[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Phospholipases A2 (PLA2) hydrolyzes phospholipids, initiating the production of inflammatory lipid mediators. We have previously shown that in rats, sPLA2 and cPLA2 play opposing roles in the pathophysiology of ovalbumin (OVA)-induced experimental allergic bronchitis (OVA-EAB), an asthma model: Upon disease induction sPLA2 expression and production of the broncho-constricting CysLTs are elevated, whereas cPLA2 expression and the broncho-dilating PGE2 production are suppressed. These were reversed upon disease amelioration by treatment with an sPLA2 inhibitor. However, studies in mice reported the involvement of both sPLA2 and cPLA2 in EAB induction.
To examine the relevance of mouse and rat models to understanding asthma pathophysiology.
OVA-EAB was induced in mice using the same methodology applied in rats. Disease and biochemical markers in mice were compared with those in rats.
As in rats, EAB in mice was associated with increased mRNA of sPLA2, specifically sPLA2gX, in the lungs, and production of the broncho-constricting eicosanoids CysLTs, PGD2 and TBX2 in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). In contrast, EAB in mice was associated also with elevated cPLA2 mRNA and PGE2 production. Yet, treatment with an sPLA2 inhibitor ameliorated the EAB concomitantly with reverting the expression of both cPLA2 and sPLA2, and eicosanoid production.
In both mice and rats sPLA2 is pivotal in OVA-induced EAB. Yet, amelioration of asthma markers in mouse models, and human tissues, was observed also upon cPLA2 inhibition. It is plausible that airway conditions, involving multiple cell types and organs, require the combined action of more than one, essential, PLA2s.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(10):e76641. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Thrombin is a potent stimulant of smooth muscle cell (SMC) proliferation in inflammatory conditions, leading to pathological thickening of vascular walls in atherosclerosis and airway remodeling in asthma. Cell proliferation requires the formation and remodeling of cell membrane phospholipids (PLs), involving the activation of PL-metabolizing enzymes. Yet, the role of specific PL-metabolizing enzymes in SMC proliferation has hardly been studied. To bridge this gap, in the present study, we investigated the role of key enzymes involved in PL metabolism, the PL-hydrolyzing enzyme phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and the PL-synthesizing enzyme lysophosphatidic acid-fatty acid transacylase (LPAAT), in thrombin-induced proliferation of bovine aortic SMCs (BASMCs). Concomitantly with the induction of BASMC proliferation, thrombin activated cytosolic PLA2 (cPLA2-alpha), expressed by selective release of arachidonic acid and mRNA expression, as well as LPAAT, expressed by nonselective incorporation of fatty acid and mRNA expression. Specific inhibitors of these enzymes, arachidonyl-trifluoromethyl-ketone for cPLA2 and thimerosal for LPAAT, suppressed their activities, concomitantly with suppression of BASMC proliferation, suggesting a mandatory requirement for cPLA2 and LPAAT activation in thrombin-induced SMC proliferation. Thrombin acts through the protease-activated receptor (PAR-1), and, accordingly, we found that thrombin-induced BASMC proliferation was suppressed by the PAR-1 inhibitor SCH-79797. However, the PAR-1 inhibitor did not prevent thrombin-induced mRNA expression of cPLA2 and LPAAT, implying that the activation of cPLA2 and LPAAT is essential but not sufficient for thrombin-induced proliferation of BASMCs.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), especially MMP-2 and MMP-9, are expressed in most colonic, gastric, and ovarian carcinomas, and they play a key role in their invasiveness. Previous studies have shown the involvement of arachidonic acid (AA)-derived metabolites in the regulation of MMP expression and cancer dissemination, thus suggesting a role for phospholipase A2, the AA producing enzymes, in these processes. The present study was undertaken to explore the role of phospholipases in MMP production and tumor cell invasiveness. Human fibrosarcoma cells were found to express and secrete type IB, IIA and V sPLA2. The cells were found also to express the M-type sPLA2 receptor. Treatment with an extracellular sPLA2 inhibitor inhibited tumor cell's invasiveness concomitantly with MMP-2/9 production. Correspondingly, adding an exogenous sPLA2-IB (but not IIA) resulted in significant elevation of MMP-2/9 secretion from the fibrosarcoma cells. Time-course determination of AA and oleic acid release by HT-1080 cells suggested that cPLA2 is activated subsequently to sPLA2 action. Accordingly, using Western blot analysis it was found that sPLA2-IB induced cPLA2 phosphorylation, a requirement for its activation, by a receptor-mediated activity, rather than its lipolytic activity. At the same time, sPLA2-IIA did not induce either MMPs secretion or cPLA2 phosphorylation. The results of this study show for the first time that MMP-2/9 production by human fibrosarcoma HT-1080 cells and their invasiveness is regulated by sPLA2-IB acting as a receptor ligand to activate cPLA2, which in turn provides the AA for production of eicosanoids required for MMP expression.
Frontiers in Bioscience 02/2008; 13:1917-25. · 3.29 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Eicosanoids are generally considered to be potent pro-inflammatory mediators, and their suppression has, therefore, been a desirable therapeutic goal. However, analysis of the literature reveals that inhibition of specific eicosanoids per se is a simplistic approach because it overlooks the fact that net pathophysiological effects of these lipid mediators arise from a complex balance between eicosanoids derived from different pathways, which might exhibit both pro-and anti-inflammatory activities (depending on organs and disease stage), or which might have essential physiological roles. An alternative strategy, discussed in this review, might be to control inflammatory lipid mediators in such a way as to avoid disrupting this intricate inter-eicosanoid balance and its physiological sequelae.
Trends in Pharmacological Sciences 10/2007; 28(9):459-64. · 9.25 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Phospholipase A2 hydrolyzes membrane phospholipids releasing arachidonic acid and lysophospholipids. These are key precursors of inflammatory mediators, such as prostaglandins, leukotrienes, thromboxanes and PAF, in numerous inflammatory/allergic diseases, including skin inflammation. Accordingly, inhibition of PLA2 has long been postulated as a potentially potent anti-inflammatory therapy. In the present study we tested the effect of a novel PLA2 inhibitor on contact dermatitis in human subjects. A double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study was conducted on contact dermatitis patients (n = 11) treated with the inhibitor-containing topical preparation (1% cream). Disease severity was assessed by physicians assessment before treatment (day 0) as well as after 14-days and 30-days. Patients treated with 1% PLA2 inhibitor-containing cream showed a 69.9% reduction in disease score while placebo-treated patients showed a reduction of 36.5% with p = 0.0024. The clear improvement in the disease score of inhibitor-treated patients supports the involvement of PLA2 activity in skin inflammation and the therapeutic prospective of its inhibition.
International journal of immunopathology and pharmacology 01/2007; 20(1):191-5. · 2.99 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The pathophysiology of asthma involves the action of inflammatory/allergic lipid mediators formed following membrane phospholipid hydrolysis by phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)). Cysteinyl leukotrienes are considered potent inducers of bronchoconstriction and airway remodelling. Ovalbumin (OVA) induced bronchoconstriction in rats is associated with increased secretory PLA(2) (sPLA(2)) activation and cysteinyl leukotriene production, together with suppression of cytosolic PLA(2) and prostaglandin E(2). These processes are reversed when the animals are pretreated systemically with an extracellular cell impermeable sPLA(2) inhibitor which also suppresses the early allergic reaction to OVA challenge. In this study we examine the capacity of the sPLA(2) inhibitor to ameliorate inflammatory and allergic manifestations (early and late bronchoconstriction) of OVA induced allergic bronchitis in rats when the inhibitor was administered by inhalation to confine it to the airways.
Rats sensitised with OVA were treated with the sPLA(2) inhibitor hyaluronic acid-linked phosphatidyl ethanolamine (HyPE). The rats were divided into four groups (n = 10 per group): (1) naïve controls (no sensitisation/no treatment); (2) positive controls (sensitisation + challenge with OVA inhalation and subcutaneous injection of 1 ml saline before each challenge; (3) sensitisation + challenge with OVA and HyPE inhalation before every challenge; and (4) sensitisation + challenge with OVA and treatment with subcutaneous dexamethasone (300 mug) before each challenge as a conventional reference. Another group received no treatment with HyPE during the sensitisation process but only before or after challenge of already sensitised rats. Pulmonary function was assessed and changes in the histology of the airways, levels of cysteinyl leukotrienes in BAL fluid, and the production of nitric oxide (No) and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) by BAL macrophages were determined.
Inhalation of HyPE markedly suppressed OVA induced early and late asthmatic reactions as expressed by bronchoconstriction, airway remodelling (histology), cysteinyl leukotriene level in BAL fluid, and production of TNFalpha and NO by BAL macrophages. OVA induced bronchoconstriction in sensitised non-pretreated rats was also inhibited by inhalation of HyPE either before or after the challenge.
These findings confirm the pivotal role of sPLA(2) in the pathophysiology of both the immediate allergic response and the inflammatory asthmatic process. Control of airway sPLA(2) may be a new therapeutic approach to the treatment of asthma.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Phospholipase A2 (PLA2) hydrolyzes cell membrane phospholipids (PL) to produce arachidonic acid and lyso-PL. The PLA2 enzymes include the secretory (sPLA2) and cytosolic (cPLA2) isoforms, which are assumed to act synergistically in production of eicosanoids that are involved in inflammatory processes. However, growing evidence raises the possibility that in airways and asthma-related inflammatory cells (eosinophils, basophils), the production of the bronchoconstrictor cysteinyl leukotrienes (CysLT) is linked exclusively to sPLA2, whereas the bronchodilator prostaglandin PGE2 is produced by cPLA2. It has been further reported that the capacity of airway epithelial cells to produce CysLT is inversely proportional to PGE2 production. This seems to suggest that sPLA2 and cPLA2 play opposing roles in asthma pathophysiology and the possibility of a negative feedback between the two isoenzymes. To test this hypothesis, we examined the effect of a cell-impermeable extracellular sPLA2 inhibitor on bronchoconstriction and PLA2 expression in rats with ovalbumin (OVA)-induced asthma. It was found that OVA-induced bronchoconstriction was associated with elevation of lung sPLA2 expression and CysLT production, concomitantly with suppression of cPLA2 expression and PGE2 production. These were reversed by treatment with the sPLA2 inhibitor, resulting in amelioration of bronchoconstriction and reduced CysLT production and sPLA2 expression, concomitantly with enhanced PGE2 production and cPLA2 expression. This study demonstrates, for the first time in vivo, a negative feedback between sPLA2 and cPLA2 and assigns opposing roles for these enzymes in asthma pathophysiology: sPLA2 activation induces production of the bronchoconstrictor CysLT and suppresses cPLA2 expression and the subsequent production of the bronchodilator PGE2.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Glycosaminoglycans (GAG) efficiently inhibit adherence of several strains of Chlamydia trachomatis to cell lines in vitro, but none of the GAG have been able to inhibit infections in vivo. One possible cause for failure of GAG inhibition in vivo is the inability to deliver a sustained concentration of GAG at the mucosal surface. We tested the possibility of enhancing cell protection by increasing the cell-surface concentration of GAG using membrane-anchored GAG (MAG), composed of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE)-linked GAG. These lipid conjugates were originally designed as extracellular phospholipase A2 (PLA2) inhibitors and exhibit a dual effect: the lipid moiety incorporates into the cell membrane, interfering with the action of PLA2 on cell membranes, and the anchored GAG protects the cell membrane from exogenous inflammatory mediators. We tested the ability of MAG to block chlamydia infection in vitro and in vivo. The MAG blocked infection of epithelial cells in vitro when added to the cells at the same time or before infection, but not if added after the bacteria had already invaded the host cells. One of the MAG led to the production of aberrant Chlamydia vacuoles, suggesting it may inhibit intracellular PLA2 associated with development of the vacuole. Although the MAG did not inhibit vaginal infection of mice, they decreased significantly the level of secretion of the inflammatory cytokines TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma but had no effect on secretion of the neutrophil chemokine, macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2). Acute and chronic inflammatory cell infiltrates were not altered by MAG treatment. These findings suggest that lipid conjugation of GAG could be used as a novel approach for increasing cell-surface concentrations of GAG. The inconclusive in vivo results might be due to the physical properties of the tested MAG or an insufficient application protocol, and their improvement might provide the desired inhibitory effects.
Microbes and Infection 05/2004; 6(4):369-76. · 2.92 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Phospholipase A2 (PLA2) plays a key role in the production of proinflammatory mediators, namely the arachidonic acid-derived eicosanoids, lysophospholipids, and platelet-activating factor, and indirectly influences the generation of cytokines, nitric oxide (NO), and free radicals. Accordingly, regulation of its activity is important in the treatment of inflammation. Since the main site of PLA2 action in inflammatory processes is the cell membrane, we synthesized extracellular PLA2 inhibitors (ExPLIs) composed of N-derivatized phosphatidyl-ethanolamine linked to polymeric carriers. These membrane-anchored lipid conjugates do not penetrate the cell and interfere with vital phospholipid metabolism or cell viability. The ExPLIs markedly inhibited central nervous system inflammation. This was reflected by the suppressed production and secretion of lipopolysaccharide-induced sPLA2, prostaglandin E2, and NO by glial cells and by the amelioration of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in rats and mice.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The pathophysiology of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) involves the production of diverse lipid mediators, namely eicosanoids, lysophospholipids, and platelet-activating factor, in which phospholipase A2 (PLA2) is the key enzyme. Accordingly, it has been postulated that control of lipid mediator production by inhibition of PLA2 would be useful for the treatment of IBD. This hypothesis was tested in the present study by examining the therapeutic effect of a novel extracellular PLA2 inhibitor (ExPLI), composed of carboxymethylcellulose-linked phosphatidylethanolamine (CMPE), on trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid-induced colitis. Intraperitoneal administration of CMPE suppressed the colitis as measured by mortality rate, intestinal permeability, plasma PLA2 activity, intestinal myeloperoxidase activity, and histological morphometry. Current therapeutic approaches for inflammatory conditions focus on the selective control of a lipid mediator(s) (e.g., prostaglandins or leukotrienes). The present study supports the concept that inclusive control of lipid mediator production by PLA2 inhibition is a plausible approach to the treatment of colitis and introduces the ExPLIs as a prototype of a novel NSAID for the treatment of intestinal inflammation.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Secretory phospholipase A(2) (sPLA(2)) has been reported to be involved in cell proliferation in general and in endothelial cell migration, processes required for capillary formation. Subsequently, we examined the potential control of angiogenesis by sPLA(2) inhibition, using a cell-impermeable sPLA(2) inhibitor composed of N-derivatized phosphatidyl-ethanolamine linked to hyaluronic acid. This inhibitor effectively inhibits the proliferation and migration of human bone marrow endothelial cells in a dose-dependent manner, and suppresses capillary formation induced by growth factors involved in vascularization of tumors and of atherosclerotic plaques. It is proposed that sPLA(2) inhibition introduces a novel approach in the control of cancer development and atherosclerosis.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 1. In acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) induced by endotoxins, a high production of inflammatory mediators by microvascular lung endothelial cells (LMVEC) can be observed. Activation of cells by endotoxins may result in elevated secretion of phospholipase A(2) (sPLA(2)) which is thought to contribute to tissue damage. The present study was undertaken to investigate the role of sPLA(2) in chemokine production in human lung microvascular endothelial cells (LMVEC) stimulated with the endotoxins lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and lipoteichoic acid (LTA). In particular, we investigated the effects of sPLA(2) inhibitors, specifically, the extracellular PLA(2) inhibitors (ExPLIs), composed of N-derivatized phosphatidyl-ethanolamine linked to polymeric carriers, and LY311727, a specific inhibitor of non-pancreatic sPLA(2). 2. ExPLIs markedly inhibited LPS and LTA induced production and mRNA expression of the neutrophile attracting chemokines IL-8, Gro-alpha and ENA-78, as well as of the adhesion molecules ICAM-1 and E-selectin. Concomitantly, ExPLIs inhibited the LPS-induced activation of NF-kappaB by LPS but not its activation by TNF-alpha or IL-1. 3. Endotoxin mediated chemokine production in LMVEC seems not to involve PLA(2) activity, since LPS stimulation was not associated with activation of intracellular or secreted PLA(2). It therefore seems that the inhibitory effect of the ExPLIs was not due to their PLA(2) inhibiting capacity. This was supported by the finding that the LPS-induced chemokine production was not affected by the selective sPLA(2) inhibitor LY311727. 4. It is proposed that the ExPLIs may be considered a prototype of potent suppressors of specific endotoxin-induced inflammatory responses, with potential implications for the therapy of subsequent severe inflammation.
British Journal of Pharmacology 05/2002; 135(7):1665-74. · 5.07 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present study was conducted to examine the possibility of modulating interferon (IFN-gamma)-induced immunogenicity by a novel compound that is composed of a PLA2 inhibitor linked to hyaluronic acid (HYPE).
HYPE was tested for its effect on IFN-gamma-induced expression of MHC class I, class II, and intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM-1) in cultured endothelial and renal proximal tubular cells by flow cytometric analysis (FACS) as well as its ability to influence T cell activation in mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) or after mitogen stimulation.
In FACS, a profound inhibition in MHC class I and ICAM-1 staining was observed in stimulated or unstimulated cells that were incubated with HYPE. This was not due to down-regulation of antigen expression and only occurred when monoclonal antibodies, but not when polyclonal antibodies, were used. HYPE inhibited the induction of MHC class II in both cell types after IFN-gamma stimulation in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, the induction of class II transactivator (CIITA) was completely inhibited under these conditions, most likely because it blocked the binding of IFN-gamma to the cell membrane. Addition of HYPE to MLR inhibited the proliferation of T cells and the secretion of interleukin (IL)-2, IFN-gamma, and IL-10. This was not observed when HYPE was added together with anti-CD3 or phytohemagglutinin (PHA).
Our study provides experimental evidence that HYPE has immunosuppressive features. This makes the compound an interesting candidate as an immunosuppressive drug, not only in organ transplantation, but also in diseases where IFN-gamma is overexpressed.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The amphiphilic polysaccharide hyaluronic acid-linked phosphatidylethanolamine (HyPE), synthesized by covalently binding dipalmitoyl-phosphatidylethanolamine (DPPE) to short chain hyaluronic acid (mol. wt. approximately = 30 000), interacts with low-density lipoproteins (LDL), to form a 'sugar-decoration' of the LDL surface. This results in an increase in the apparent size of the LDL particles, as studied by photon correlation spectroscopy, and in broadening of the 1H NMR signals of the LDL's phospholipids. Experiments conducted with fluorescently-labeled HyPE indicate that the interaction of HyPE with LDL involves incorporation of the hydrocarbon chains of this amphiphilic polysaccharide into the outer monolayer of the LDL. This interaction also inhibits the copper-induced oxidation of the LDL polyunsaturated fatty acids, avoiding oxidation altogether when the concentration of HyPE is higher than a tenth of the concentration of the LDL's phospholipids. This can not be attributed to competitive binding of copper by HyPE. We propose that the protection of LDL lipids against copper-induced oxidation is due to formation of a sugar network around the LDL.
Chemistry and Physics of Lipids 03/2000; 104(2):149-60. · 2.15 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The measurement of intestinal permeability is widely used to assess different aspects of mucosal barrier disorders and related disease states, and has been proposed for evaluation of disease activity. To provide a simple method for assessment of intestinal permeability, we examined the permeation of inulin-fluorescein (InFl) in rat models of small intestinal injury and colitis. Small intestinal or colonic inflammation was induced by either i.p. administration of indomethacin or rectal administration of trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS), respectively. For monitoring of intestinal permeability, InFl was administered orally or rectally to rats with small intestinal or colonic inflammation, respectively, and its level in blood was determined by the fluorescence intensity in the plasma. In small intestinal injury, InFl reached its peak in plasma 3 h after oral administration, while in colitis the InFl peak was reached 1 h after rectal administration. The highest permeability was observed at 72 h or 12 h after induction of small intestinal or colonic inflammation, respectively. In small intestinal injury the InFl permeation, as measured by its plasma level prior to sacrifice, was in agreement with intestinal damage evaluated after sacrifice. In colitis, the permeability at 12 h after induction of the disease correlated well with mortality. These findings demonstrate that InFl can be used as a novel, safe and easy-to-use probe for the evaluation of gut permeation and follow-up of gastrointestinal injury.
Journal of basic and clinical physiology and pharmacology 02/2000; 11(2):143-53.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have previously shown that cell surface proteoglycans protect the cell membrane from the action of extracellular phospholipase A2 (PLA2) enzymes [Dan, P., Nitzan, D. W., Dagan, A., Ginsburg, I., and Yedgar, S. (1996) FEBS Lett. 383, 75-78]. Cell-impermeable PLA2 inhibitors (ExPLIs) were prepared by linking phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) to polymeric carriers, specifically, carboxymethylcellulose, heparin, or hyaluronic acid. The structure of these inhibitors enables the incorporation of their PE moiety into the membrane while the polymer remains at the membrane surface. In the present study, we show that the ExPLIs are effective inhibitors of the hydrolysis of different phospholipids in biological (Escherichia coli) and model (phospholipid vesicle) membranes, by diverse types of PLA2 enzymes, specifically human recombinant synovial fluid and C. atrox (type II), as well as Naja mocambique and porcine pancreatic (type I) PLA2. It is proposed that the external polymers of the ExPLIs, which are anchored to the membrane by the PE, mimic the naturally occurring cell surface proteoglycans and similarly protect membranes from the action of exogenous PLA2.