Smita Patel

University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States

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Publications (48)87.43 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The buildup of noncalcified plaques (NCPs) that are vulnerable to rupture in coronary arteries is a risk for myocardial infarction. Interpretation of coronary CT angiography (cCTA) to search for NCP is a challenging task for radiologists due to the low CT number of NCP, the large number of coronary arteries, and multiple phase CT acquisition. The authors conducted a preliminary study to develop machine learning method for automated detection of NCPs in cCTA.
    Medical physics. 08/2014; 41(8):081901.
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    ABSTRACT: The authors are developing a computer-aided detection system to assist radiologists in analysis of coronary artery disease in coronary CT angiograms (cCTA). This study evaluated the accuracy of the authors' coronary artery segmentation and tracking method which are the essential steps to define the search space for the detection of atherosclerotic plaques.
    Medical physics. 08/2014; 41(8):081912.
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    ABSTRACT: IntroductionLeft ventricular (LV) and right ventricular (RV) volumetric and functional parameters are important biomarkers for morbidity and mortality in patients with heart failure.PurposeTo retrospectively determine reference mean values of LV and RV volume, function and mass normalised by age, gender and body surface area (BSA) from retrospectively electrocardiographically gated 64-slice cardiac computed tomography (CCT) by using automated analysis software in healthy adults.Materials and Methods The study was approved by the institutional review board with a waiver of informed consent. Seventy-four healthy subjects (49% female, mean age 49.6 ± 11) free of hypertension and hypercholesterolaemia with a normal CCT formed the study population. Analyses of LV and RV volume (end-diastolic, end-systolic and stroke volumes), function (ejection fraction), LV mass and inter-rater reproducibility were performed with commercially available analysis software capable of automated contour detection. General linear model analysis was performed to assess statistical significance by age group after adjustment for gender and BSA. Bland–Altman analysis assessed the inter-rater agreement.ResultsThe reference range for LV and RV volume, function, and LV mass was normalised to age, gender and BSA. Statistically significant differences were noted between genders in both LV mass and RV volume (P-value < 0.0001). Age, in concert with gender, was associated with significant differences in RV end-diastolic volume and LV ejection fraction (P-values 0.027 and 0.03). Bland–Altman analysis showed acceptable limits of agreement (±1.5% for ejection fraction) without systematic error.ConclusionLV and RV volume, function and mass normalised to age, gender and BSA can be reported from CCT datasets, providing additional information important for patient management.
    Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Oncology 06/2014; · 0.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A 3D multiscale intensity homogeneity transformation (MIHT) method was developed to reduce false positives (FPs) in our previously developed CAD system for pulmonary embolism (PE) detection. In MIHT, the voxel intensity of a PE candidate region was transformed to an intensity homogeneity value (IHV) with respect to the local median intensity. The IHVs were calculated in multiscales (MIHVs) to measure the intensity homogeneity, taking into account vessels of different sizes and different degrees of occlusion. Seven new features including the entropy, gradient, and moments that characterized the intensity distributions of the candidate regions were derived from the MIHVs and combined with the previously designed features that described the shape and intensity of PE candidates for the training of a linear classifier to reduce the FPs. 59 CTPA PE cases were collected from our patient files (UM set) with IRB approval and 69 cases from the PIOPED II data set with access permission. 595 and 800 PEs were identified as reference standard by experienced thoracic radiologists in the UM and PIOPED set, respectively. FROC analysis was used for performance evaluation. Compared with our previous CAD system, at a test sensitivity of 80%, the new method reduced the FP rate from 18.9 to 14.1/scan for the PIOPED set when the classifier was trained with the UM set and from 22.6 to 16.0/scan vice versa. The improvement was statistically significant (p<0.05) by JAFROC analysis. This study demonstrated that the MIHT method is effective in reducing FPs and improving the performance of the CAD system.
    Proc SPIE 04/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: We are developing an automated registration method for coronary arterial trees from multiple-phase cCTA to build a best-quality tree to facilitate detection of stenotic plaques. Cubic B-spline with fast localized optimization (CBSO) is designed to register the initially segmented left and right coronary arterial trees (LCA or RCA) separately in adjacent phase pairs where displacements are small. First, the corresponding trees in phase 1 and 2 are registered. The phase 3 tree is then registered to the combined tree. Similarly the trees in phases 4, 5, and 6 are registered. An affine transform with quadratic terms and nonlinear simplex optimization (AQSO) is designed to register the trees between phases with large displacements, namely, registering the combined tree from phases 1, 2, and 3 to that from phases 4, 5, and 6. Finally, CBSO is again applied to the AQSO registered volumes for final refinement. The costs determined by the distances between the vessel centerlines, bifurcation points and voxels of the trees are minimized to guide both CBSO and AQSO registration. The registration performance was evaluated on 22 LCA and 22 RCA trees on 22 CTA scans with 6 phases from 22 patients. The average distance between the centerlines of the registered trees was used as a registration quality index. The average distances for LCA and RCA registration for 6 phases and 22 patients were 1.49 and 1.43 pixels, respectively. This study demonstrates the feasibility of using automated method for registration of coronary arterial trees from multiple cCTA phases.
    Proc SPIE 03/2013; 59(16).
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    ABSTRACT: The curved planar reformation (CPR) method re-samples the vascular structures along the vessel centerline to generate longitudinal cross-section views. The CPR technique has been commonly used in coronary CTA workstation to facilitate radiologists' visual assessment of coronary diseases, but has not yet been used for pulmonary vessel analysis in CTPA due to the complicated tree structures and the vast network of pulmonary vasculature. In this study, a new curved planar reformation and optimal path tracing (CROP) method was developed to facilitate feature extraction and false positive (FP) reduction and improve our PE detection system. PE candidates are first identified in the segmented pulmonary vessels at prescreening. Based on Dijkstra's algorithm, the optimal path (OP) is traced from the pulmonary trunk bifurcation point to each PE candidate. The traced vessel is then straightened and a reformatted volume is generated using CPR. Eleven new features that characterize the intensity, gradient, and topology are extracted from the PE candidate in the CPR volume and combined with the previously developed 9 features to form a new feature space for FP classification. With IRB approval, CTPA of 59 PE cases were retrospectively collected from our patient files (UM set) and 69 PE cases from the PIOPED II data set with access permission. 595 and 800 PEs were manually marked by experienced radiologists as reference standard for the UM and PIOPED set, respectively. At a test sensitivity of 80%, the average FP rate was improved from 18.9 to 11.9 FPs/case with the new method for the PIOPED set when the UM set was used for training. The FP rate was improved from 22.6 to 14.2 FPs/case for the UM set when the PIOPED set was used for training. The improvement in the free response receiver operating characteristic (FROC) curves was statistically significant (p<0.05) by JAFROC analysis, indicating that the new features extracted from the CROP method are useful for FP reduction.
    Proc SPIE 03/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: Non-calcified plaque (NCP) detection in coronary CT angiography (cCTA) is challenging due to the low CT number of NCP, the large number of coronary arteries and multiple phase CT acquisition. We are developing computervision methods for automated detection of NCPs in cCTA. A data set of 62 cCTA scans with 87 NCPs was collected retrospectively from patient files. Multiscale coronary vessel enhancement and rolling balloon tracking were first applied to each cCTA volume to extract the coronary artery trees. Each extracted vessel was reformatted to a straightened volume composed of cCTA slices perpendicular to the vessel centerline. A new topological soft-gradient (TSG) detection method was developed to prescreen for both positive and negative remodeling candidates by analyzing the 2D topological features of the radial gradient field surface along the vessel wall. Nineteen features were designed to describe the relative location along the coronary artery, shape, distribution of CT values, and radial gradients of each NCP candidate. With a machine learning algorithm and a two-loop leave-one-case-out training and testing resampling method, useful features were selected and combined into an NCP likelihood measure to differentiate TPs from FPs. The detection performance was evaluated by FROC analysis. Our TSG method achieved a sensitivity of 96.6% with 35.4 FPs/scan at prescreening. Classification with the NCP likelihood measure reduced the FP rates to 13.1, 10.0 and 6.7 FPs/scan at sensitivities of 90%, 80%, and 70%, respectively. These results demonstrated that the new TSG method is useful for computerized detection of NCPs in cCTA.
    Proc SPIE 03/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of the study was to determine the effectiveness of a collaborative educational, continuous quality improvement (CQI) initiative to increase appropriate use of coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA). Potential overuse of CCTA has prompted multisociety appropriate use criteria (AUC) publications. This prospective, observational study was conducted with pre-intervention (July 2007 to June 2008), intervention (July 2008 to June 2010), and follow-up (July 2010 to December 2010) periods during which patients were enrolled in the Advanced Cardiovascular Imaging Consortium (ACIC) at 47 Michigan hospitals. Continuous education was provided to referring physicians. The possibility of losing third-party payer coverage in the absence of a measurable change in AUC was emphasized. AUC was compared between the 3 periods. The study group included 25,387 patients. Compared with the pre-intervention period, there was a 23.4% increase in appropriate (61.3% to 80%, p < 0.0001), 60.3% decrease in inappropriate (14.6% to 5.8%, p < 0.0001), 40.8% decrease in uncertain (10.3% to 6.1%, p < 0.0001), and 41.7% decrease in unclassifiable (13.9% to 8.1%, p < 0.0001) scans during follow-up. Between pre-intervention and follow-up, change in CCTA referrals by provider specialty were cardiology (appropriate: 60.4% to 79.5%; inappropriate: 13% to 5.2%; p < 0.0001), internal medicine/family practice (appropriate: 51.1% to 70.4%; inappropriate: 20.2% to 12.5%; p < 0.0001), emergency medicine (appropriate: 83.6% to 91.6%; inappropriate: 9.1% to 0.6%; p < 0.0001), and other (appropriate: 61.1% to 83.2%; inappropriate: 18.6% to 5.9%; p < 0.0001). Application of a systematic CQI and emphasis on possible loss of coverage were associated with a significant improvement in the proportion of CCTA examinations meeting AUC across referring physician specialties.
    Journal of the American College of Cardiology 08/2012; 60(13):1185-91. · 14.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) is an emerging noninvasive anatomical method for evaluation of patients with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD). Multicenter clinical registries are key to efforts to establish the role of CCTA in CAD diagnosis and management. The Advanced Cardiovascular Imaging Consortium (ACIC) is a statewide, multicenter collaborative quality initiative with the intent to establish quality and appropriate use of CCTA in Michigan. The ACIC is sponsored by the Blue Cross Blue Shield of Michigan/Blue Care Network, and its 47 sites include imaging centers that offer CCTA and meet established structure and process standards for participation. Patients enrolled include those with suspected ischemia with or without known CAD, and individuals across the entire spectrum of CAD risk. Patient demographics, history, CCTA scan-related data and findings, and 90-day follow-up data are entered prospectively into a centralized database with strict validation tools and processes. Collaborative quality initiatives include radiation dose reduction and appropriate CCTA use by education and feedback to participating sites and referring physicians. Across a wide range of institutions, the ACIC permits evaluation of "real-world" utilization and effectiveness of CCTA and examines an alternative, nontraditional approach to utilization management wherein physicians and payers collaborate to address the growing problem of cardiac imaging overutilization.
    American heart journal 03/2012; 163(3):346-53. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Vessel segmentation is a fundamental step in an automated pulmonary embolism (PE) detection system. The purpose of this study is to improve the segmentation scheme for pulmonary vessels affected by PE and other lung diseases. We have developed a multiscale hierarchical vessel enhancement and segmentation (MHES) method for pulmonary vessel tree extraction based on the analysis of eigenvalues of Hessian matrices. However, it is difficult to segment the pulmonary vessels accurately under suboptimal conditions, such as vessels occluded by PEs, surrounded by lymphoid tissues or lung diseases, and crossing with other vessels. In this study, we developed a new vessel refinement method utilizing curved planar reformation (CPR) technique combined with optimal path finding method (MHES-CROP). The MHES segmented vessels straightened in the CPR volume was refined using adaptive gray level thresholding where the local threshold was obtained from least-square estimation of a spline curve fitted to the gray levels of the vessel along the straightened volume. An optimal path finding method based on Dijkstra's algorithm was finally used to trace the correct path for the vessel of interest. Two and eight CTPA scans were randomly selected as training and test data sets, respectively. Forty volumes of interest (VOIs) containing "representative" vessels were manually segmented by a radiologist experienced in CTPA interpretation and used as reference standard. The results show that, for the 32 test VOIs, the average percentage volume error relative to the reference standard was improved from 32.9+/-10.2% using the MHES method to 9.9+/-7.9% using the MHES-CROP method. The accuracy of vessel segmentation was improved significantly (p<0.05). The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) of the segmented vessel volume between the automated segmentation and the reference standard was improved from 0.919 to 0.988. Quantitative comparison of the MHES method and the MHES-CROP method with the reference standard was also evaluated by the Bland-Altman plot. This preliminary study indicates that the MHES-CROP method has the potential to improve PE detection.
    Proc SPIE 02/2012;
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to retrospectively determine CT-based normal reference values of left atrial volume, function, and diameter normalized by age, sex, and body surface area. The study group consisted of 74 subjects with normal findings at ECG-gated coronary CT angiography performed with retrospective gating. Analysis of left atrial volume (end-diastolic, end-systolic, and stroke volume) and function (ejection fraction) was performed with the Simpson method. Left atrial diameter was measured in the anteroposterior dimension. General linear model analysis was performed to model the data and assess statistical significance by age group after adjustment for sex and body surface area. The reference range for left atrial volume, function, and diameter was normalized (indexed) to age, sex, and body surface area in healthy subjects. A statistically significant difference was noted between left atrial volume and age without adjustment for sex and body surface area, but no statistically significant difference was found after adjustment for these variables. Sex and body surface area had a significant influence on left atrial volume, function, and diameter. Left atrial volume, function, and diameter normalized to age, sex, and body surface area can be reported from CTA datasets and may provide information important for patient care.
    American Journal of Roentgenology 09/2011; 197(3):631-7. · 2.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) is the standard for evaluating cardioembolic sources of stroke, although many strokes remain cryptogenic after TEE. Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging may have advantages over TEE. We performed a prospective pilot study comparing CMR to TEE after stroke to assist in planning future definitive studies. METHODS: Individuals with nonlacunar stroke within 90 days of undergoing clinical TEE were prospectively identified and underwent a 1.5 Tesla research CMR scan. Exclusion criteria included >50% relevant cervical vessel stenosis and inability to undergo nonsedated CMR. A descriptive comparison of cardioembolic source (intracardiac thrombus/mass, aortic atheroma ≥4 mm, or patent foramen ovale [PFO]) by study type was performed. RESULTS: Twenty patients underwent CMR and TEE a median of 6 days apart. The median age was 51 years (interquartile range [IQR] 40, 63.5), 40% had hypertension, 15% had diabetes, 25% had a previous stroke/transient ischemic attack, 5% had atrial fibrillation, and none had coronary disease or heart failure. No patient had intracardiac thrombus or mass detected on either study. Aortic atheroma ≥4 mm thick was identified by TEE in 1 patient. CMR identified aortic atheroma as <4 mm in this patient (3 mm on CMR compared with 5 mm on TEE). PFO was identified in 6 of 20 patients on TEE; CMR found only 1 of these. CONCLUSIONS: In this pilot study, TEE identified more potential cardioembolic sources than CMR imaging. Future studies comparing TEE and CMR after stroke should focus on older subjects at higher risk for cardiac disease to determine whether TEE, CMR, or both can best elucidate potential cardioembolic sources.
    Journal of stroke and cerebrovascular diseases: the official journal of National Stroke Association 06/2011;
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate our prototype method for segmentation and tracking of the coronary arterial tree, which is the foundation for a computer-aided detection (CADe) system to be developed to assist radiologists in detecting non-calcified plaques in coronary CT angiography (cCTA) scans. The heart region was first extracted by a morphological operation and an adaptive thresholding method based on expectation-maximization (EM) estimation. The vascular structures within the heart region were enhanced and segmented using a multiscale coronary response (MSCAR) method that combined 3D multiscale filtering, analysis of the eigenvalues of Hessian matrices and EM estimation segmentation. After the segmentation of vascular structures, the coronary arteries were tracked by a 3D dynamic balloon tracking (DBT) method. The DBT method started at two manually identified seed points located at the origins of the left and right coronary arteries (LCA and RCA) for extraction of the arterial trees. The coronary arterial trees of a data set containing 20 ECG-gated contrast-enhanced cCTA scans were extracted by our MSCAR-DBT method and a clinical GE Advantage workstation. Two experienced thoracic radiologists visually examined the coronary arteries on the original cCTA scans and the rendered volume of segmented vessels to count the untracked false-negative (FN) segments and false positives (FPs) for both methods. For the visible coronary arterial segments in the 20 cases, the radiologists identified that 25 segments were missed by our MSCAR-DBT method, ranging from 0 to 5 FN segments in individual cases, and that 55 artery segments were missed by the GE software, ranging from 0 to 7 FN segments in individual cases. 19 and 15 FPs were identified in our and the GE coronary trees, ranging from 0 to 4 FPs for both methods in individual cases, respectively. The preliminary study demonstrates the feasibility of our MSCAR-DBT method for segmentation and tracking coronary artery trees. The results indicated that both our method and GE software can extract coronary artery trees reasonably well and the performance of our method is superior to that of GE software in this small data set. Further studies are underway to develop methods for improvement of the segmentation and tracking accuracy.
    Computerized medical imaging and graphics: the official journal of the Computerized Medical Imaging Society 05/2011; 36(1):1-10. · 1.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Vessel segmentation is a fundamental step in an automated pulmonary embolism (PE) detection system. The purpose of this study is to improve the segmentation scheme for pulmonary vessels affected by PE and other lung diseases. We have developed a multiscale hierarchical vessel enhancement and segmentation (MHES) method for pulmonary vessel tree extraction based on the analysis of eigenvalues of Hessian matrices. However, it is difficult to segment the pulmonary vessels accurately when the vessel is occluded by PEs and/or surrounded by lymphoid tissues or lung diseases. In this study, we developed a method that combines MHES with level set refinement (MHES-LSR) to improve vessel segmentation accuracy. The level set was designed to propagate the initial object contours to the regions with relatively high gray-level, high gradient, and high compactness as measured by the smoothness of the curvature along vessel boundaries. Two and eight CTPA scans were randomly selected as training and test data sets, respectively. Forty volumes of interest (VOI) containing "representative" vessels were manually segmented by a radiologist experienced in CTPA interpretation and used as reference standard. The results show that, for the 32 test VOIs, the average percentage volume error relative to the reference standard was improved from 31.7+/-10.9% using the MHES method to 7.7+/-4.7% using the MHES-LSR method. The correlation between the computer-segmented vessel volume and the reference standard was improved from 0.954 to 0.986. The accuracy of vessel segmentation was improved significantly (p
    Proc SPIE 03/2011;
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    ABSTRACT: Although numerous strategies for radiation dose decrease in coronary computed tomographic angiography are effective, their combined impact on diagnostic performance is not known. We therefore assessed the effect of a standardized coronary computed tomographic angiographic protocol on diagnostic accuracy. We evaluated 80 consecutive patients from 3 sites with coronary computed tomographic angiography and quantitative coronary angiography. All sites initially used nonstandardized protocols; 2 sites then initiated a standardized protocol, and 1 site continued its nonstandardized protocol as a time-overlapping control. Two blinded readers interpreted coronary computed tomographic angiographic studies; a third obtained consensus. A blinded core laboratory performed quantitative coronary angiography. Each segment was graded as <50% or > or =50% diameter stenosis. Compared to those using nonstandardized protocols (n = 35), studies using standardized protocols (n = 45) had a trend to increased use of prospective gating (p = 0.09), lower voltage (p <0.01), decreased current (p <0.01), and shorter scan length (p <0.01). Median (interquartile range) radiation dose decreased from 5.7 mSv (4.0 to 10.8) to 2.0 mSv (1.3 to 3.4, p <0.001). There were no significant differences in sensitivity (100%, 20 of 20, vs 100%, 18 of 18, p = 1.0), specificity (93%, 14 of 15, vs 85%, 23 of 27, p = 0.61), or accuracy (97%, 34 of 35, vs 91%, 41 of 45, p = 0.27) by patient; sensitivity (83%, 33 of 40, vs 83%, 25 of 30, p = 0.93), specificity (92%, 86 of 93, vs 92%, 134 of 146, p = 0.85), or accuracy (89%, 119 of 133, vs 90%, 159 of 176, p = 0.80) by artery; or sensitivity (80%, 44 of 55, vs 72%, 26 of 36, p = 0.74), specificity (94%, 332 of 353, vs 94%, 499 of 531, p = 0.96), or accuracy (92%, 376 of 408, vs 93%, 525 of 567, p = 0.80) by segment. In conclusion, a standardized dose-decrease protocol for coronary computed tomographic angiography decreases radiation dose without affecting diagnostic performance.
    The American journal of cardiology 07/2010; 106(2):287-92. · 3.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Coronary artery anomalies (CAA) are uncommon congenital variations in coronary anatomy, occurring in 0.2% to 1.2% of the general population, the majority of which are detected incidentally and have little clinical significance. A minority of CAA, primarily due to an interarterial course, is clinically significant, and may present with symptoms of myocardial ischemia, malignant ventricular arrhythmias, and even sudden cardiac death. Until recently, CAA were primarily detected at catheter coronary angiography. With recent advances in multidetector computed tomography (CT) technology and the use of electrocardiographic gating, coronary CT angiography provides an exquisite omnidimensional display of the anomalous coronary arteries and their relation to the adjacent structures noninvasively, and is the diagnostic test of choice. Understanding CAA morphology and clinical significance of CAA is important for establishing a diagnosis, and is essential for appropriate patient management and treatment planning.
    Radiologic Clinics of North America 07/2010; 48(4):711-27. · 1.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Coronary CT angiography (cCTA) has been reported to be an effective means for diagnosis of coronary artery disease. We are investigating the feasibility of developing a computer-aided detection (CADe) system to assist radiologists in detection of non-calcified plaques in coronary arteries in ECG-gated cCTA scans. In this study, we developed a prototype vessel segmentation and tracking method to extract the coronary arterial trees which will define the search space for plaque detection. Vascular structures are first enhanced by 3D multi-scale filtering and analysis of the eigenvalues of Hessian matrices using a vessel enhancement response function specifically designed for coronary arteries. The enhanced vascular structures are then segmented by an EM estimation method. The segmented coronary arteries are tracked using a 3D dynamic balloon tracking (DBT) method. For this preliminary study, two starting seed points were manually identified at the origins of the left and right coronary artery (LCA and RCA). The DBT method automatically moves a sphere along the vessel whose diameter is adjusted dynamically based on the local vessel size, tracks the vessels, and identifies its branches to generate the left and right coronary arterial trees. The algorithm was applied to 20 cCTA scans that contained various degrees of coronary artery diseases. To evaluate the performance of vessel segmentation and tracking, the rendered volume of coronary arteries tracked by our algorithm was displayed on a PC, placed next to a GE Advantage workstation on which the coronary arterial trees tracked by the GE software and the original cCTA scan were displayed. Two experienced thoracic radiologists visually examined the coronary arteries on the cCTA scan and the segmented vessels to count untracked false-negative (FN) segments and false positives (FPs). The comparison was made by radiologists' visual judgment because the digital files for the segmented vessels were not accessible on the commercial system. A total of 19 and 38 artery segments were identified to be FNs, and 23 FPs and 20 FPs were found in the coronary trees tracked by our algorithm and the GE software, respectively. The preliminary results demonstrated the feasibility of our approach.
    Proc SPIE 03/2010;
  • Jean Kuriakose, Smita Patel
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    ABSTRACT: CT pulmonary angiography has become a first-line imaging test for evaluation of PE because of its high accuracy, ease of use, and ready availability. PIOPED II supports the use of multidetector CT as a first-line test especially in outpatients. Technological advances continue to evolve, and with refinements in technology, we will continue to optimize imaging for PE detection. lonizing radiation remains a concern particularly in the young and in pregnant patients, and methods to decrease these are being advocated. SPECT V/Q may play a bigger role in PE diagnosis in the future and the role of MR is yet to be determined in the PIOPED ll study, with the potential of solving some of the issues regarding radiation in a select group of patients.
    Thoracic Surgery Clinics 02/2010; 20(1):129-48.
  • Journal of The American College of Cardiology - J AMER COLL CARDIOL. 01/2010; 55(10).
  • Journal of The American College of Cardiology - J AMER COLL CARDIOL. 01/2010; 55(10).