Tim Shaw

University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, North Holland, Netherlands

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Publications (8)49.12 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: In the IMAGEstudy, rituximab plus methotrexate (MTX) inhibited joint damage and improved clinical outcomes at 1 year in MTX-naïve patients with early active rheumatoid arthritis. The aim of this study was to assess joint damage progression and clinical outcomes over 2 years. Patients (n=755) were randomised to receive rituximab 2×500 mg+MTX, 2×1000 mg+MTX or placebo+MTX. The placebo-controlled period continued to week 104. Two-year end points were defined as secondary or exploratory and included change in total Genant-modified Sharp score (mTSS), total erosion score and joint space narrowing score from baseline to week 104. Clinical efficacy and physical function end points were also assessed. At 2 years, rituximab 2×1000 mg+MTX maintained inhibition of progressive joint damage versus MTX alone (mTSS change 0.41 vs 1.95; p<0.0001 (79% inhibition)), and a higher proportion of patients receiving rituximab 2×1000 mg+MTX had no radiographic progression over 2 years compared with those receiving MTX alone (57% vs 37%; p<0.0001). Contrary to 1-year results, exploratory analysis of rituximab 2×500 mg+MTX at 2 years showed that progressive joint damage was slowed by ∼61% versus placebo+MTX (mTSS, exploratory p=0.0041). Improvements in clinical signs and symptoms and physical function seen after 1 year in rituximab-treated patients versus those receiving placebo were maintained at year 2. Safety profiles were similar between groups. Treatment with rituximab 2×1000 mg+MTX was associated with sustained improvements in radiographic, clinical and functional outcomes over 2 years. Clinical trials.gov identifier NCT00299104.
    Annals of the rheumatic diseases 03/2012; 71(3):351-7. · 9.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The current validated magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scoring method for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in clinical trials, RA MRI Score (RAMRIS), incorporates all metacarpophalangeal (MCP) and wrist joints except MCP-1. The experience with radiographic scoring, however, was that excluding certain bones in the wrist improved the discriminative power for changes over time. In this study, we pool MRI data from randomized controlled clinical trails (RCT) to determine which combination of MCP and wrist joints are most sensitive and discriminative for structural changes over time. MR images from 4 multicenter RCT, including 522 RA patients, were read by 2 radiologists, using the RAMRIS scoring system for erosion, osteitis, and synovitis. In one RCT, joint-space narrowing (JSN) was assessed cross-sectionally by one radiologist using a previously validated method. Baseline frequencies of erosion, JSN, osteitis, and synovitis of different bones and joints in the hand and wrist were compared. Intraclass correlation coefficients between readers were determined for each location. Finally, 7 different combinations of bone/joint locations were compared for their ability to discriminate subjects showing increases or decreases from baseline greater than or equal to smallest detectable changes (SDC) at Weeks 12 or 24. Frequency of involvement and reliability for assessing change varied by location. As in earlier analyses, excluding certain wrist bones increased the percentage of subjects showing changes greater than or equal to SDC. These findings suggest that excluding wrist bones that do not frequently or reliably demonstrate structural changes improves the discriminative power of the RAMRIS scoring system.
    The Journal of Rheumatology 09/2011; 38(9):2023-30. · 3.17 Impact Factor
  • Rheumatology (Oxford, England) 03/2011; 50(3):632-3. · 4.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Rituximab is an effective treatment in patients with established rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The objective of the IMAGE study was to determine the efficacy of rituximab in the prevention of joint damage and its safety in combination with methotrexate (MTX) in patients initiating treatment with MTX. In this double-blind randomised controlled phase III study, 755 MTX-naïve patients with active RA were randomly assigned to MTX alone, rituximab 2×500 mg + MTX or rituximab 2×1000 mg + MTX. The primary end point at week 52 was the change in joint damage measured using a Genant-modified Sharp score. 249, 249 and 250 patients were randomly assigned to MTX alone, rituximab 2×500 mg + MTX or rituximab 2×1000 mg + MTX, respectively. At week 52, treatment with rituximab 2×1000 mg + MTX compared with MTX alone was associated with a reduction in progression of joint damage (mean change in total modified Sharp score 0.359 vs 1.079; p=0.0004) and an improvement in clinical outcomes (ACR50 65% vs 42%; p<0.0001); rituximab 2×500 mg + MTX improved clinical outcomes (ACR50 59% vs 42%; p<0.0001) compared with MTX alone but did not significantly reduce the progression of joint damage. Safety outcomes were similar between treatment groups. Treatment with rituximab 2×1000 mg in combination with MTX is an effective therapy for the treatment of patients with MTX-naïve RA. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT00299104.
    Annals of the rheumatic diseases 10/2010; 70(1):39-46. · 9.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Rituximab inhibited structural damage at 1 year in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) who had had a previous inadequate response to tumour necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitors. To assess structural damage progression through 2 years. Intention-to-treat patients with one post-baseline radiograph (rituximab n=281; placebo n=187) received background methotrexate (MTX) and were randomised to rituximab (2 x 1000 mg infusions, 2 weeks apart) or placebo; patients were eligible for rituximab re-treatment every 6 months. By week 104, 82% of the placebo population had received > or = 1 dose of rituximab. Radiographic end points included the change in total Sharp score (TSS), erosion and joint space narrowing scores at week 104. At week 104, significantly lower changes in TSS (1.14 vs 2.81; p<0.0001), erosion score (0.72 vs 1.80; p<0.0001) and joint space narrowing scores (0.42 vs 1.00; p<0.0009) were observed with rituximab plus MTX vs placebo plus MTX. Within the rituximab group, 87% who had no progression of joint damage at 1 year remained non-progressive at 2 years. Rituximab plus MTX demonstrated significant and sustained effects on joint damage progression in patients with RA and a previously inadequate response to TNF inhibitors.
    Annals of the rheumatic diseases 06/2010; 69(6):1158-61. · 9.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of three dosing and repeat treatment regimens of rituximab (RTX) plus MTX in patients with active RA. Patients with active RA despite stable MTX (10-25 mg/week) were randomly assigned to one of the three treatment regimens comprising two courses of RTX given 24 weeks apart: 2 x 500 and 2 x 500 mg; 2 x 500 and 2 x 1000 mg (dose escalation); and 2 x 1000 and 2 x 1000 mg. The primary endpoint was proportion of patients achieving ACR20 at Week 48. At Week 48, ACR20 responses were not statistically significantly different between the dose regimens. Compared with RTX 2 x 500 mg (n = 134) or dose escalation (n = 119), ACR and European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) outcomes in the RTX 2 x 1000 mg group (n = 93) were consistently higher, with significantly more patients achieving EULAR responses (P = 0.0495). At Week 48, rituximab 2 x 1000 mg was associated with a higher proportion of patients who, following retreatment, maintained or improved their Week 24 responses. Dose escalation from 2 x 500 to 2 x 1000 mg did not appear to be associated with improved outcomes compared with continual 2 x 500 mg. All RTX regimens demonstrated comparable safety. RTX 2 x 500 and 2 x 1000 mg could not be clearly differentiated, although some efficacy outcomes suggest improved outcomes in the rituximab 2 x 1000 mg group. Retreatment from Week 24 resulted in a sustained suppression of disease activity through to Week 48.
    Rheumatology (Oxford, England) 05/2010; 49(9):1683-93. · 4.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To assess the safety of biological disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARD) in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients following rituximab. RA patients who participated in an international rituximab clinical trial programme were included. Patients who had received one or more rituximab courses and entered safety follow-up (SFU) were permitted additional biological DMARD. Serious infection events (SIE) were collected. Of 185 of 2578 patients who entered SFU and received another biological DMARD, 88.6% had peripheral B-cell depletion at the time of initiation of another biological agent. Thirteen SIE (6.99 events/100 patient-years) occurred following rituximab but before another biological DMARD and 10 SIE (5.49 events/100 patient-years) occurred following another biological DMARD. SIE were of typical type and severity for RA patients. 153 had received one or more tumour necrosis factor inhibitor(s). No fatal or opportunistic infections occurred. In this analysis, treatment with biological DMARD after rituximab was not associated with an increased serious infection rate. Sample size with limited follow-up restricts definitive conclusions.
    Annals of the rheumatic diseases 11/2009; 68(12):1894-7. · 9.27 Impact Factor
  • Revue du Rhumatisme 11/2007; 74(10):1130-1131.

Publication Stats

191 Citations
49.12 Total Impact Points


  • 2010–2012
    • University of Amsterdam
      • Faculty of Medicine AMC
      Amsterdam, North Holland, Netherlands
  • 2010–2011
    • University of Cologne
      • Department of Internal Medicine
      Köln, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
  • 2009
    • Stanford University
      Palo Alto, California, United States