[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Our objective was to understand the relationship between optimal diabetes control, as defined by Minnesota Community Measurement (MCM), and adverse health outcomes including emergency department (ED) visits, hospitalizations, 30-day rehospitalization, intensive care unit (ICU) stay, and mortality.
In 2009, we conducted a retrospective cohort study of empaneled Employee and Community Health patients with diabetes mellitus. We followed patients from 1 September 2009 until 30 June 2011 for hospitalization and until 5 January 2014 for mortality. Optimal control of diabetes mellitus was defined as achieving the following three measures: low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol <100 mg/mL, blood pressure <140/90 mmHg, and hemoglobin A1c <8%. Using the electronic medical record, we assessed hospitalizations, ED visits, ICU stays, 30-day rehospitalizations, and mortality. The chi-square or Wilcoxon rank-sum tests were used to compare those with and without optimal control. We used Cox proportional hazard models to estimate the associations between optimal diabetes mellitus status and each outcome.
We identified 5,731 empaneled patients with diabetes mellitus; 2,842 (49.6%) were in the optimal control category. After adjustment, we observed that non-optimally controlled patients had higher risks for hospitalization (hazard ratio [HR] 1.11; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.00-1.23), ED visits (HR 1.15; 95% CI 1.06-1.25), and mortality (HR 1.29; 95% CI 1.09-1.53) than diabetic patients with optimal control. No differences were observed in ICU stay or 30-day rehospitalization.
Diabetic patients without optimal control had higher risks of adverse health outcomes than those with optimal control. Patients with optimal control defined by the MCM were associated with decreased morbidity and mortality.
Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy 01/2015; 8:1-8.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Minimally invasive surgery (MIS) is the preferred technique for managing endometrial cancer. Given that uterine serous carcinoma (USC) has a predilection for multiquadrant peritoneal dissemination, our objective was to estimate the potential risk for overlooking occult peritoneal spread with the use of MIS.
A single-institution, retrospective review was conducted of patients who underwent primary surgical staging for endometrial cancer via laparotomy between 1999 and 2008. Patterns of metastases were analyzed to estimate the potential risk for understaging via MIS.
A total of 202 USC cases met inclusion criteria. Pelvic and para-aortic nodes were positive in 59 (36%) of 166 and 43 (31%) of 138, respectively. Stage IVb disease was diagnosed in 77 (38%) of 202 patients. The majority (86%, 66/77) harbored bulky and/or multisite macroscopic abdominal implants. Isolated microscopic peritoneal disease was present in 5 of 77 cases (6% of stage IV, 2% of the entire cohort) but, in all cases, was limited to the omentum; 6 of 77 cases (8% of stage IV, 3% of the cohort) harbored a single implant in the context of a negative omentum but, in all cases, were macroscopic (locations included the ileum, the diaphragm, and the base of the mesentery).
For providers who aim to remove all visible disease in patients with USC, the rate of extrauterine disease escaping detection using MIS is low (<3%) provided an omentectomy is performed together with staging.
International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society. 12/2014;
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To estimate lower extremity lymphedema prevalence in patients surgically treated for endometrial cancer, identify predictors of lymphedema, and evaluate the effects of lymphedema on quality of life.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective
Estimate the overall rates of significant incontinent conduit-related complications and compare rates between conduit types.
This was a retrospective review of 166 patients who underwent incontinent urinary diversion from April 1993 through April 2013.
Patients were categorized by conduit type – ileal, sigmoid colon, and transverse colon. Significant conduit-related complications were assessed at 30 and 90 days after surgery. Significant conduit-related complication was defined as any of the following: ureteral stricture, conduit leak, conduit obstruction, conduit ischemia, ureteral anastomotic leak, stent obstruction requiring intervention via interventional radiology procedure or reoperation, and renal failure.
A total of 166 patients underwent formation of an incontinent urinary conduit, most commonly during exenteration for gynecologic malignancy. There were 129 ileal, 11 transverse colon, and 26 sigmoid conduits. The overall significant conduit-related complication rate within 30 days was 15.1%. Complications rates for ileal, transverse and sigmoid conduits were 14.7%, 0%, and 23.1%, respectively (Fisher’s exact test,p = 0.24). By 90 days, the Kaplan-Meier estimated rates of significant complications were 21.8% overall, and 22.3%, 0%, and 28.9%, respectively, by conduit type (log-rank test,p = 0.19). The most common significant conduit-related complications were conduit or ureteral anastomotic leaks and conduit obstructions. By 1 and 2 years following surgery, the Kaplan-Meier estimated overall rate of significant conduit-related complication increased to 26.5% and 30.1%, respectively.
Our study suggests that there are multiple appropriate tissue sites for use in incontinent conduit formation, and surgical approach should be individualized. Most significant conduit-related complications occur within 90 days after surgery.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To describe the short-term perioperative outcomes and overall survival among women with venous thromboembolism (VTE) at initial epithelial ovarian cancer diagnosis.
Women presenting with VTE within 30 days of epithelial ovarian cancer diagnosis between January 2, 2003, and December 29, 2011, who had primary debulking surgery or primarily managed with neoadjuvant chemotherapy were included. Descriptive statistics and the Kaplan-Meier method were used to estimate overall survival from the time of epithelial ovarian cancer diagnosis with patient characteristics and process-of-care variables retrospectively abstracted.
Of the 37 women with VTE within 30 days before epithelial ovarian cancer diagnosis, 28 (75.7%; mean age 64.2 years) underwent primary debulking surgery and 9 (24.3%; mean age 62.7 years) received neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status was 0-1 in 75% (n=21) of patients undergoing primary debulking surgery compared with 44% (n=4) of patients undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Advanced-stage (III-IV) disease was diagnosed in 71.4% (n=20) of the primary debulking surgery cohort; all patients undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy were presumed advanced. Among those who underwent primary debulking surgery, 26 (92.9%) had a preoperative inferior vena cava filter placed; only one (11.1%) in the neoadjuvant chemotherapy cohort received an inferior vena cava filter. Perioperative bleeding complications were rare in the primary debulking surgery cohort. Within the primary debulking surgery cohort, median overall survival was 2.14 years and median overall survival in the neoadjuvant chemotherapy cohort was 8.8 months ().(Figure is included in full-text article.)
: Despite preoperative VTE, median overall survival was improved among patients undergoing primary debulking surgery; however, poorer overall survival in the neoadjuvant chemotherapy cohort may reflect a worse performance status or higher proportion of advanced cancer. Preoperative VTE in patients with epithelial ovarian cancer can be safely managed with low rates of bleeding complications.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Treatment failures in stage IIIC endometrial carcinoma (EC) are predominantly due to occult extrapelvic metastases (EPM). The impact of chemotherapy on occult EPM was investigated according to grade (G), G1/2EC vs G3EC.
All surgical-stage IIIC EC cases from January 1, 1999, through December 31, 2008, from Mayo Clinic were included. Patient-, disease-, treatment-specific risk factors were assessed for association with overall survival, cause-specific survival, and extrapelvic disease-free survival (DFS) using Cox proportional hazards regression.
109 cases met criteria, with 92 (84%) having systematic lymphadenectomy (>10 pelvic and >5 paraaortic lymph nodes resected). In patients with documented recurrence sites, occult EPM accounted for 88%. Among G1/2EC cases (n=48), the sole independent predictor of extrapelvic DFS was grade 2 histology (hazard ratio [HR], 0.28; 95% CI, 0.08-0.91; P=.03) while receipt of adjuvant chemotherapy approached significance (HR 0.13; 95% CI, 0.02, 1.01); P=.0511). The 5-year extrapelvic DFS with and without adjuvant chemotherapy was 93% and 54%, respectively (log-rank, P=.02). Among G3EC (n=61), the sole independent predictor of extrapelvic DFS was lymphovascular space involvement (HR, 2.63; 95% CI, 1.16-5.97; P=.02). Adjuvant chemotherapy did not affect occult EPM in G3EC; the 5-year extrapelvic DFS for G3EC with and without adjuvant chemotherapy was 43% and 42%, respectively (log-rank, P=.91).
Chemotherapy improves extrapelvic DFS for stage IIIC G1/2EC but not stage IIIC G3EC. Future efforts should focus on prospectively assessing the impact of chemotherapy on DFS in G3EC and developing innovative phase I and II trials of novel systemic therapies for advanced G3EC.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Perioperative packed red blood cell transfusion (PRBCT) has been implicated as a negative prognostic marker in surgical oncology. There is a paucity of evidence on the impact of PRBCT on outcomes in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). We assessed whether PRBCT is an independent risk factor of recurrence and death from EOC.
Perioperative patient characteristics and process-of-care variables (defined by the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program) were retrospectively abstracted from 587 women who underwent primary EOC staging between January 2, 2003, and December 29, 2008. Associations with receipt of PRBCT were evaluated using univariate logistic regression models. The associations between receipt of PRBCT and disease-free survival and overall survival were evaluated using multivariable Cox proportional hazards models and using propensity score matching and stratification, respectively.
The rate of PRBCT was 77.0%. The mean ± SD units transfused was 4.1 ± 3.1 U. In the univariate analysis, receipt of PRBCT was significantly associated with older age, advanced stage (≥IIIA), undergoing splenectomy, higher surgical complexity, serous histologic diagnosis, greater estimated blood loss, longer operating time, the presence of residual disease, and lower preoperative albumin and hemoglobin. Perioperative packed red blood cell transfusion was not associated with an increased risk for recurrence or death, in an analysis adjusting for other risk factors in a multivariable model or in an analysis using propensity score matching or stratification to control for differences between the patients with and without PRBCT.
Perioperative packed red blood cell transfusion does not seem to be directly associated with recurrence and death in EOC. However, lower preoperative hemoglobin was associated with a higher risk for recurrence. The need for PRBCT seems to be a stronger prognostic indicator than the receipt of PRBCT.
International Journal of Gynecological Cancer 11/2013; 23(9):1612-9. · 1.94 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to determine the incidence and the risk factors of venous thromboembolism (VTE) within 30 days after primary surgery for epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC).
In a historical cohort study, we estimated the postoperative 30-day cumulative incidence of VTE among consecutive Mayo Clinic patients undergoing primary cytoreduction for EOC between January 2, 2003, and December 29, 2008. We tested perioperative patient characteristics and process-of-care variables (defined by the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program, >130 variables) as potential predictors of postoperative VTE using the Cox proportional hazards modeling.
Among 569 cases of primary EOC cytoreduction and/or staging and no recent VTE, 35 developed symptomatic VTE within 30 days after surgery (cumulative incidence = 6.5%; 95% confidence interval, 4.4%-8.6%). Within the cohort, 95 (16.7%) received graduated compression stockings (GCSs), 367 (64.5%) had sequential compression devices + GCSs, and 69 (12.1%) had sequential compression devices + GCSs + postoperative heparin, with VTE rates of 1.1%, 7.4%, and 5.8%, respectively (P = 0.07, χ test). The remaining 38 (6.7%) received various other chemical and mechanical prophylaxis regimens. In the multivariate analysis, current or past tobacco smoking, longer hospital stay, and a remote history of VTE significantly increased the risk for postoperative VTE.
Venous thromboembolism is a substantial postoperative complication among women with EOC, and the high cumulative rate of VTE within 30 days after primary surgery suggests that a more aggressive strategy is needed for VTE prevention. In addition, because longer hospital stay is independently associated with a higher risk for VTE, methods to decrease length of stay and minimize factors that contribute to prolonged hospitalization are warranted.
International Journal of Gynecological Cancer 11/2013; 23(9):1684-91. · 1.94 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To study the use of a baseline prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and digital rectal examination in men (aged 40-49 years) in predicting long-term prostate cancer risk in a prospectively followed, representative population cohort.
Since 1990, a random sample of men in Olmsted County (aged 40-49 years) has been followed up prospectively (n = 268), with biennial visits, including a urologic questionnaire, PSA screening, and physical examination. The ensuing risk of prostate cancer (CaP) was compared using survival analyses.
Median follow-up was 16.3 years (interquartile range 14.0-17.3, max 19.1). For men with a baseline PSA <1.0 ng/mL (n = 195), the risk of subsequent Gleason 6 CaP diagnosis by 55 years was 0.6% (95% confidence interval [CI] 0%-1.7%) and 15.7% (95% CI 6.5%-24.9%) for men with a baseline PSA ≥1.0 ng/mL. No man with a low baseline PSA developed an intermediate or high risk CaP, whereas 2.6% of men with a higher baseline PSA did (95% CI 0.58%-4.6%).
Men (aged 40-49 years) can be stratified with a baseline PSA. If it is below 1.0 ng/mL, there is very little risk for developing a lethal CaP, and as many as 75% of men might be able to avoid additional PSA screening until 55 years. Conversely, men aged 40-49 years with a baseline PSA level >1.0 ng/mL had a significant risk of CaP diagnosis and should be monitored more closely.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To prospectively define the prevalence of lymph node metastasis (LNM) in at risk endometrial cancer (EC).
From 2004-2008, frozen section based Mayo Criteria prospectively identified patients "not at-risk" of LNM (30% EC population; grade I/II, <50% myometrial invasion and tumor diameter ≤2cm) where lymphadenectomy was not recommended. The remaining 70% EC cohort was considered "at-risk" of LNM; where a systematic pelvic and infrarenal paraaortic lymphadenectomy was recommended. Patients were prospectively followed. The area between renal vein and inferior mesenteric artery (IMA) was labeled as high paraaortic area. For calculating the prevalence of LNM in high paraaortic area, the denominator was the population with known anatomic location of nodal tissue in relation to the IMA.
Of the 742 patients, 514 were at risk; of which 89% underwent recommended lymphadenectomy. A mean (± standard deviation) of 36 (±14) pelvic and 18 (±9) paraaortic nodes were harvested. The prevalence of pelvic and paraaortic LNM was 17% and 12%, respectively. In presence of pelvic LNM, 51% had paraaortic LNM. In absence of pelvic LNM, 3% had paraaortic LNM; of which 67% were located exclusively in high paraaortic area. Among patients with paraaortic LNM, 88% had high paraaortic LNM; and 35% had only high paraaortic LNM. The cases of paraaortic LNM with negative pelvic nodes seemed to cluster in moderate to high grade endometrioid EC with ≥50% myometrial invasion.
We present reference data for the prevalence of LNM in at-risk EC patients to guide lymphadenectomy decisions for clinical and research purposes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To develop a risk-scoring system (RSS) for the prediction of lymphatic dissemination after hysterectomy in endometrioid endometrial carcinoma (EC).
Patients who underwent surgery from 1/1/1999-12/31/2008 were evaluated. Patients with non-endometrioid histology, stage IV with macroscopic extrauterine disease, or receiving adjuvant therapy (excluding brachytherapy) without pelvic and/or paraaortic (P/PA) lymphadenectomy (LND) were excluded. Lymph node dissemination was defined as nodal metastasis when P/PA LND was performed or P/PA lymph node recurrence after negative LND or when LND was not performed. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify predictors for lymphatic dissemination and develop a RSS and nomogram. The RSS was assessed for calibration and verified for discrimination.
Overall, 883 patients were assessed of which 521 (59.0%) underwent P/PA LND and 57 (10.9%) had positive lymph nodes. Of patients who did not undergo P/PA LND (N=362) or had negative nodes (N=464), 10 (1.2%) patients had P/PA lymph node recurrence. Myometrial invasion, tumor diameter (TD), FIGO grade, cervical stromal invasion and lymphovascular space invasion were significant on univariable analysis. All preceding variables were included in a multivariable logistic model. A parsimonious model and an alternative full model not including TD were considered. The full model with TD (illustrated in nomogram) had the highest predictive ability (concordance index 0.88).
Our RSS allows accurate quantification of the probability of lymphatic dissemination and can be used as an adjunct to clinical decision-making after hysterectomy in the absence of staging. TD is an important component of the RSS and should be routinely assessed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Identification of preoperative factors predictive of non-home discharge after surgery for epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) may aid counseling and optimize discharge planning. We aimed to determine the association between preoperative risk factors and non-home discharge.
Patients who underwent primary surgery for EOC at Mayo Clinic between January 2, 2003 and December 29, 2008 were included. Demographic, preoperative, and intraoperative factors were retrospectively abstracted. Logistic regression models were fit to identify preoperative factors associated with non-home discharge. Multivariable models were developed using stepwise and backward variable selection. A risk-scoring system was developed for use in preoperative counseling.
Within our cohort of 587 EOC patients, 12.8% were not discharged home (61 went to a skilled nursing facility, 1 to a rehabilitation facility, 1 to hospice, and there were 12 in-hospital deaths). Median length of stay was 7 days (interquartile range [IQR] 5, 10 days) for patients dismissed home compared with 11 days (IQR 7, 17 days) for those with non-home dismissals (p < 0.001). In multivariable analyses, patients with advanced age (odds ratio [OR] 3.75 95% CI [2.57, 5.48], p < 0.001), worse Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status (OR 0.92 [95% CI 0.43, 1.97] for ECOG performance status 1 vs 0 and OR 5.40 (95% CI 2.42, 12.03) for score of 2+ vs 0; p < 0.001), greater American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score (OR 2.03 [95% CI 1.02, 4.04] for score ≥3 vs < 3, p = 0.04), and higher CA-125 (OR 1.28 [95% CI 1.12, 1.46], p < 0.001) were less likely to be discharged home. The unbiased estimate of the c-index was excellent at 0.88, and the model had excellent calibration.
Identification of preoperative factors associated with non-home discharge can assist patient counseling and postoperative disposition planning.
Journal of the American College of Surgeons 06/2013; · 4.45 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To describe the age and sex patterns of drug prescribing in Olmsted County, Minnesota.
Population-based drug prescription records for the Olmsted County population in 2009 were obtained using the Rochester Epidemiology Project medical records linkage system (n=142,377). Drug prescriptions were classified using RxNorm codes and were grouped using the National Drug File-Reference Terminology.
Overall, 68.1% of the population (n=96,953) received a prescription from at least 1 drug group, 51.6% (n=73,501) received prescriptions from 2 or more groups, and 21.2% (n=30,218) received prescriptions from 5 or more groups. The most commonly prescribed drug groups in the entire population were penicillins and β-lactam antimicrobials (17%; n=23,734), antidepressants (13%; n=18,028), opioid analgesics (12%; n=16,954), antilipemic agents (11%; n=16,082), and vaccines/toxoids (11%; n=15,918). However, prescribing patterns differed by age and sex. Vaccines/toxoids, penicillins and β-lactam antimicrobials, and antiasthmatic drugs were most commonly prescribed in persons younger than 19 years. Antidepressants and opioid analgesics were most commonly prescribed in young and middle-aged adults. Cardiovascular drugs were most commonly prescribed in older adults. Women received more prescriptions than men for several drug groups, in particular for antidepressants. For several drug groups, use increased with advancing age.
This study provides valuable baseline information for future studies of drug utilization and drug-related outcomes in this population.
Mayo Clinic Proceedings 06/2013; · 5.79 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: Preoperative thrombocytosis has been implicated as a negative prognostic marker for epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). We assessed whether thrombocytosis is an independent risk factor for EOC recurrence and death. METHODS: Perioperative patient characteristics and process-of-care variables (National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP)-defined) were retrospectively abstracted from 587 women who underwent EOC staging between 1/2/03-12/29/08. Thrombocytosis was defined as platelet count >450 x 10(9)/L. Disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) were determined using Kaplan-Meier methods. Associations were evaluated with Cox proportional hazards regression and hazard ratios (HR). RESULTS: The incidence of preoperative thrombocytosis was 22.3%. DFS was 70.8% and 36.0% at 1 and 3years. OS was 83.3% and 54.3% at 1 and 3years. Ascites, lower hemoglobin, advanced disease, and receipt of perioperative packed red blood cell transfusion were independently associated with thrombocytosis. Older age and the presence of coronary artery disease were associated with lower likelihood of thrombocytosis. Overall, thrombocytosis was an independent predictor of increased risk of recurrence. Among early stage (I/II) cases, there was a 5-fold increase in the risk of death and nearly 8-fold risk of disease recurrence independently associated with thrombocytosis. CONCLUSION: Preoperative thrombocytosis portends worse DFS in EOC. In early stage disease, thrombocytosis is a potent predictor of worse DFS and OS and further assessment of the impact of circulating platelet-derived factors on EOC survival is warranted. Thrombocytosis is also associated with extensive initial disease burden, measurable residual disease, and postoperative sequelae. Preoperative platelet levels may have value in primary cytoreduction counseling.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: Paraaortic lymph node (PA) dissemination in endometrial cancer (EC) is uncommon and a systematic infrarenal PA dissection carries morbidity. Our objective was to identify a subgroup of EC patients who may potentially forego PA lymphadenectomy (LND). METHODS: The study endpoint (PA Metastasis or Recurrence; PAMR) was defined as detection of metastasis to PA nodes (among those with any type of PA LND) or PA recurrence within 2 years (among patients without PA LND or those with negative nodes in the context of an inadequate (<5 nodes) PA LND). Patients with non-endometrioid histology, stage IV disease, synchronous cancers, gross extrauterine or gross adnexal disease, neoadjuvant therapy, or insufficient follow-up were excluded. Multivariable logistic regression analysis identified predictors of PAMR. RESULTS: Of the 946 patients, PAMR was observed in 4% (36/946). Multivariable analysis identified positive pelvic nodes (odds ratio (OR) 24.2; p<0.001), >50% MI (OR 5.3; p<0.001) and lymphovascular space invasion (LVSI) (OR 3.7; p=0.005) as the only three independent predictors of PAMR. When all three factors were absent (77% of study cohort), the predicted probability of PAMR was 0.6%. If intraoperative frozen section is not available on pelvic lymph nodes and LVSI, omitting PA LND in all patients with ≤50% MI would affect 84% (792/946) of the total cohort, with a 1.1% risk of PAMR (9/792). CONCLUSION: The majority of patients with endometrioid EC may potentially forgo PA LND with expected reductions in surgical morbidity and cost. This cohort may be identified by a combined absence of: positive pelvic nodes, >50% MI and LVSI.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: Technological advances in surgical management of endometrial cancer (EC) may allow for novel risk modification in surgical site infection (SSI). METHODS: Perioperative variables were abstracted from EC cases surgically staged between January 1, 1999, and December 31, 2008. Primary outcome was SSI, as defined by American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program. Counseling and global models were built to assess perioperative predictors of superficial incisional SSI and organ/space SSI. Thirty-day cost of SSI was calculated. RESULTS: Among 1,369 EC patients, 136 (9.9%) had SSI. In the counseling model, significant predictors of superficial incisional SSI were obesity, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score >2, preoperative anemia (hematocrit <36%), and laparotomy. In the global model, significant predictors of superficial incisional SSI were obesity, ASA score >2, smoking, laparotomy, and intraoperative transfusion. Counseling model predictors of organ/space SSI were older age, smoking, preoperative glucose >110 mg/dL, and prior methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection. Global predictors of organ/space SSI were older age, smoking, vascular disease, prior MRSA infection, greater estimated blood loss, and lymphadenectomy or bowel resection. SSI resulted in a $5,447 median increase in 30-day cost. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings are useful to individualize preoperative risk counseling. Hyperglycemia and smoking are modifiable, and minimally invasive surgical approaches should be the preferred surgical route because they decrease SSI events. Judicious use of lymphadenectomy may decrease SSI. Thirty-day postoperative costs are considerably increased when SSI occurs.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To assess effects of clinicopathologic risk factors and contemporary therapeutic interventions on high-risk uterine epithelial carcinoma outcomes. METHODS: Patient-, disease-, and treatment-specific variables were annotated. Survival was estimated via the Kaplan-Meier method. Associations were evaluated with Cox proportional hazards regression and summarized using hazard ratios. RESULTS: From 1999 through 2008, therapy with curative intent was initiated for 119 grade 3 endometrioid (G3EC), 211 serous (USC), and 40 clear cell (CCC) carcinomas. Although clinicopathologic risk factors varied among the histologic subtypes, overall survival (OS) did not differ statistically between subtypes (P=.10) or in stage-for-stage comparative analyses (stage I/II, P=.45; stage III, P=.46; stage IV, P=.65). The 5-year cause-specific survival in stage I/II was 84.8%, 89.8%, and 83.9% for G3EC, USC, and CCC, respectively; multivariable modeling identified lymphovascular space involvement (LVSI) as the only independent prognostic factor (P=.02). For stage III, 5-year OS was 49.2% and 40.0% for G3EC and USC, respectively; multivariable modeling identified age (P<.001), LVSI (P<.001), unresectable nodal disease (P=.03), and regional radiotherapy (P=.01) as independent prognostic factors. For stage IV, 5-year OS was 8.7% and 12.1% for G3EC and USC, respectively; multivariable modeling identified LVSI (P=.002), cervical stromal invasion (P=.02), and adjuvant chemotherapy (P=.02) but not residual disease as independent prognostic factors. CONCLUSIONS: When controlled for disease stage, outcomes did not differ among high-risk histologic subtypes. LVSI was a significant adverse prognostic factor within all stages. The lack of improved outcomes with contemporary therapy suggests that more innovative therapeutic approaches should be given higher priority.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) are common and have been associated with the subsequent diagnosis of prostate cancer (PCa) in population cohorts. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the association between LUTS and PCa is due to the intensity of PCa testing after LUTS diagnosis. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: We prospectively followed a representative, population-based cohort of 1922 men, aged 40-79 yr, from 1990 until 2010 with interviews, questionnaires, and abstracting of medical records for prostate outcomes. Men were excluded if they had a previous prostate biopsy or PCa diagnosis. Self-reported LUTS was defined as an American Urological Association symptom index score >7 (n=621). Men treated for LUTS (n=168) were identified from review of medical records and/or self report. Median follow-up was 11.8 yr (interquartile range: 10.7-12.3). OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Associations between self-reported LUTS, or treatment for LUTS, and risk of subsequent prostate biopsy and PCa were estimated using Cox proportional hazard models. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: Fifty-five percent of eligible men enrolled in the study. Men treated for LUTS were more likely to undergo a prostate biopsy (hazard ratio [HR]: 2.4; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.7-3.3). Men younger than 65 yr who were treated for LUTS were more likely to be diagnosed with PCa (HR: 2.3, 95% CI, 1.5-3.5), while men aged >65 yr were not (HR: 0.89, 95% CI, 0.35-1.9). Men with self-reported LUTS were not more likely to be biopsied or diagnosed with PCa. Neither definition of LUTS was associated with subsequent intermediate- to high-risk cancer. The study is limited by lack of histologic or prostate-specific antigen level data for the cohort. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that a possible cause of the association between LUTS and PCa is increased diagnostic intensity among men whose LUTS come to the attention of physicians. Increased symptoms themselves were not associated with intensity of testing or diagnosis.