[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: CArG box-binding factor-A (CBF-A) is a protein involved in transcriptional control and interacts specifically with the penta-decameric (pd) element in kappa promoters. We show here that CBF-A will also bind specifically to a second region in the kappa promoter that overlaps with an early B cell factor binding site. Furthermore, the same region is present in multiple Ig promoters and we show that CBF-A can bind to several of these. Mitogenic stimulation of untransformed B lymphocytes promoted nuclear localisation of CBF-A. Using enhanced GFP (EGFP)-tagged constructs and transfection into COS7 cells, a nuclear localisation signal was defined in the C terminus of CBF-A. Deletion of only 13 amino acids from the C terminus of CBF-A led to the accumulation of the protein in bright speckles at the nuclear/cytoplasmic border. We also identified the heterogeneous ribonucleoprotein H as a specific interaction partner of CBF-A, but this interaction could be detected in the cytoplasm only. Thus, CBF-A has the potential to regulate the expression of multiple Ig V genes and has a complex, mitogen-responsive regulation of its intracellular localisation.
European Journal of Immunology 09/2006; 36(8):2192-202. · 4.52 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: CREC proteins constitute a family of EF-hand calcium binding proteins localized to the secretory pathway. Calumenin is the only member known to be secreted. Recently, it was shown that thrombin-activated thrombocytes liberate calumenin, which also is found in atherosclerotic lesions but not in normal vasculature. To study the possible effects of calumenin extracellularly, we used proteomic profiling of fibroblasts cultured in absence and in presence of calumenin. Using 2-DE and MS/MS, we show that normal fibroblasts contain several 28-29-kDa N-terminal and a 16-kDa C-terminal fragment of beta- or gamma-actin. Extracellularly added calumenin decreases the levels of both the N-terminal and C-terminal actin fragments, and, in addition, decreases the expression level of septin 2, which interacts with the actin cytoskeleton and is involved in cytokinesis. Labeling of S-phase fibroblasts with bromo-2'deoxy-uridine indicates that calumenin added to the medium also modulates the cell cycle. Our study thus indicates that calumenin may have an autocrine or a paracrine effect on the cells in its vicinity, and, therefore, may be involved in the pathophysiology of thrombosis or in wound healing.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that acute in vitro exposure of prematurely delivered fetal rabbit lungs to hyperoxic conditions will induce the expression of an adaptive cassette of proteins that mediates antioxidant and inflammatory processes. To test this hypothesis, ex situ fetal rabbit lung explants were prepared from New Zealand white rabbits delivered by cesarean section on day 29 of gestation and incubated under air (21% O2; 5% CO2) or hyperoxic (95% O2; 5% CO2) atmospheres. Total tissue protein was extracted following incubation and subjected to 2-DE. Using this technique, 1500-2000 protein spots were resolved per gel. Treatment-dependent, differentially expressed proteins were identified by image analysis (Melanie II) and MALDI-TOF MS and MALDI-MS/MS. The analysis identified 12 protein spots that were differentially expressed by 1.5-fold or more (p<0.05) by exposure to hyperoxic conditions. Six of these differentially expressed proteins were identified as vimentin, annexin I, inorganic pyrophosphatase, prohibitin, an N-terminal fragment of ATP synthase and heat shock protein 27. The data obtained are consistent with the roles of these proteins in mediating cellular response to oxidative stress and in regulating cell proliferation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study is to identify corneal proteins differentially expressed between keratoconus and normal epithelial samples. Proteins from the corneal epithelium were isolated from 6 keratoconus and 6 myopia patients (controls) and separated by 2D-gel electrophoresis. Six % and 12% SDS-PAGE gels were used to separate low and high molecular weight proteins. Gels were silver stained and protein spots were defined by Melanie II software. The proteins that were most altered in expression comparing keratoconus and controls were extracted, trypsin-digested, and identified by mass spectroscopy. Approximately 200-500 protein spots were detected on each gel. Nineteen spots were identified as differentially expressed between keratoconus and reference epithelium including cytokeratin 3 (< 7.8 fold), gelsolin (1.6 fold), S100A4 (1.9 fold), and enolase 1 (0.72 fold). Another identified protein found at very high levels was cytokeratin 12. Gelsolin, cytokeratin 3, and cytokeratin 12 have previously been described to be involved in other corneal diseases. Three proteins, gelsolin, alpha enolase, and S100A4 were identified to be differentially expressed in keratoconus compared to reference epithelium and thus may be involved in the pathogenesis.
Experimental Eye Research 02/2006; 82(2):201-9. · 3.02 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this prospective study of patients undergoing repair of non-ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm between 1999 and 2003 was to evaluate and compare risk factors for mortality after surgery, to determine a complex of informative factors for lethal outcome, and to define patient risk groups. Logistic regression analysis revealed a complex of informative factors, including female gender, previous myocardial infarction, age greater than 75 years, and clinical course of abdominal aortic aneurysm as important indicators for lethal outcome. A risk score model identified low-, moderate- and high-risk groups with mortality rates of 2.9%, 8.0% and 44.4%, respectively.
Current controlled trials in cardiovascular medicine 10/2005; 6:14. · 2.33 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study was designed to determine the oxygen dependency for expression of the endogenous hypoxic markers carbonic anhydrase IX (protein: CAIX/gene: CA9), glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1/GLUT1), osteopontin (OPN/OPN) and lactate dehydrogenase A (LDH-A/LDHA), and how this expression was influenced by extracellular pH (pHe).
Human cervix squamous cell carcinoma (SiHa) cells were used in all experiments. These cells were gassed in an enclosed environment under either anoxia (95% N2+5% CO2) for various times (0-30 h) or under different oxygen concentrations (0-21% O2) for 24 h at normal pHe (7.4) or low pHe (6.3). Response to radiation (7 Gy) was estimated using a clonogenic assay. Gene expression was determined by real-time PCR (normalized to the housekeeping gene, TFRC) and protein expression by Western blots.
Under normal pHe conditions, CA9, GLUT1 and LDHA gene expression was upregulated within 1-3h of anoxia, reaching near maximal values by 6h. OPN showed a slow increase over 24 h. At 24 h the relative increase was 135, 12, 90 and 5 times for CA9, GLUT1, OPN and LDHA, respectively. No induction was seen with the EGF receptor (EGFR). Gassing cells with differing oxygen concentrations for 24h resulted in a maximum level of expression for CA9 at 1% oxygen, whereas with GLUT1 and LDHA maximal expression occurred at 0.01% oxygen, but at 0% oxygen with OPN. The oxygen dependency for radiation response was identical to that seen for GLUT1 and LDHA. Expression of CA9, GLUT1, OPN and LDHA was inhibited under hypoxic conditions when pHe was reduced to 6.3. Expression of CAIX protein mimicked the CA9 gene expression patterns.
The expression of all the endogenous markers were upregulated by hypoxia, but the timing and oxygen dependencies were different and their expression was influenced by low pHe. This raises concerns about the generalised use of these agents as markers for hypoxia.
Radiotherapy and Oncology 09/2005; 76(2):187-93. · 4.86 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We studied whether dysfunction of human hibernating (HIB) and irreversibly dysfunctional myocardium (IRDM) are associated with altered levels of the sarcoplasmatic reticulum calcium handling proteins Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA2a) and its inhibitor phospholamban (PLB).
In 12 patients myocardial biopsies were taken during bypass surgery and analysed for contents of these proteins. We classified regions as control, HIB, or IRDM based on echocardiographic studies before and 6 months after surgery.
SERCA2a content (mean+/-SEM) was similar to control in HIB and IRDM (2.6 +/- 1.7, 3.8 +/- 2.0, and 3.4 +/- 1.9 units/g non-collagen protein (NCP), p = 0.40). PLB content was similar to control in HIB (2.6 +/- 0.4 and 3.5 +/- 0.5 units/microg NCP) but reduced in IRDM (0.9 +/- 0.2 units/microg NCP, p < 0.05). SERCA2a:PLB ratio, an indicator of SERCA2a activity, did not differ between control and HIB (1.2 +/- 0.3 and 1.4 +/- 0.4 units/microg NCP) but was increased in IRDM (5.1 +/- 1.7 units/microg NCP, p < 0.05).
Inappropriate SERCA2a activity due to suppressed PLB levels may represent a maladaptive mechanism in chronic ischemic myocardium being causally linked to irreversibility of left ventricular dysfunction.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To compare the basic proteomic composition of aqueous humour (AH) from patients with corneal rejection (patients) with AH from patients with cataract (controls).
Aqueous humour was analysed for total protein concentration using Bradford's method and for protein composition using two-dimensional (2D) gel electrophoresis. Image analysis was used to detect protein spots in 2D gels that were increased by more than factor 2 in patients as compared with controls. Increased spots were identified by immunoblotting and mass spectrometry.
Aqueous humour from patients contained significantly higher total protein concentration than did AH from controls. A total of 31 spots were significantly increased in 2D gels from patients. The spots were derived from albumin, alpha1-antitrypsin, apolipoprotein J, cytokeratin type II, serin proteinase inhibitor and transthyretin. After correction of spot volumes by total protein concentrations, 10 spots derived from albumin, cytokeratin type II and alpha1-antitrypsin remained significantly increased.
The proteomic composition of AH differed significantly between patients and controls. The identified proteins suggest that the changes in AH are due to at least three different mechanisms: breakdown of the aqueous-blood barrier, enzymatic degradation, and liberation of locally synthesized proteins.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In mammals circadian rhythms are generated by a light-entrainable oscillator located in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). Light signals reach the SCN via a monosynaptic neuronal pathway, the retinohypothalamic tract, originating in a subset of retinal ganglion cells. The nerve terminals of these cells contain the classical neurotransmitter glutamate and the neuropeptide pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP), and there is evidence that these two transmitters interact to mediate photoentrainment of the oscillator in the SCN. To elucidate light-provoked PACAP receptor signaling we used proteomic analysis. Wild-type mice and mice lacking the PAC1 receptor (PAC1-/-) were light stimulated at early night, and the SCN was examined for proteins that were differentially expressed using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and identification by tandem mass spectrometry. The most striking finding, which was subsequently confirmed by Western blotting, was a significant reduction of calmodulin (CaM) in wild-type mice as compared with PAC1-/- mice. Analysis at the mRNA level by quantitative in situ hybridization histochemistry was inconclusive, indicating that a translational mechanism might be involved. The findings indicate that PAC1 receptor signaling in the SCN in response to light stimulation induces a down-regulation of CaM expression and that CaM is involved in the photic-entrainment mechanism.
Journal of Molecular Neuroscience 02/2005; 25(3):251-8. · 2.76 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The human genome contains about 30,000 genes, each creating several transcripts per gene. Transcript structures and expression are studied by high-throughput transcriptomic techniques using microarrays. Generally, transcripts are not directly operating molecules, but are translated into functional proteins, post-translationally modified by proteolysis, glycosylation, phosphorylation, etc., sometimes with great functional impact. Proteins need to be analyzed by proteomic techniques, less suited for high-throughput. Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE), separating thousands of proteins has developed slowly over the past quarter of a century. This technique is now quite reproducible and suitable for differential proteomics, comparing normal and diseased cells/tissues revealing differentially regulated proteins. 2D-PAGE is combined with protein-identification methods, currently mass spectrometry (MS), which has been significantly improved over the last decade. Other proteomic techniques studying protein-protein interactions are now either established or still being developed, such as peptide or protein arrays, phage display, and the yeast two-hybrid system. The strengths and weaknesses of these techniques are discussed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chlamydia pneumoniae (Cp) has been demonstrated in arteries and abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs). However, the validity of the methods used is questioned, and antibiotic treatment trials have thus far shown disappointing results. Nevertheless, antibodies against the Cp outer membrane proteins (OMPs) have been associated with progression of atherosclerosis and AAAs. The aim of this study was to detect Cp OMPs in the wall of AAA patients by use of purified serum antibodies directed against Cp OMP and to assess potential cross-reacting proteins in AAA walls.
Seventeen patients undergoing infrarenal AAA repair were studied. Full AAA thickness tissue was collected from the anterior wall of the aneurysm. Anti-OMP was extracted from seropositive AAA patients by use of an ELISA kit (Labsystems). Analysis was performed by use of 2D polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, immunoblotting, and mass spectrometric protein identification. OMP antigens were not detected in 16 of 17 AAA walls. However, 3 major AAA proteins cross-reacted with anti-OMP. The proteins were all identified as heavy chains of human immunoglobulin.
We could not find evidence of Cp OMP in 16 of 17 AAA walls, but instead, all samples showed a strong cross-reaction between Cp OMP antibodies and human immunoglobulin. This might indicate that AAA is an autoimmune disease, perhaps triggered by an initial Cp infection.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: By the use of high-resolution two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and computerized image analysis we investigated and compared the expression of cellular proteins from p53 positive (+/+) mouse thymocytes, p53-/- thymocytes before neoplastic transformation, and from cell lines derived from two spontaneous p53-/- thymic lymphomas, SM5 and SM7. A total of around 1500 proteins were detected on individual gels. Only changes in protein expression by a factor of 2 or more were considered. In the thymic lymphoma cells 3-5% of the proteins were found to be differentially regulated when compared with the protein expression in p53+/+ and p53-/- thymocytes. Only a minority (13 proteins) of the quantitatively changed proteins were common for the two thymic lymphoma cell lines, suggesting that the p53 deficiency mainly results in genetic dysfunctions which are individual for a given tumor. Two of the detected proteins increased their expression levels by more than 10 times from the p53+/+ to the p53-/- thymocytes and these high expression levels were also found in thymic lymphomas. The two proteins were identified by mass spectrometry as acidic ribosomal phosphoprotein P0 and a 33-kDa protein with a primary structure containing motifs of the glyoxalase-bleomycin resistance protein family (MDR) as deduced from the cDNA.
Experimental Cell Research 05/2004; 295(1):91-101. · 3.37 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs) F and H/H', containing the quasi-RNA recognition motif (qRRM) domains, are implicated in several steps of pre-mRNA processing and in cellular differentiation. We have compared a set of tissues and found striking differences in their levels of expression as well as in the nuclear versus the cytoplasmic distribution. Generally, hnRNP F is broadly expressed in many tissues with extremely strong expression in the prostate gland while hnRNP H/H' shows a more restricted degree of expression with low expression in some tissues, for example, liver, exocrine acini of the pancreas, thyroid gland and heart. At the cellular level, hnRNP F is, with few exceptions, predominantly expressed in the cytoplasm while hnRNP H/H' is more abundant in the nuclei. A quite pronounced heterogeneous expression pattern is seen in the proximal tubules of the kidney where hnRNP F is present at moderate cytoplasmic levels while hnRNP H/H' is undetectable, whereas both proteins are more evenly expressed in distal tubules and collecting ducts. Generally, tumor tissues reveal a broad expression of hnRNP F in the nuclei as well as in the cytoplasm while hnRNP H/H' is expressed at higher levels in the nuclei than in the cytoplasm. Up-regulation of hnRNP H/H' is found in a few tissues that normally express low cytoplasmic levels of hnRNP H/H', for example, adenocarcinoma of the pancreas, hepatocellular carcinoma and gastric carcinoma. hnRNP F is down-regulated in hepatocellular carcinoma and up-regulated in gastric carcinoma. The present study indicates the important potential role of this subset of hnRNPs on the gene expression in many tissues.
Experimental Cell Research 04/2004; 294(1):199-209. · 3.37 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The binding of ligands to clusters of complement-type repeat (CR)-domains in proteins of the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) family is dependent on Ca2+ ions. One reason for this cation requirement was identified from the crystal structure data for a CR-domain from the prototypic LDLR, which showed the burial of a Ca2+ ion as a necessity for correct folding and stabilization of this protein module. Additional Ca2+ binding data to other CR-domains from both LDLR and the LDLR-related protein (LRP) have suggested the presence of a conserved Ca2+ cage within CR-domains from this family of receptors that function in endocytosis and signalling.
We have previously described the binding of several ligands to a fragment comprising the fifth and the sixth CR-domain (CR56) from LRP, as well as qualitatively described the binding of Ca2+ ions to this CR-domain pair. In the present study we have applied the rate dialysis method to measure the affinity for Ca2+, and show that CR56 binds 2 Ca2+ ions with an average affinity of KD = 10.6 microM, and there is no indication of additional Ca2+ binding sites within this receptor fragment.
Both CR-domains of CR56 bind a single Ca2+ ion with an affinity of 10.6 microM within the range of affinities demonstrated for several other CR-domains.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The transcript encoding endonuclein, the human homolog of yeast PWP1, was previously found up-regulated in pancreatic cancer tissue. By immunohistochemistry we detected a ubiquitous presence in several tissues examined: skin, liver, thyroid gland, heart muscle, neurons, kidney, bladder, pancreas, adrenal gland, ovary, uterus, testis and prostate gland. We especially noticed that normal pancreatic exocrine cells exhibited low protein levels while pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells revealed high levels. We found a heterogeneous subcellular distribution, especially with varying nuclear levels. In proliferating cells endonuclein protein expression and localization was cell cycle dependent, with increasing levels and nuclear focusing during the interphase toward mitosis. Ultrastructural analysis revealed ER and nuclear localization. Endonuclein contains five WD-repeats, indicating a putative role in crucial regulatory activities in the nucleus as well as in the ER.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Genes are transcribed to pre-mRNA, further processed to various mRNAs and then translated into proteins that may be post-translationally modified and subsequently function as the ultimate effecting molecules in the cell. Diagnostic options may be addressed as hybridization-based techniques to monitor nucleotide mutations or transcript levels. These techniques are highly suitable for high-throughput analyses based on DNA chip technology. They will enter the diagnostic practice as routine assays, although some obstacles must be addressed. Proteomics-based techniques are less suitable for high-throughput analyses at the moment, but are closer to the functional level. The combination of 2-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry analyses make a strong couple that may enter as diagnostic applications once more automated.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mouse embryonic mesenchymal cells undergo spontaneous smooth muscle (SM) differentiation upon spreading/elongation in culture (Relan et al., J. Cell Biol. 147 (1999) 1341; Yang et al., Development 125 (1998) 2621; Yang et al., Development 126 (1999) 3027). Using these cells we generated a subtracted cDNA library to identify potential suppressors of SM myogenesis. One of the differentially expressed genes was heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein-H (hnRNP-H), which is involved in pre-mRNA alternative splicing. hnRNP-H was highly expressed in mesenchymal cells prior to the onset of SM differentiation, but its expression rapidly decreased in mesenchymal cells undergoing SM myogenesis. In vivo, the drop in hnRNP-H expression was restricted to visceral SM cells. Antisense oligodeoxynucleotide and antisense RNA were used to inhibit hnRNP-H synthesis in SM-differentiating mesenchymal cells and in embryonic lung explants. A decrease in hnRNP-H levels resulted in upregulation of SM-specific gene expression and increased bronchial SM development in lung explants. hnRNP-H overexpression in cell cultures had the opposite effect. These studies, therefore, indicate a novel role for hnRNP-H in the control of visceral myogenesis.
Mechanisms of Development 07/2001; 104(1-2):79-87. · 2.24 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The hnRNP 2H9 gene products are involved in the splicing process and participate in early heat shock-induced splicing arrest. By combining low/high stringency hybridisation, database search, Northern and Western blotting it is shown that the gene is alternatively spliced into at least six transcripts: hnRNPs 2H9, 2H9A, 2H9B, 2H9C, 2H9D and 2H9E predicting proteins containing 346, 331, 297, 215, 145 and 139 amino acids, respectively. The hnRNP 2H9A cDNA sequence was used to obtain a genomic BAC clone and the structure of the hnRNP 2H9 gene was revealed by sequencing two subclones together spanning about 6.7 kb. The six transcripts are processed from at least 10, 10, 8, 7, 5 and 4 exons, respectively, with all intron/exon junctions obeying the 'GT-AG' rule. The hnRNP 2H9 and 2H9A proteins contain two RNA recognition motifs of the quasi-RRM type found in the two C-terminal qRRMs of the hnRNPs H, H' and F proteins. The hnRNP 2H9B protein has a partially deleted N-terminal qRRM, which is completely deleted in hnRNP 2H9C. hnRNPs 2H9D and 2H9E contain only one slightly modified C-terminal qRRM. Furthermore, the six proteins vary in their auxiliary domains outside the qRRMs. Western blotting indicates that the alternatively spliced transcripts give rise to different sets and levels of proteins expressed among various human cells and tissues. Due to their great structural variations the different proteins may thus possess different functions in the splicing reaction.
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 07/2000; 1492(1):108-19. · 4.66 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The hnRNP 2H9 gene products are involved in the splicing process and participate in early heat shock-induced splicing arrest. By combining low/high stringency hybridisation, database search, Northern and Western blotting it is shown that the gene is alternatively spliced into at least six transcripts: hnRNPs 2H9, 2H9A, 2H9B, 2H9C, 2H9D and 2H9E predicting proteins containing 346, 331, 297, 215, 145 and 139 amino acids, respectively. The hnRNP 2H9A cDNA sequence was used to obtain a genomic BAC clone and the structure of the hnRNP 2H9 gene was revealed by sequencing two subclones together spanning about 6.7 kb. The six transcripts are processed from at least 10, 10, 8, 7, 5 and 4 exons, respectively, with all intron/exon junctions obeying the ‘GT-AG’ rule. The hnRNP 2H9 and 2H9A proteins contain two RNA recognition motifs of the quasi-RRM type found in the two C-terminal qRRMs of the hnRNPs H, H′ and F proteins. The hnRNP 2H9B protein has a partially deleted N-terminal qRRM, which is completely deleted in hnRNP 2H9C. hnRNPs 2H9D and 2H9E contain only one slightly modified C-terminal qRRM. Furthermore, the six proteins vary in their auxiliary domains outside the qRRMs. Western blotting indicates that the alternatively spliced transcripts give rise to different sets and levels of proteins expressed among various human cells and tissues. Due to their great structural variations the different proteins may thus possess different functions in the splicing reaction.
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Gene Structure and Expression 06/2000; 1492(1):108-119. · 1.70 Impact Factor