Hitoo Nishi

Kyoto University, Kioto, Kyōto, Japan

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Publications (19)79.33 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The mechanism of cardiac energy production against sustained pressure overload remains to be elucidated.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(9):e108201. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Tissue-specific patterns of gene expression play an important role in the distinctive features of each organ. Small CTD phosphatases (SCPs) 1-3 are recruited by repressor element 1 (RE-1)-silencing transcription factor/neuron-restrictive silencer factor (REST/NRSF) to neuronal genes that contain RE-1 elements, leading to neuronal gene silencing in non-neuronal cells. SCPs are highly expressed in the heart and contain microRNAs (miR)-26b, 26a-2, and 26a-1 with the same seed sequence in their introns. Therefore, we tried to investigate the roles of miR-26b and its host gene in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes. Overexpression of miR-26b suppressed the mRNA expression levels of ANF, βMHC, and ACTA1 and reduced the cell surface area in cardiomyocytes. We confirmed that miR-26b targets the 3' untranslated region (3'UTR) of GATA4 and canonical transient receptor potential channel (TRPC) 3. Conversely, silencing of the endogenous miR-26b family enhanced the expression levels of TRPC3 and GATA4. On the other hand, overexpression of SCP1 induced the mRNA expression of ANF and βMHC and increased the cell surface area in cardiomyocytes. Next, we compared the effect of overexpression of SCP1 with its introns and SCP1 cDNA to observe the net function of SCP1 expression on cardiac hypertrophy. When the expression levels of SCP1 were the same, the overexpression of SCP1 cDNA had a greater effect at inducing cardiac hypertrophy than SCP1 cDNA with its intron. In conclusion, SCP1 itself has the potential to induce cardiac hypertrophy; however, the effect is suppressed by intronic miR-26b in cardiomyocytes. miR-26b has an antagonistic effect on its host gene SCP1. J. Cell. Biochem. 113: 3455-3465, 2012. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 06/2012; 113(11):3455-65. · 3.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: As drug therapy is of limited efficacy in the treatment of heart diseases related to loss of cardiomyocytes, which have very poor division potential, regenerative medicine is expected to be a new strategy to address regenerative treatment in cardiac diseases. To achieve myocardial regeneration, elucidation of the mechanism of myocardial differentiation from stem cells is essential. Myocardial differentiation from embryonic pluripotent stem cells has been investigated worldwide, and remarkable developments such as establishment of induced pluripotent stem cells and transformation of somatic cells to cardiomyocytes have recently been made, markedly changing the strategy of regenerative medicine. At the same time, the close involvement of microRNA in the maintenance, proliferation, differentiation, and reprogramming of these stem cells has been revealed. In this report, microRNA is outlined, focusing on its role in myocardial differentiation.
    Progress in molecular biology and translational science 01/2012; 111:139-52. · 2.32 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recently, elevation of circulating muscle-specific microRNA (miRNA) levels has been reported in patients with acute myocardial infarction. However, it is still unclear from which part of the myocardium or under what conditions miRNAs are released into circulating blood. The purpose of this study was to identify the source of elevated levels of circulating miRNAs and their function in cardiovascular diseases. Serum levels of miRNA (miR)-1 and miR-133a were increased significantly in patients not only with acute myocardial infarction but also with unstable angina pectoris and Takotsubo cardiomyopathy without elevation of serum creatine phosphokinase or cardiac troponin. MicroRNA microarray analysis of the heart from a mouse model of myocardial infarction indicated that the levels of miR-1, miR-133a, miR-208a, and miR-499 were significantly reduced in the infarcted myocardium. In situ hybridization of miR-133a also showed that miR-133a levels were very low in the infarcted and peri-infarcted myocardium. It has been shown that circulating miRNAs are localized inside exosomes, which are released after Ca(2+) stimulation. We stimulated H9c2 cardiomyoblasts with A23187 and measured miR-133a levels in the exosome fraction of the culture medium. A23187 induced a dose-dependent release of miR-133a, and significant elevation was observed only at concentrations where dead cells were detected. We also found that miR-133a-containing exosomes reduced the luciferase activity of 293FT cells transfected with an miR-133a sensor vector. These results suggest that elevated levels of circulating miR-133a in patients with cardiovascular diseases originate mainly from the injured myocardium. Circulating miR-133a can be used as a marker for cardiomyocyte death, and it may have functions in cardiovascular diseases.
    Circulation Cardiovascular Genetics 06/2011; 4(4):446-54. · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: MicroRNAs (miRNAs), small noncoding RNAs, are negative regulators of gene expression and play important roles in gene regulation in the heart. To examine the role of miRNAs in the expression of the two isoforms of the cardiac myosin heavy chain (MHC) gene, α- and β-MHC, which regulate cardiac contractility, endogenous miRNAs were downregulated in neonatal rat ventricular myocytes (NRVMs) using lentivirus-mediated small interfering RNA (siRNA) against Dicer, an essential enzyme for miRNA biosynthesis, and MHC expression levels were examined. As a result, Dicer siRNA could downregulate endogenous miRNAs simultaneously and the β-MHC gene but not α-MHC, which implied that specific miRNAs could upregulate the β-MHC gene. Among 19 selected miRNAs, miR-27a was found to most strongly upregulate the β-MHC gene but not α-MHC. Moreover, β-MHC protein was downregulated by silencing of endogenous miR-27a. Through a bioinformatics screening using TargetScan, we identified thyroid hormone receptor β1 (TRβ1), which negatively regulates β-MHC transcription, as a target of miR-27a. Moreover, miR-27a was demonstrated to modulate β-MHC gene regulation via thyroid hormone signaling and to be upregulated during the differentiation of mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells or in hypertrophic hearts in association with β-MHC gene upregulation. These findings suggested that miR-27a regulates β-MHC gene expression by targeting TRβ1 in cardiomyocytes.
    Molecular and Cellular Biology 02/2011; 31(4):744-55. · 5.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Sterol regulatory element-binding protein 2 (SREBP-2) transcription factor has been identified as a key protein in cholesterol metabolism through the transactivation of the LDL receptor and cholesterol biosynthesis genes. Here, we generated mice lacking microRNA (miR)-33, encoded by an intron of the Srebp2, and showed that miR-33 repressed the expression of ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) protein, a key regulator of HDL synthesis by mediating cholesterol efflux from cells to apolipoprotein A (apoA)-I. In fact, peritoneal macrophages derived from miR-33-deficient mice showed a marked increase in ABCA1 levels and higher apoA-I-dependent cholesterol efflux than those from WT mice. ABCA1 protein levels in liver were also higher in miR-33-deficient mice than in WT mice. Moreover, miR-33-deficient mice had significantly higher serum HDL cholesterol levels than WT mice. These data establish a critical role for miR-33 in the regulation of ABCA1 expression and HDL biogenesis in vivo.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 10/2010; 107(40):17321-6. · 9.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Retrovirus insertion-mediated random mutagenesis was applied in 3T3-L1 preadipocyte cells to better understand the molecular basis of obesity (the expansion of individual adipocytes). We found that tryptophan hydroxylase-1, a rate-limiting enzyme for the synthesis of serotonin (5-HT), is expressed in adipocytes and is required for their differentiation. A 5-HT type 2A receptor (5-HT(2A)R) antagonist, ketanserin, and a 5-HT(2c)R antagonist, SB-242084, inhibited adipocyte differentiation. Because 5-HT(2c)R mRNA levels are up-regulated during adipocyte differentiation and micro-RNA (miR)-448 is located in the fourth intron of Htr2c, we also studied the role of miR-448 in 3T3-L1 cells. Through a bioinformatics approach, Krüppel-like factor 5 (KLF5) was identified as a potential target of miR-448. Using a luciferase reporter assay, we confirmed that miR-448 targets the Klf5 3'-intranslated region. Overexpression of miR-448 reduced the expression of Klf5 and adipocyte differentiation, which was confirmed by the reduced expression of adipogenic genes and triglyceride accumulation. To examine the loss of miR-448 function, we constructed a decoy gene that had tandem complementary sequences for miR-448 in the 3'-untranslated region of a luciferase gene under the control of a cytomegalovirus promoter. When the miR-448 decoy gene was introduced into 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, KLF5 was up-regulated and triglyceride concentration was increased. In this study, we identified the regulation of adipocyte differentiation by 5-HT, 5-HT(2A)R, and 5-HT(2C)R. miR-448-mediated repression of KLF5 was identified as a negative regulator for adipocyte differentiation.
    Molecular Endocrinology 10/2010; 24(10):1978-87. · 4.75 Impact Factor
  • The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 09/2010; 95(9):4479. · 6.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A significant increase in congestive heart failure (CHF) was reported when the anti-ErbB2 antibody trastuzumab was used in combination with the chemotherapy drug doxorubicin (Dox). The aim of the present study was to investigate the role(s) of miRNAs in acute Dox-induced cardiotoxicity. Neuregulin-1-ErbB signalling is essential for maintaining adult cardiac function. We found a significant reduction in ErbB4 expression in the hearts of mice after Dox treatment. Because the proteasome pathway was only partially involved in the reduction of ErbB4 expression, we examined the involvement of microRNAs (miRs) in the reduction of ErbB4 expression. miR-146a was shown to be up-regulated by Dox in neonatal rat cardiac myocytes. Using a luciferase reporter assay and overexpression of miR-146a, we confirmed that miR-146a targets the ErbB4 3'UTR. After Dox treatment, overexpression of miR-146a, as well as that of siRNA against ErbB4, induced cell death in cardiomyocytes. Re-expression of ErbB4 in miR-146a-overexpressing cardiomyocytes ameliorated Dox-induced cell death. To examine the loss of miR-146a function, we constructed 'decoy' genes that had tandem complementary sequences for miR-146a in the 3'UTR of a luciferase gene. When miR-146a 'decoy' genes were introduced into cardiomyocytes, ErbB4 expression was up-regulated and Dox-induced cell death was reduced. These findings suggested that the up-regulation of miR-146a after Dox treatment is involved in acute Dox-induced cardiotoxicity by targeting ErbB4. Inhibition of both ErbB2 and ErbB4 signalling may be one of the reasons why those patients who receive concurrent therapy with Dox and trastuzumab suffer from CHF.
    Cardiovascular Research 09/2010; 87(4):656-64. · 5.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: MicroRNAs (miRNAs or miRs) are small, non-coding RNAs that modulate mRNA stability and post-transcriptional translation. A growing body of evidence indicates that specific miRNAs can affect the cellular function of cardiomyocytes. In the present study, miRNAs that are highly expressed in the heart were overexpressed in neonatal rat ventricular myocytes, and cellular ATP levels were assessed. As a result, miR-15b, -16, -195, and -424, which have the same seed sequence, the most critical determinant of miRNA targeting, decreased cellular ATP levels. These results suggest that these miRNAs could specifically down-regulate the same target genes and consequently decrease cellular ATP levels. Through a bioinformatics approach, ADP-ribosylation factor-like 2 (Arl2) was identified as a potential target of miR-15b. It has already been shown that Arl2 localizes to adenine nucleotide transporter 1, the exchanger of ADP/ATP in mitochondria. Overexpression of miR-15b, -16, -195, and -424 suppressed the activity of a luciferase reporter construct fused with the 3′-untranslated region of Arl2. In addition, miR-15b overexpression decreased Arl2 mRNA and protein expression levels. The effects of Arl2 siRNA on cellular ATP levels were the same as those of miR-15b, and the expression of Arl2 could restore ATP levels reduced by miR-15b. A loss-of-function study of miR-15b resulted in increased Arl2 protein and cellular ATP levels. Electron microscopic analysis revealed that mitochondria became degenerated in cardiomyocytes that had been transduced with miR-15b and Arl2 siRNA. The present results suggest that miR-15b may decrease mitochondrial integrity by targeting Arl2 in the heart.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 02/2010; 285(7):4920-4930. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: MicroRNAs (miRNAs or miRs) are small, non-coding RNAs that modulate mRNA stability and post-transcriptional translation. A growing body of evidence indicates that specific miRNAs can affect the cellular function of cardiomyocytes. In the present study, miRNAs that are highly expressed in the heart were overexpressed in neonatal rat ventricular myocytes, and cellular ATP levels were assessed. As a result, miR-15b, -16, -195, and -424, which have the same seed sequence, the most critical determinant of miRNA targeting, decreased cellular ATP levels. These results suggest that these miRNAs could specifically down-regulate the same target genes and consequently decrease cellular ATP levels. Through a bioinformatics approach, ADP-ribosylation factor-like 2 (Arl2) was identified as a potential target of miR-15b. It has already been shown that Arl2 localizes to adenine nucleotide transporter 1, the exchanger of ADP/ATP in mitochondria. Overexpression of miR-15b, -16, -195, and -424 suppressed the activity of a luciferase reporter construct fused with the 3'-untranslated region of Arl2. In addition, miR-15b overexpression decreased Arl2 mRNA and protein expression levels. The effects of Arl2 siRNA on cellular ATP levels were the same as those of miR-15b, and the expression of Arl2 could restore ATP levels reduced by miR-15b. A loss-of-function study of miR-15b resulted in increased Arl2 protein and cellular ATP levels. Electron microscopic analysis revealed that mitochondria became degenerated in cardiomyocytes that had been transduced with miR-15b and Arl2 siRNA. The present results suggest that miR-15b may decrease mitochondrial integrity by targeting Arl2 in the heart.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 12/2009; 285(7):4920-30. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Screening for cell surface proteins up-regulated under stress conditions may lead to the identification of new therapeutic targets. To search for genes whose expression was enhanced by treatment with oligomycin, a mitochondrial-F(0)F(1) ATP synthase inhibitor, signal sequence trapping was performed in H9C2 rat cardiac myoblasts. One of the genes identified was that for neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM, CD56), a major regulator of development, cell survival, migration, and neurite outgrowth in the nervous system. Immunohistochemical analyses in a mouse myocardial infarction model revealed that NCAM was strongly expressed in residual cardiac myocytes in the infarcted region. Increased expression of NCAM was also found during the remodeling period in a rat model of hypertension-induced heart failure. Lentivirus-mediated knockdown of NCAM decreased the cell growth and survival following oligomycin treatment in H9C2 cells. In primary rat neonatal cardiac myocytes, NCAM was also found to be up-regulated and played a protective role following oligomycin treatment. Analyses of downstream signaling revealed that knockdown of NCAM significantly decreased the basal AKT phosphorylation level. In contrast, NCAM mimetic peptide P2d activated AKT and significantly reduced oligomycin-induced cardiomyocyte death, which was abolished by treatment with the PI3K inhibitor LY-294002 as well as overexpression of the dominant-negative AKT mutant. These findings demonstrate that NCAM is a cardioprotective factor up-regulated under metabolic stress in cardiomyocytes and augmentation of this signal improved survival.
    Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology 10/2009; 48(6):1157-68. · 5.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: GLUT4 shows decreased levels in failing human adult hearts. We speculated that GLUT4 expression in cardiac muscle may be fine-tuned by microRNAs. Forced expression of miR-133 decreased GLUT4 expression and reduced insulin-mediated glucose uptake in cardiomyocytes. A computational miRNA target prediction algorithm showed that KLF15 is one of the targets of miR-133. It was confirmed that over-expression of miR-133 reduced the protein level of KLF15, which reduced the level of the downstream target GLUT4. Cardiac myocytes infected with lenti-decoy, in which the 3'UTR with tandem sequences complementary to miR-133 was linked to the luciferase reporter gene, had decreased miR-133 levels and increased levels of GLUT4. The expression levels of KLF15 and GLUT4 were decreased at the left ventricular hypertrophy and congestive heart failure stage in a rat model. The present results indicated that miR-133 regulates the expression of GLUT4 by targeting KLF15 and is involved in metabolic control in cardiomyocytes.
    Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 09/2009; 389(2):315-20. · 2.28 Impact Factor
  • Journal of Cardiac Failure - J CARD FAIL. 01/2009; 15(7).
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    ABSTRACT: The accumulation of visceral adipose tissue is closely associated with insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome. Therefore, it is important to identify genes that are required for adipocyte differentiation. To identify genes that are required for the differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes into mature adipocytes, we used retrovirus insertion-mediated random mutagenesis to generate 3T3-L1 cell lines that lose their ability to differentiate into mature adipocytes. One of the genes identified was TG-interacting factor (TGIF), a DNA binding homeodomain protein that has been demonstrated to suppress Smad-mediated activation of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta)-regulated transcription. In the TGIF-disrupted clone of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, the rate of differentiation into mature adipocytes was clearly reduced compared with that in the wild-type clone. Suppression of TGIF by lentivirus-mediated RNAi also inhibited the differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells. Insulin specifically increased the abundance of TGIF protein, primarily by enhancing its stability. In addition, insulin caused the rapid accumulation of TGIF in the nuclei. Forced expression of exogenous TGIF repressed both endogenous and overexpressed Smad2/3-mediated promoter activity in 3T3-L1. These findings suggest that insulin specifically antagonizes TGF-beta signaling in preadipocytes by stabilizing the putative Smad transcriptional corepressor TGIF and regulates adipocyte differentiation.
    The Journal of Lipid Research 07/2008; 49(6):1224-34. · 4.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In response to metabolic stress, GLUT4, the most abundant glucose transporter, translocates from intracellular vesicles to the plasma membrane. This appears to play an important role in protecting cardiac myocytes from ischemic injury. To investigate the precise mechanisms of GLUT4 translocation in cardiomyocytes, we have established a method for quantifying the relative proportion of sarcolemmal GLUT4 to total GLUT4 in these cells. Stimulation with H2O2 resulted in a concentration-dependent increase in GLUT4 translocation, which peaked at 15 min after stimulation. The dominant-negative form (DN) of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) alpha2 inhibited the H2O2-induced translocation of GLUT4. We further examined the role of two known AMPK kinases (AMPKKs), calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase (CaMKK)beta and LKB1. The DN of CaMKKbeta or LKB1 alone inhibited H2O2-induced GLUT4 translocation only partially compared to the inhibition produced by the DN of AMPKalpha2. However, the combination of DN-LKB1 and DN-CaMKKbeta inhibited translocation to an extent similar to with DN-AMPKalpha2. Stimulation with H2O2 also activated Akt and the inhibition of PI3-K/Akt prevented GLUT4 translocation to the same extent as with AMPK inhibition. When the DN of AMPKalpha2 was applied with DN-PI3-K, there was a complete reduction in the GLUT4 membrane level similar to that seen at the 0 time-point. These results demonstrate that AMPK and PI3-K/Akt have an additive effect on oxidative stress-mediated GLUT4 translocation.
    Journal of Cellular Physiology 07/2008; 215(3):733-42. · 4.22 Impact Factor
  • Journal of Cardiac Failure 08/2007; 13(6). · 3.32 Impact Factor
  • Journal of Cardiac Failure 08/2007; 13(6). · 3.32 Impact Factor
  • Journal of Cardiac Failure - J CARD FAIL. 01/2007; 13(6).