Rachel A Ridgway

Beatson Institute for Cancer Research, Glasgow, Scotland, United Kingdom

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Publications (36)497.36 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: EphB receptors regulate the proliferation and positioning of intestinal stem and progenitor cells. In addition, they can act as tumor promoters for adenoma development but suppress progression to invasive carcinoma. We used imatinib to abrogate Abl kinase activity in Apc(Min/+) mice and in mice with LGR5(+) stem cells that were genetically engineered to develop adenomatous polyposis coli. Imatinib treatment inhibited the tumor-promoting effects of EphB signaling without attenuating EphB-mediated tumor suppression, demonstrating a role for EphB signaling in the initiation of intestinal tumors. The imatinib treatment regimen extended the life span of Apc(Min/+) mice and reduced cell proliferation in cultured slices of adenomas from patients with familial adenomatous polyposis. These findings connect the EphB signaling pathway to the regulation of intestinal adenoma initiation via Abl kinase. Our findings may have clinical implications for pharmacological therapy against adenoma formation and cancer progression in patients predisposed to develop colorectal cancer. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.
    Science translational medicine 04/2015; 7(281):281ra44. DOI:10.1126/scitranslmed.3010567 · 14.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cholangiocarcinoma (CC) is typically diagnosed at an advanced stage and is refractory to surgical intervention and chemotherapy. Despite a global increase in the incidence of CC, little progress has been made toward the development of treatments for this cancer. Here we utilized human tissue; CC cell xenografts; a p53-deficient transgenic mouse model; and a non-transgenic, chemically induced rat model of CC that accurately reflects both the inflammatory and regenerative background associated with human CC pathology. Using these systems, we determined that the WNT pathway is highly activated in CCs and that inflammatory macrophages are required to establish this WNT-high state in vivo. Moreover, depletion of macrophages or inhibition of WNT signaling with one of two small molecule WNT inhibitors in mouse and rat CC models markedly reduced CC proliferation and increased apoptosis, resulting in tumor regression. Together, these results demonstrate that enhanced WNT signaling is a characteristic of CC and suggest that targeting WNT signaling pathways has potential as a therapeutic strategy for CC.
    Journal of Clinical Investigation 02/2015; DOI:10.1172/JCI76452 · 13.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Inactivation of APC is a strongly predisposing event in the development of colorectal cancer, prompting the search for vulnerabilities specific to cells that have lost APC function. Signalling through the mTOR pathway is known to be required for epithelial cell proliferation and tumour growth, and the current paradigm suggests that a critical function of mTOR activity is to upregulate translational initiation through phosphorylation of 4EBP1 (refs 6, 7). This model predicts that the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin, which does not efficiently inhibit 4EBP1 (ref. 8), would be ineffective in limiting cancer progression in APC-deficient lesions. Here we show in mice that mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) activity is absolutely required for the proliferation of Apc-deficient (but not wild-type) enterocytes, revealing an unexpected opportunity for therapeutic intervention. Although APC-deficient cells show the expected increases in protein synthesis, our study reveals that it is translation elongation, and not initiation, which is the rate-limiting component. Mechanistically, mTORC1-mediated inhibition of eEF2 kinase is required for the proliferation of APC-deficient cells. Importantly, treatment of established APC-deficient adenomas with rapamycin (which can target eEF2 through the mTORC1-S6K-eEF2K axis) causes tumour cells to undergo growth arrest and differentiation. Taken together, our data suggest that inhibition of translation elongation using existing, clinically approved drugs, such as the rapalogs, would provide clear therapeutic benefit for patients at high risk of developing colorectal cancer.
    Nature 11/2014; DOI:10.1038/nature13896 · 42.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although somatic mutations and overexpression of the tyrosine kinase Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor 3 (FGFR3) are strongly associated with bladder cancer, evidence for their functional involvement in the pathogenesis remains elusive. Previously we showed that activation of Fgfr3 alone is not sufficient to initiate urothelial tumourigenesis in mice. Here we hypothesise that cooperating mutations are required for Fgfr3-dependent tumourigenesis in the urothelium and analyse a mouse model in which an inhibitor of Pi3k-Akt signalling, Pten, is deleted in concert with Fgfr3 activation (UroIICreFgfr3(+/) (K644E) Pten(flox) (/flox) ). Two main phonotypical characteristics observed in the urothelium were increased urothelial thickness and abnormal cellular histopathology, including vacuolisation, condensed cellular appearance, enlargement of cells and nuclei, and loss of polarity. These changes were not observed when either mutation was present individually. Expression patterns of known urothelial proteins indicated the abnormal cellular differentiation. Furthermore, quantitative analysis showed that Fgfr3 and Pten mutations cooperatively caused cellular enlargement, while Pten contributed to an increased cell proliferation. Finally, FGFR3 overexpression was analysed along the level of phosphorylated mTOR in sixty-six T1 urothelial tumours in tissue microarray, which supported the occurrence of functional association of these two signalling pathways in urothelial pathogenesis. Taken together, this study provides evidence supporting a functional role of FGFR3 in the process of pathogenesis in urothelial neoplasm. Given the wide availability of inhibitors specific to FGF signalling pathways, our model may open the avenue for FGFR3-targeted translation in urothelial disease.
    The Journal of Pathology 06/2014; 233(2). DOI:10.1002/path.4334 · 7.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The loss of Apc, causing Wnt-mediated epithelial proliferation, is an early event in colorectal cancer (CRC) development. This hyperproliferative state requires signalling though the mTOR pathway, with the current paradigm suggesting that upregulation of translation initiation via phosphorylation of 4EBP1 is crucial. This model predicts that the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin, which does not efficiently inhibit 4EBP1 function, would be ineffective in limiting development and progression of intestinal adenomas.
    Gut 06/2014; 63(Suppl 1):A130-A131. DOI:10.1136/gutjnl-2014-307263.281 · 13.32 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: MicroRNA deregulation is frequent in human colorectal cancers (CRCs), but little is known as to whether it represents a bystander event or actually drives tumor progression in vivo. We show that miR-135b overexpression is triggered in mice and humans by APC loss, PTEN/PI3K pathway deregulation, and SRC overexpression and promotes tumor transformation and progression. We show that miR-135b upregulation is common in sporadic and inflammatory bowel disease-associated human CRCs and correlates with tumor stage and poor clinical outcome. Inhibition of miR-135b in CRC mouse models reduces tumor growth by controlling genes involved in proliferation, invasion, and apoptosis. We identify miR-135b as a key downsteam effector of oncogenic pathways and a potential target for CRC treatment.
    Cancer cell 04/2014; 25(4):469-83. DOI:10.1016/j.ccr.2014.03.006 · 23.89 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Self-renewal is essential for multicellular organisms but carries the risk of somatic mutations that can lead to cancer, which is particularly critical for rapidly renewing tissues in a highly mutagenic environment such as the intestinal epithelium. Using computational modeling and in vivo experimentation, we have analyzed how adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) mutations and β-catenin aberrations affect the maintenance of mutant cells in colonic crypts. The increasing abundance of APC along the crypt axis forms a gradient of cellular adhesion that causes more proliferative cells to accelerate their movement toward the top of the crypt, where they are shed into the lumen. Thus, the normal crypt can efficiently eliminate β-catenin mutant cells, whereas APC mutations favor retention. Together, the molecular design of the APC/β-catenin signaling network integrates cell proliferation and migration dynamics to translate intracellular signal processing and protein gradients along the crypt into intercellular interactions and whole-crypt physiological or pathological behavior.
    Cell Reports 03/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.celrep.2014.02.043 · 7.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recent studies have suggested that C-MYC may be an excellent therapeutic cancer target and a number of new agents targeting C-MYC are in preclinical development. Given most therapeutic regimes would combine C-MYC inhibition with genotoxic damage, it is important to assess the importance of C-MYC function for DNA damage signalling in vivo. In this study, we have conditionally deleted the c-Myc gene in the adult murine intestine and investigated the apoptotic response of intestinal enterocytes to DNA damage. Remarkably, c-Myc deletion completely abrogated the immediate wave of apoptosis following both ionizing irradiation and cisplatin treatment, recapitulating the phenotype of p53 deficiency in the intestine. Consistent with this, c-Myc-deficient intestinal enterocytes did not upregulate p53. Mechanistically, this was linked to an upregulation of the E3 Ubiquitin ligase Mdm2, which targets p53 for degradation in c-Myc-deficient intestinal enterocytes. Further, low level overexpression of c-Myc, which does not impact on basal levels of apoptosis, elicited sustained apoptosis in response to DNA damage, suggesting c-Myc activity acts as a crucial cell survival rheostat following DNA damage. We also identify the importance of MYC during DNA damage-induced apoptosis in several other tissues, including the thymus and spleen, using systemic deletion of c-Myc throughout the adult mouse. Together, we have elucidated for the first time in vivo an essential role for endogenous c-Myc in signalling DNA damage-induced apoptosis through the control of the p53 tumour suppressor protein.Cell Death and Differentiation advance online publication, 28 February 2014; doi:10.1038/cdd.2014.15.
    Cell death and differentiation 02/2014; DOI:10.1038/cdd.2014.15 · 8.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The non-receptor tyrosine kinase c-Src, hereafter referred to as Src, is overexpressed or activated in multiple human malignancies. There has been much speculation about the functional role of Src in colorectal cancer (CRC), with Src amplification and potential activating mutations in up to 20% of the human tumours, although this has never been addressed due to multiple redundant family members. Here, we have used the adult Drosophila and mouse intestinal epithelium as paradigms to define a role for Src during tissue homeostasis, damage-induced regeneration and hyperplasia. Through genetic gain and loss of function experiments, we demonstrate that Src is necessary and sufficient to drive intestinal stem cell (ISC) proliferation during tissue self-renewal, regeneration and tumourigenesis. Surprisingly, Src plays a non-redundant role in the mouse intestine, which cannot be substituted by the other family kinases Fyn and Yes. Mechanistically, we show that Src drives ISC proliferation through upregulation of EGFR and activation of Ras/MAPK and Stat3 signalling. Therefore, we demonstrate a novel essential role for Src in intestinal stem/progenitor cell proliferation and tumourigenesis initiation in vivo.
    The EMBO Journal 01/2014; DOI:10.1002/embj.201387454 · 10.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: eLife digest The main function of the kidney is to filter blood to remove waste and regulate the amount of water and salt in the body. Structures in the kidney—called nephrons—do much of this work and blood is filtered in a part of each nephron called the glomerulus. The substances filtered out of the blood move into a series of ‘tubules’, another part of the nephrons, from where water and soluble substances are reabsorbed or excreted as the body requires. If the nephrons do not work correctly, it can lead to a wide range of health problems—from abnormal water and salt loss to dangerously high blood pressure. For organs and tissues to develop in an embryo, signalling pathways help cells to communicate with each other. These pathways control what type of cells the embryonic cells become and also help neighbouring cells work together to form specialised structures with particular functions. Much is unknown about how the nephron develops, including how its different structures coordinate their development with each other so that they form in the right position in the nephron. A protein called beta-catenin was already known to play an important role in the signalling pathways that trigger the earliest stages of nephron formation. Lindström et al. further investigated how this protein helps the nephron to develop by using a wide range of techniques, including growing genetically altered mouse kidneys in culture and capturing images of the developing nephrons with time-lapse microscopy. The combined results reveal that the levels of beta-catenin activity coordinate the development of the different structures in the nephron. The beta-catenin protein is not equally active in all parts of the nephron; instead, it forms a gradient of different activity levels. The highest levels of beta-catenin activity occur in the tubules at the furthest end of the developing nephron; this activity gradually decreases along the length of the nephron, and the glomerulus itself lacks beta-catenin activity altogether. Experimentally manipulating the levels of beta-catenin at different points along the nephron caused those cells to take on the wrong identity, causing parts of the nephron to form in the wrong place. Lindström et al. were also able to establish that the signalling pathway controlled by beta-catenin activity interacts with three other well-known signalling pathways as part of a network that controls nephron development. More research is required to find out which signal activates beta-catenin in the first place and from where in the kidney this signal comes. It also remains to be discovered how a particular cell in the tubule interprets the exact activities of the different signals to give the cell its specific identity for that place in the nephron. A better understanding of these sorts of processes will eventually help build new kidneys for people with kidney failure. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.04000.002
    eLife Sciences 01/2014; 4. DOI:10.7554/eLife.04000 · 8.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Macroautophagy (hereafter referred to as autophagy) is a process in which organelles termed autophagosomes deliver cytoplasmic constituents to lysosomes for degradation. Autophagy has a major role in cellular homeostasis and has been implicated in various forms of human disease. The role of autophagy in cancer seems to be complex, with reports indicating both pro-tumorigenic and tumour-suppressive roles. Here we show, in a humanized genetically-modified mouse model of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), that autophagy's role in tumour development is intrinsically connected to the status of the tumour suppressor p53. Mice with pancreases containing an activated oncogenic allele of Kras (also called Ki-Ras)-the most common mutational event in PDAC-develop a small number of pre-cancerous lesions that stochastically develop into PDAC over time. However, mice also lacking the essential autophagy genes Atg5 or Atg7 accumulate low-grade, pre-malignant pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia lesions, but progression to high-grade pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasias and PDAC is blocked. In marked contrast, in mice containing oncogenic Kras and lacking p53, loss of autophagy no longer blocks tumour progression, but actually accelerates tumour onset, with metabolic analysis revealing enhanced glucose uptake and enrichment of anabolic pathways, which can fuel tumour growth. These findings provide considerable insight into the role of autophagy in cancer and have important implications for autophagy inhibition in cancer therapy. In this regard, we also show that treatment of mice with the autophagy inhibitor hydroxychloroquine, which is currently being used in several clinical trials, significantly accelerates tumour formation in mice containing oncogenic Kras but lacking p53.
    Nature 12/2013; DOI:10.1038/nature12865 · 42.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Regulation of metabolic pathways plays an important role in controlling cell growth, proliferation, and survival. TIGAR acts as a fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase, potentially promoting the pentose phosphate pathway to produce NADPH for antioxidant function and ribose-5-phosphate for nucleotide synthesis. The functions of TIGAR were dispensable for normal growth and development in mice but played a key role in allowing intestinal regeneration in vivo and in ex vivo cultures, where growth defects due to lack of TIGAR were rescued by ROS scavengers and nucleosides. In a mouse intestinal adenoma model, TIGAR deficiency decreased tumor burden and increased survival, while elevated expression of TIGAR in human colon tumors suggested that deregulated TIGAR supports cancer progression. Our study demonstrates the importance of TIGAR in regulating metabolism for regeneration and cancer development and identifies TIGAR as a potential therapeutic target in diseases such as ulcerative colitis and intestinal cancer.
    Developmental Cell 05/2013; 25(5). DOI:10.1016/j.devcel.2013.05.001 · 10.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Adenomatous Polyposis Coli (APC) gene is mutated in the majority of colorectal cancers (CRCs). Loss of APC leads to constitutively active WNT signaling, hyperproliferation, and tumorigenesis. Identification of pathways that facilitate tumorigenesis after APC loss is important for therapeutic development. Here, we show that RAC1 is a critical mediator of tumorigenesis after APC loss. We find that RAC1 is required for expansion of the LGR5 intestinal stem cell (ISC) signature, progenitor hyperproliferation, and transformation. Mechanistically, RAC1-driven ROS and NF-κB signaling mediate these processes. Together, these data highlight that ROS production and NF-κB activation triggered by RAC1 are critical events in CRC initiation.
    Cell stem cell 05/2013; 12(6). DOI:10.1016/j.stem.2013.04.006 · 22.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Tissue progenitor cells are an attractive target for regenerative therapy. In various organs, bone marrow cell (BMC) therapy has shown promising preliminary results, but to date no definite mechanism has been demonstrated to account for the observed benefit in organ regeneration. Tissue injury and regeneration is invariably accompanied by macrophage infiltration, but their influence upon the progenitor cells is incompletely understood, and direct signaling pathways may be obscured by the multiple roles of macrophages during organ injury. We therefore examined a model without injury; a single i.v. injection of unfractionated BMCs in healthy mice. This induced ductular reactions (DRs) in healthy mice. We demonstrate that macrophages within the unfractionated BMCs are responsible for the production of DRs, engrafting in the recipient liver and localizing to the DRs. Engrafted macrophages produce the cytokine TWEAK (TNF-like weak inducer of apoptosis) in situ. We go on to show that recombinant TWEAK activates DRs and that BMC mediated DRs are TWEAK dependent. DRs are accompanied by liver growth, occur in the absence of liver tissue injury and hepatic progenitor cells can be isolated from the livers of mice with DRs. Overall these results reveal a hitherto undescribed mechanism linking macrophage infiltration to DRs in the liver and highlight a rationale for macrophage derived cell therapy in regenerative medicine.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 04/2013; 110(16). DOI:10.1073/pnas.1302168110 · 9.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Insufficient regeneration of the adult liver is believed to cause failure to recover from severe liver disease. An undifferentiated cell population with stem-cell-like qualities known as hepatic progenitor cells (HPCs) is hypothesised to have a central role in regeneration of the adult liver during massive or chronic liver disease. Stem cells in other organ systems are believed to reside in a specialised microenvironment or niche that supports their maintenance and function. The existence of a hepatic stem cell niche might provide a means of therapeutically manipulating endogenous HPCs in vivo as a regenerative therapy.To investigate the physiological potential of HPCs to regenerate the mammalian liver, we have established a novel model of hepatocellular injury and HPC activation using genetic manipulation of hepatocytes. After hepatocyte senescence and death in this model (AhCre Mdm2flox), HPCs expand and bring about the complete regeneration of the liver parenchyma.We demonstrate that a stereotypical niche, consisting partly of macrophages, exists in both animal models and correlating human disease. Using cell tracking, we show active recruitment of extrahepatic macrophages into this niche during injury. In health, intravenous injection of macrophages results in macrophage engraftment to the liver niche, with subsequent HPC activation and changes to liver structure and function.Within the niche, macrophages use paracrine signalling to control both HPC proliferation and cell fate via TWEAK (tumour-necrosis-factor-like weak inducer of apoptosis) and the Wnt signalling pathway, respectively. After hepatocellular injury, macrophages ingest hepatocyte debris, and release Wnt which promotes HPC differentiation into hepatocytes. TWEAK is vital for HPC proliferation in the AhCre Mdm2flox model of regeneration. Here, the absence of TWEAK signalling results in liver failure and mortality.This work has demonstrated for the first time the ability of a solid organ to fully regenerate in the adult mammal from progenitor cells, and additionally highlights mechanisms by which this process can be modulated by either small molecule or cell therapy.FundingUniversity of Edinburgh.
    The Lancet 02/2013; 381:S23. DOI:10.1016/S0140-6736(13)60463-8 · 39.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Within the intestinal epithelium, c-Myc has been characterized as a target of β-catenin-TCF signalling (He et al., Science 281:1509-1512, 1998). Given the most commonly mutated tumor suppressor gene within colorectal cancer (CRC) is the APC (Adenomatous Polyposis Coli) gene, a negative regulator of β-catenin-TCF signalling (Korinek et al., Science 275:1784-1787, 1997), loss of APC leads to Myc deregulation in the vast majority of CRC. This probably explains the numerous studies investigating c-Myc function within the intestinal epithelium. These have shown that c-Myc inhibition or deletion in the adult intestine results in proliferative defects (Muncan et al., Mol Cell Biol 26:8418-8426, 2006; Soucek et al., Nature 455:679-683, 2008). Importantly, intestinal enterocytes are able to survive in the absence of c-Myc which has allowed us (and others) to test the role of c-Myc in intestinal regeneration and tumorigenesis. Remarkably c-Myc deletion suppresses all the phenotypes of the Apc tumor suppressor gene loss and stops intestinal regeneration (Ashton et al., Dev Cell 19:259-269, 2010; Sansom et al., Oncogene 29:2585-2590, 2007). This suggests a clear therapeutic rationale for targeting c-Myc in CRC. Moreover haploinsufficiency for c-Myc in this tissue also reduces intestinal tumorigenesis (Athineos and Sansom, Oncogene 29:2585-2590, 2010; Yekkala and Baudino, Mol Cancer Res 5:1296-1303, 2007), and overexpression of c-Myc affects tissue homeostasis (Finch et al., Mol Cell Biol 29:5306-5315, 2009; Murphy et al., Cancer Cell 14:447-457, 2008).In this chapter we will provide an overview of our current laboratory protocols to characterize c-Myc function in intestinal homeostasis, regeneration, and tumorigenesis in vivo and in vitro.
    Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.) 01/2013; 1012:237-48. DOI:10.1007/978-1-62703-429-6_16 · 1.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is a non-receptor tyrosine kinase that integrates signals downstream of integrin and growth factor activation. Previously, we have shown that skin-specific loss of fak prevents chemically induced skin carcinogenesis in mice following phorbol ester treatment. In this study, we show that skin-specific deletion of fak prevents mobilization of stem cells within the bulge region of the hair follicle, which are the precursors of papillomas following phorbol ester treatment. We also show that phorbol ester treatment results in activation of-catenin within the skin and that FAK is required for β-catenin-induced stem cell mobilization. In addition, inhibition of Src kinase activity, a major binding partner of FAK also prevents stem cell mobilization. We show that FAK is required for the nuclear localization of β-catenin in the skin following phorbol ester treatment and the transcriptional activation of the β-catenin target gene c-Myc. This provides the first evidence of cross-talk between integrin and Wnt signalling pathways in the control of epidermal stem cells and the early events associated with skin carcinogenesis.
    Carcinogenesis 09/2012; DOI:10.1093/carcin/bgs284 · 5.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: It is clear from epidemiological studies that excess iron is associated with increased risk of colorectal cancer; however, questions regarding the mechanism of how iron increases cancer risk, the source of the excess iron (circulating or luminal), and whether iron reduction represents a potential therapeutic option remain unanswered. In this study, we show that after Apc deletion, the cellular iron acquisition proteins TfR1 and DMT1 are rapidly induced. Conversely, restoration of APC reduces cellular iron due to repression of these proteins. To test the functional importance of these findings, we performed in vivo investigations of the impact of iron levels on intestinal tumorigenesis. Strikingly, depletion of luminal (but not systemic) iron strongly suppressed murine intestinal tumorigenesis, whereas increased luminal iron strongly promoted tumorigenesis. Taken together, our data definitively delineate iron as a potent modifier of intestinal tumorigenesis and have important implications for dietary iron supplementation in patients at high risk of colorectal cancer.
    Cell Reports 08/2012; 2(2):270-82. DOI:10.1016/j.celrep.2012.07.003 · 7.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A role for WNT signalling in gastric carcinogenesis has been suggested due to two major observations. First, patients with germline mutations in adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) are susceptible to stomach polyps and second, in gastric cancer, WNT activation confers a poor prognosis. However, the functional significance of deregulated WNT signalling in gastric homoeostasis and cancer is still unclear. In this study we have addressed this by investigating the immediate effects of WNT signalling activation within the stomach epithelium. We have specifically activated the WNT signalling pathway within the mouse adult gastric epithelium via deletion of either glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) or APC or via expression of a constitutively active β-catenin protein. WNT pathway deregulation dramatically affects stomach homoeostasis at very short latencies. In the corpus, there is rapid loss of parietal cells with fundic gland polyp (FGP) formation and adenomatous change, which are similar to those observed in familial adenomatous polyposis. In the antrum, adenomas occur from 4 days post-WNT activation. Taken together, these data show a pivotal role for WNT signalling in gastric homoeostasis, FGP formation and adenomagenesis. Loss of the parietal cell population and corresponding FGP formation, an early event in gastric carcinogenesis, as well as antral adenoma formation are immediate effects of nuclear β-catenin translocation and WNT target gene expression. Furthermore, our inducible murine model will permit a better understanding of the molecular changes required to drive tumourigenesis in the stomach.Oncogene advance online publication, 4 June 2012; doi:10.1038/onc.2012.224.
    Oncogene 06/2012; DOI:10.1038/onc.2012.224 · 8.56 Impact Factor
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    BMC proceedings 06/2012; 6(3). DOI:10.1186/1753-6561-6-S3-P12