1R humanized antibody, hR1, and used the Dock-and-Lock (DNL) method to construct Hex-hR1, the first multivalent antibody comprising 6 functional Fabs of hR1, with the aim of enhancing potency of hR1. Based on cross-blocking experiments, hR1 recognizes a region of cysteine-rich domain on the α-subunit, different from the epitopes mapped for existing anti-IGF-1R antibodies, yet hR1 is similar to other anti-IGF-1R antibodies in downregulating IGF-1R and inhibiting proliferation, colony formation, or invasion of selected cancer cell lines in vitro, as well as suppressing growth of the RH-30 rhabdomyosarcoma xenograft in nude mice when combined with the mTOR inhibitor, rapamycin. Hex-hR1 and hR1 are generally comparable in their bioactivities under the in-intro and in-vivo conditions investigated. Nevertheless, in selective experiments involving a direct comparison of potency, Hex-hR1 demonstrated a stronger effect on inhibiting cell proliferation stimulated by IGF-1 and could effectively downregulate IGF-1R at a concentration as low as 20 pM.
    PLoS ONE 08/2012; 7(8):e44235. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0044235 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We constructed novel HIV-1 fusion inhibitors that may overcome the current limitations of enfuvirtide, the first such therapeutic in this class. The three prototypes generated by the Dock-and-Lock (DNL) technology to comprise four copies of enfuvirtide tethered site-specifically to the Fc end of different humanized monoclonal antibodies potently neutralize primary isolates (both R5-tropic and X4-tropic), as well as T-cell-adapted strains of HIV-1 in vitro. All three prototypes show EC(50) values in the subnanomolar range, which are 10- to 100-fold lower than enfuvirtide and attainable whether or not the constitutive antibody targets HIV-1. The potential of such conjugates to purge latently infected cells was also demonstrated in a cell-to-cell viral inhibition assay by measuring their efficacy to inhibit the spread of HIV-1(LAI) from infected human peripheral blood mononuclear cells to Jurkat T cells over a period of 30 days following viral activation with 100 nM SAHA (suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid). The IgG-like half-life was not significantly different from that of the parental antibody, as shown by the mean serum concentration of one prototype in mice at 72 h. These encouraging results provide a rationale to develop further novel anti-HIV agents by coupling additional antibodies of interest with alternative HIV-inhibitors via recombinantly-produced, self-assembling, modules.
    PLoS ONE 07/2012; 7(7):e41235. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0041235 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The prognosis of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) varies from long- to short-term survival based on such prognostic factors as serum calcitonin and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) doubling times (DTs). This prospective phase II multicenter trial evaluated the efficacy and safety of anti-CEA pretargeted radioimmunotherapy (pRAIT) in rapidly progressing metastatic MTC patients and also how serum biomarker DTs correlate with clinical outcome. From June 2004 to January 2008, 42 patients were treated with anti-CEA × anti-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) bispecific antibody (hMN-14 × m734) (40 mg/m(2)), followed by (131)I-di-DTPA-indium bivalent hapten (1.8 GBq/m(2)) 4-6 d later. The disease control rate (durable stabilization plus objective response) was 76.2%. Grade 3-4 hematologic toxicity was observed in 54.7% of patients and myelodysplastic syndrome in 2, including 1 heavily treated previously. After pRAIT, 21 of 37 assessed patients (56.7%) showed a significant impact on DT (≥100% increase of pre-pRAIT calcitonin or CEA DT or prolonged decrease of the biomarker concentration after pRAIT). Pre-pRAIT DT and post-pRAIT DT were significant independent predictors for overall survival (OS) from pRAIT (pre-pRAIT: hazard ratio [HR], 0.46; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.24-0.86; P = 0.016; and post-pRAIT: HR, 5.32; 95% CI, 1.63-17.36; P = 0.006) and OS from diagnosis (pre-pRAIT: HR, 0.21; 95% CI, 0.08-0.51; P = 0.001; and post-pRAIT: HR, 6.16; 95% CI, 1.81-20.98; P = 0.004). pRAIT showed antitumor activity, with manageable hematologic toxicity in progressive MTC. Increased biomarker DT after treatment correlated with increased OS.
    Journal of Nuclear Medicine 06/2012; 53(8):1185-92. DOI:10.2967/jnumed.111.101865 · 5.56 Impact Factor
  • Edmund A Rossi, David M Goldenberg, Chien-Hsing Chang
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    ABSTRACT: Protein engineering technologies involving site-specific conjugation of two or more modular components can expand the existing repertoires that can be produced recombinantly or by chemical conjugation. The dock-and-lock (DNL) method combines recombinant engineering with site-specific conjugation, allowing the construction of various complex, yet defined, biostructures with multivalency and multispecificity. The technology platform exploits the natural interaction between two interactive human protein binding domains that are modified to provide covalent fusion. It has been validated by the production of various bioconjugates, including trivalent, tetravalent, pentavalent, and hexavalent antibodies of monospecificity or bispecificity; polyvalent immnocytokines; and site-specifically PEGylated cytokines. Here we assert that the DNL method is a useful tool in the development of novel therapeutic and diagnostic agents from both proteins and non-proteins for unmet medical needs.
    Trends in Pharmacological Sciences 06/2012; 33(9):474-81. DOI:10.1016/j.tips.2012.06.001 · 9.99 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

2k Citations
478.15 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2012
    • Radboud University Nijmegen
      • Department of Nuclear Medicine
      Nijmegen, Provincie Gelderland, Netherlands
  • 2007–2011
    • Immunomedics
      Morris Plains, New Jersey, United States
  • 2006
    • Centre François Baclesse
      Caen, Lower Normandy, France