[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Immunotherapy with photodynamic therapy (PDT) offers great promise as a new alternative for cancer treatment; however, its use remains experimental. Here we investigated the utility of adenoviral delivery of interleukin-12 (AdmIL-12) as an adjuvant for PDT in mouse tumour challenge model. PDT was performed by irradiating Radachlorin in C57BL/6 mice transplanted with TC-1 cells. PDT plus AdmIL-12 treatment for tumour suppression as well as specific immune responses were evaluated with the following tests: in vitro and in vivo tumour growth inhibition, interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) assay, and cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) assay. Direct intratumoral injection of AdmIL-12 resulted in a significant suppression of tumour growth compared to the control group. Treatment of PDT along with AdmIL-12 further enhanced antitumour effects significantly higher than either AdmIL-12 or PDT alone. This combined treatment resulted in complete regression of 9-mm sized tumour in every animal. We also evaluated immune responses induced by these treatments. Combined treatment significantly increased the production level of IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha compared with that by AdmIL-12 or PDT alone. PDT plus AdmIL-12 enhanced antitumour immunity through increased expansion of the CTL subset mediated by CD8+ T cells. Taken together, these results indicate that the high anti-cancer activity of PDT with AdmIL-12 is a powerful tool against cancer therapy and is a promising subject for further investigation.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: As2O3 has been reported to induce apoptosis and inhibit the proliferation of various human cancer cells. We evaluated the ability of a novel arsenic compound, As4O6, along with As2O3 in vitro and in vivo. To examine the levels of apoptosis of HPV 16-positive SiHa cervical cancer cell, flow cytometry and Western blotting were employed at various time intervals after two arsenic compound treatments. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) was applied to investigate the differential cell death pathway of As4O6 and As2O3. The results showed that As4O6 was more effective in suppressing SiHa cell growth in vitro and in vivo compared to As2O3. In addition, the cell cycle was arrested at the sub-G1 phase by As4O6. Western blot analysis showed that the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and Bcl-XL with sequence homology to Bcl-2 were significantly suppressed by As4O6. However, the apoptosis-related proteins such as p21 and Bax were overexpressed by As4O6. IPA suggested that there is a significant difference between As2O3- and As4O6-induced cell death pathways. Taken together, As4O6 has a specific cell death pathway and possesses more potent anti-tumor effects on human cervical cancer cells in vitro and in vivo.
International Journal of Oncology 05/2007; 30(5):1129-35. · 2.66 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Immunotherapy with photodynamic therapy (PDT) offers great promise as a new alternative for cancer treatment; however, its use remains experimental. In this study, we examined the immunotherapeutic significance of human papillomavirus (HPV)-immortalized tumor cell lysates induced by PDT with CpG-oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN). PDT-cell lysates were generated by irradiating Radachlorin (5 microg/mL) preloaded TC-1 cells carrying HPV 16 E7. PDT-cell lysates plus ODN coinjection for protection against E7-expressing tumors as well as specific immune responses were evaluated with the following tests: heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, in vitro and in vivo tumor growth inhibition, interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) assay, cytotoxic T-lymphocyte assay, and fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis. PDT-cell lysates plus ODN coinjection showed a significant suppression of tumor growth at both prophylactic and therapeutic levels, compared to PDT (or F/T)-cell lysates or ODN alone. In addition, we evaluated the level of the immune response with the coinjection. HSP70, an important regulator of inflammatory and immune response, was observed in abundance in the PDT-cell lysates. IFN-gamma production and cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) responses were induced by PDT-cell lysates plus ODN injection. The coinjection resulted in PDT-cell lysate-specific antibodies (IgG1, IgG2a, IgG2b, and IgG3) and T-helper cell responses significantly higher than PDT-cell lysates alone. Moreover, IFN-gamma production and CTL responses were significantly induced in the PDT-cell lysate plus ODN immunized groups. These enhanced immune responses appeared to be mediated by CD8+ T cells only. These data suggest that PDT-cell lysates plus ODN injection may be an effective approach to induce CTL immune responses as a possible immunotherapeutic strategy for cancer therapy.
Cancer Science 05/2007; 98(5):747-52. · 3.48 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The tumor suppressor gene, p53, has been established as an essential component for the suppression of tumor cell growth. In this study, we investigated the time-course anticancer effects of adenoviral p53 (Adp53) infection on human ovarian cancer cells to provide insight into the molecular-level understanding of the growth suppression mechanisms involved in Adp53-mediated apoptosis and cell cycle arrest.
Three human cervical cancer cell lines (SiHa, CaSki, HeLa and HT3) were used. The effect of Adp53 infection was studied via cell count assay, cell cycle analysis, FACS, Western blot and macroarray assay.
Adp53 exerts a significant role in suppressing cervical cancer cell growth. Adp53 also showed growth inhibitory effects in each cell line, and it induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. Adp53 differentially regulated the expression of genes and proteins, and the gene expression profiles in the SiHa cells revealed that the p21, p53 and mdm2 expressions were significantly up-regulated at 24 and 48 hr. Western blot shows that the p21 and p53 expression-levels were significantly increased after Adp53 infection. In addition, in all cell lines, both the CDK4 and PCNA protein expression levels were decreased 48 h after Adp53 infection. Cell cycle arrest at the G1 phase was induced only in the SiHa and HeLa cells, suggesting that exogenous infection of Adp53 in cancer cells was significantly different from the other HPV-associated cervical cancer cells.
Adp53 can inhibit cervical cancer cell growth through induction of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest, as well as through the regulation of the cell cycle-related proteins. The Adp53-mediated apoptosis can be employed as an advanced strategy for developing preferential tumor cell-specific delivery.
Cancer Research and Treatment 06/2006; 38(3):168-77. · 1.96 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Screening in cervical cancer is now progressing to discover candidate genes and proteins that may serve as biological markers and that play a role in tumor progression. We examined the protein expression patterns of the squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) tissues from Korean women with using two- dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight (MALDI- TOF) mass spectrometer.
Normal cervix and SCC tissues were solubilized and 2-DE was performed using pH 3 approximately 10 linear IPG strips of 17 cm length. The protein expression was evaluated using PDQuest 2-D software. The differentially expressed protein spots were identified with a MALDI-TOF mass spectrometer, and the peptide mass spectra identifications were performed using the Mascot program and by searching the Swiss-prot or NCBInr databases.
A total of 35 proteins were detected in SCC. 17 proteins were up-regulated and 18 proteins were down-regulated. Among the proteins that were identified, 12 proteins (pigment epithelium derived factor, annexin A2 and A5, keratin 19 and 20, heat shock protein 27, smooth muscle protein 22 alpha, alpha-enolase, squamous cell carcinoma antigen 1 and 2, glutathione S-transferase and apolipoprotein a1) were protein previously known to be involved in tumor, and 21 proteins were newly identified in this study.
2-DE offers the total protein expression profiles of SCC tissues; further characterization of these differentially expressed proteins will give a chance to identify the badly needed tumor-specific diagnostic markers for SCC.
Cancer Research and Treatment 04/2006; 38(2):99-107. · 1.96 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been reported to be effective for treating various tumors and to induce apoptosis in many tumor cells. In this study, we evaluated the ability of PDT combined with a tumor suppressor factor, recombinant adenovirus p53 (AdCMVp53), to induce apoptosis as well as cell growth inhibition in CaSki human cervical cancer cells and in nude mice with implanted CaSki cells. To examine levels of apoptosis, CaSki cells were treated with PDT and/or AdCMVp53, and an annexin V-staining assay was then conducted. In addition, Western blot analysis was done to identify p53 induction at the cellular and tumor tissue levels. PDT+AdCMVp53 cotreatment caused remarkable inhibition of CaSki cell proliferation, as compared with the individual treatments. In parallel with the inhibition of cell proliferation, the cotreatment caused a significantly greater increase in the annexin V-stained cell population compared with the individual treatments, as determined by fluorescence-activated cell-sorting analysis. The Western blotting assay also showed significantly more cellular p53 expressed after PDT+AdCMVp53 cotreatment than after each separate treatment. This was consistent with observations of tumor tissue in the mouse system. However, apoptosis- related protein, p21, was significantly suppressed by PDT+AdCMVp53 cotreatment, contrary to treatment with AdCMVp53 alone. Taken together, these findings suggest that PDT plus AdCMVp53 gene therapy exerts more potent antitumor effects on human cervical cancer cells, with induction of apoptosis at least through activation in p53 protein at the cellular and tumor tissue levels.
Human Gene Therapy 04/2006; 17(3):347-52. · 4.02 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Diarsenic oxide, As(2)O(3), has been reported to be effective in treating acute leukemia, and induce apoptosis in many tumor cells. In this study, the ability of a novel arsenical compound, As(4)O(6) (tetraarsenic oxide), along with As(2)O(3), for its ability to induce cell growth inhibition, as well as apoptosis, in human cervical cancer cells, SiHa cells, were evaluated in vitro.
To examine the levels of apoptosis, SiHa cells were given two sensitive doses, 0.5 and 1 microM, of arsenical compounds, and a DNA fragmentation assay and FACS analysis were then conducted. In addition, a Western blotting assay was performed to identify target molecules for apoptosis.
Both As(2)O(3) and As(4)O(6) induced dosedependent inhibition of SiHa cell proliferation. In particular, As(4)O(6) was more effective at suppressing SiHa cell growth than As(2)O(3). In parallel with the inhibition of cell proliferation, As(4)O(6) caused a significantly greater increase in the sub-G1 cell population than As(2)O(3), as determined by propidium iodide DNA staining. This was confirmed by a DNA fragmentation assay and annexin V staining. The Western blotting analysis also showed that the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) was suppressed to a significantly greater extent by As(4)O(6) than As(2)O(3) at a dose of 0.5 microM. However, the apoptosis-related protein, Bax, was expressed to a significantly greater extent due to As(4)O(6) than As(2)O(3).
Taken together, these findings suggest that a novel arsenic compound, As(4)O(6), possesses more potent anti-proliferative effects on human cervical cancer cells, with the induction of apoptosis also, at least via the activation of Bax protein in vitro.
Cancer Research and Treatment 10/2005; 37(5):307-12. · 1.96 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Skin aging is a complicated process associated with the passage of time and environmental exposure, especially to UV light. This aging phenomenon is related to alterations in various cellular mechanisms, such as changes in apoptosis, perturbations to cellular signaling, and an increased genetic instability. In this study, we investigated changes of proteins involved in intrinsic aging by the proteomic analysis of human sun-protected (upper inner arm) young and aged dermis. One of the proteins upregulated in aged dermis was identified as 14-3-3epsilon. This protein is an isoform of 14-3-3 protein, which is involved in cellular processes like signal transduction, cell cycle arrest, and apoptosis. 14-3-3epsilon is consistently found to be upregulated in the sun-protected dermis of aged skin, by Western blotting and immunohistochemical staining. In addition, we demonstrate that the expression of 14-3-3epsilon is further upregulated in the sun-exposed (photodamaged) dermis, and that the UV irradiation of young skin significantly upregulates 14-3-3epsilon in vivo. Our results suggest the possibility that the cellular processes related to 14-3-3epsilon protein play an important role in the photoaging and intrinsic aging of human skin.
Mechanisms of Ageing and Development 01/2005; 126(6-7):629-36. · 3.26 Impact Factor