[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: ABSTRACT The goal of this study is to determine whether dermal fibroblasts lacking syndecan-1 (sdc1) show differences in integrin expression and function that could contribute to the delayed skin and corneal wound healing phenotypes seen in sdc-1 null mice. Using primary dermal fibroblasts, we show that after 3 days in culture no differences in alpha-smooth muscle actin were detected but sdc-1 null cells expressed significantly more alphav and beta1 integrin than wildtype (wt) cells. Transforming growth factor beta1 (TGFbeta1) treatment at day 3 increased alphav- and beta1-integrin expression in sdc-1 null cells at day 5 whereas wt cells showed increased expression only of alphav-integrin. Using time-lapse studies, we showed that the sdc-1 null fibroblasts migrate faster than wt fibroblasts, treatment with TGFbeta1 increased these migration differences, and treatment with a TGFbeta1 antagonist caused sdc-1 null fibroblasts to slow down and migrate at the same rate as untreated wt cells. Cell spreading studies on replated fibroblasts showed altered cell spreading and focal adhesion formation on vitronectin and fibronectin-coated surfaces. Additional time lapse studies with beta1- and alphav-integrin antibody antagonists, showed that wt fibroblasts expressing sdc-1 had activated integrins on their surface that impeded their migration whereas the null cells expressed alphav-containing integrins which were less adhesive and enhanced cell migration. Surface expression studies showed increased surface expression of alpha2beta1 and alpha3beta1 on the sdc-1 null fibroblasts compared with wt fibroblasts but no significant differences in surface expression of alpha5beta1, alphavbeta3, or alphavbeta5. Taken together, our data indicates that sdc-1 functions in the activation of alphav-containing integrins and support the hypothesis that impaired wound healing phenotypes seen in sdc-1 null mice could be due to integrin-mediated defects in fibroblast migration after injury.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have previously reported the successful adaptation of human hookworm Necator americanus in the golden hamster, Mesocricetus auratus. This animal model was used to test a battery of hookworm (N. americanus and Ancylostoma caninum) recombinant antigens as potential vaccine antigens. Hamsters immunized a leading vaccine candidate N. americanus-Ancylostoma secreted protein 2 (Na-ASP-2) and challenged with N. americanus infective larvae (L3), resulted in 30-46.2% worm reduction over the course of three vaccine trials, relative to adjuvant controls. In addition, significant reduction of worm burdens was also observed in the hamsters immunized with adult hookworm antigens A. caninum aspartic protease 1 (Ac-APR-1); A. caninum-glutathione-S transferase 1 (Ac-GST-1) and Necator cysteine proteases 2 (Na-CP-2) (44.4%, 50.6%, and 29.3%, respectively). Our data on the worm burden reductions afforded by these hookworm antigens approximate the level of protection reported previously from dogs challenged with A. caninum L3, and provide additional evidence to support these hookworm antigens as vaccine candidates for human hookworm infection. The hamster model of N. americanus provides useful information for the selection of antigens to be tested in downstream vaccine development.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have reported previously that syndecan-1 (Sdc1)-null mice show delayed re-epithelialization after skin and corneal wounding. Here, we show that primary keratinocytes obtained from Sdc1-null mice and grown for 3-5 days in culture are more proliferative, more adherent and migrate more slowly than wt keratinocytes. However, the migration rates of Sdc1-null keratinocytes can be restored to wild-type levels by replating Sdc1-null keratinocytes onto tissue culture plates coated with fibronectin and collagen I, laminin (LN)-332 or onto the matrices produced by wild-type cells. Migration rates can also be restored by treating Sdc1-null keratinocytes with antibodies that block alpha6 or alphav integrin function, or with TGFbeta1. Antagonizing either beta1 integrin function using a function-blocking antibody or TGFbeta1 using a neutralizing antibody reduced wild-type keratinocyte migration more than Sdc1-null keratinocyte migration. Cultures of Sdc1-null keratinocytes accumulated less collagen than wild-type cultures but their matrices contained the same amount of LN-332. The Sdc1-null keratinocytes expressed similar total amounts of eight different integrin subunits but showed increased surface expression of alphavbeta6, alphavbeta8, and alpha6beta4 integrins compared with wild-type keratinocytes. Whereas wild-type keratinocytes increased their surface expression of alpha2beta1, alphavbeta6, alphavbeta8, and alpha6beta4 after treatment with TGFbeta1, Sdc1-null keratinocytes did not. Additional data from a dual-reporter assay and quantification of phosphorylated Smad2 show that TGFbeta1 signaling is constitutively elevated in Sdc1-null keratinocytes. Thus, our results identify TGFbeta1 signaling and Sdc1 expression as important factors regulating integrin surface expression, activity and migration in keratinocyte and provide new insight into the functions regulated by Sdc1.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ac-MTP-2 is an astacin-like metalloprotease secreted by adult Ancylostoma caninum hookworms. Ac-mtp-2 cDNA was cloned by immunoscreening a cDNA library with antisera prepared against adult A. caninum excretory/secretory (ES) products. The full-length Ac-mtp-2 contains 850 bp cDNA encoding a 233 amino acid open reading frame (ORF) with 32% amino acid identity to Ce-NSP-4, a pharyngeal cell-derived secreted metalloprotease of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. The predicted ORF contained a conserved Met-turn sequence (SXMHY), but only a partial zinc-binding signature sequence (GXXXEHXRXER instead of HEXXHXXGXXHEXXRXDR) found in other astacins. However, by both gelatin gel electrophoresis and azocasein digestion, the recombinant Ac-MTP-2 exhibited proteolytic activity that was inhibited by the zinc chelator 1,10-phenanthroline and Ac-TMP, a putative tissue inhibitor of metalloprotease that was previously shown to be a highly abundant component of adult A. caninum ES products. By RT-PCR, Western blot Ac-MTP-2 was found only expressed in adult hookworms and secreted in the adult ES products. Immunolocalization with antisera shows that Ac-MTP-2 is located to the esophageal glands (confirming its role as a secretory protein), as well as to the parasite uterus. It is hypothesized that Ac-MTP-2 functions in the extracorporeal digestion of the intestinal mucosal plug lodged in the buccal capsule of the adult parasite.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report the cloning and expression of Ac-GST-1, a novel glutathione S-transferase from the adult hookworm Ancylostoma caninum, and its possible role in parasite blood feeding and as a vaccine target. The predicted Ac-GST-1 open reading frame contains 207 amino acids (mass, 24 kDa) and exhibited up to 65% amino acid identity with other nematode GSTs. mRNA encoding Ac-GST-1 was detected in adults, eggs, and larval stages, but the protein was detected only in adult hookworm somatic extracts and excretory/secretory products. Using antiserum to the recombinant protein, Ac-GST-1 was immunolocalized to the parasite hypodermis and muscle tissue and weakly to the intestine. Recombinant Ac-GST-1 was enzymatically active, as determined by conjugation of glutathione to a model substrate, and exhibited a novel high-affinity binding site for hematin. The possible role of Ac-GST-1 in parasite heme detoxification during hemoglobin digestion or heme uptake prompted interest in evaluating it as a potential vaccine antigen. Vaccination of dogs with Ac-GST-1 resulted in a 39.4% reduction in the mean worm burden and 32.3% reduction in egg counts compared to control dogs following larval challenge, although the reductions were not statistically significant. However, hamsters vaccinated with Ac-GST-1 exhibited statistically significant worm reduction (53.7%) following challenge with heterologous Necator americanus larvae. These studies suggest that Ac-GST-1 is a possible drug and vaccine target for hookworm infection.
Infection and Immunity 11/2005; 73(10):6903-11. DOI:10.1128/IAI.73.10.6903-6911.2005 · 3.73 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Syrian Golden hamsters were vaccinated with the recombinant fusion proteins Ay-ASP-2 and Ay-MTP-1 from the infective larvae of the hookworm Ancylostoma ceylanicum. Vaccines comprised each antigen alone or the combination of the two proteins. All vaccinated group developed high antibody titers (>1:40,000); coadministration of a second antigen did not significantly affect the magnitude of the antibody response. Following challenge, hamsters vaccinated with each single antigen exhibited reductions in worm burden (32% and 28% to Ay-ASP-2 and Ay-MTP-1, respectively) and fecal egg counts (56% and 43%, respectively). A vaccine cocktail, containing both antigens further reduced worm burden (36%) and fecal egg counts (59%) (p<0.001). Moreover, vaccination with the antigen cocktail significantly improved hemoglobin values (p=0.01) and body weights (p=0.001) compared to what achieved with either each antigen or adjuvant alone. Taken together, these data suggest that combination of two or more antigens may present an effective vaccine development strategy to improve protection and/or disease symptoms in affected individuals.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A cDNA encoding a surface-associated antigen was cloned from an Ancylostoma caninum infective larvae (L(3)) cDNA library by immunoscreening with pooled human immune sera. The sera were obtained from individuals living in an Ancylostoma duodenale hookworm-endemic region of China, who had light intensity infections and high antibody titers against A. caninum L(3). Ancylostoma caninum surface-associated antigen-1 is encoded by an 843 bp mRNA with a predicted open reading frame of 162 amino acids. Recombinant Ancylostoma caninum surface-associated antigen-1 was expressed in Escherichia coli and used to prepare a specific antiserum. A Western blot with anti-Ancylostoma caninum surface-associated antigen-1 specific antiserum showed that native Ancylostoma caninum surface-associated antigen-1 protein is expressed by both L(3) and adult hookworms; RT-PCR confirmed that the mRNA is transcribed in both stages. In adult hookworms, the protein localised to the basal layer of the cuticle and hypodermis of adult worms. Serological analysis determined that recombinant Ancylostoma caninum surface-associated antigen-1 protein is recognised by 61% of human sera from a Necator americanus hookworm endemic area in China, indicating the antigen is immunodominant. Anti-Ancylostoma caninum surface-associated antigen-1 antiserum partially inhibited (46.7%) invasion of hookworm L(3) into dog skin in vitro. Together these results suggest that Ancylostoma caninum surface-associated antigen-1 offers promise as a protective vaccine antigen.
International Journal for Parasitology 09/2004; 34(9):1037-45. DOI:10.1016/j.ijpara.2004.04.015 · 3.87 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: cDNAs encoding 2 Ancylostoma-secreted proteins (ASPs), Ancylostoma ceylanicum (Ay)-ASP-1 and Ay-ASP-2, were cloned from infective third-stage larvae (L3) of the hookworm A. ceylanicum and were expressed as soluble recombinant fusion proteins secreted by the yeast Pichia pastoris. The recombinant fusion proteins were purified, adjuvant formulated, and injected intramuscularly into hamsters. Hamsters vaccinated either by oral vaccination with irradiated L3 (irL3) or by injections of the adjuvants alone served as positive and negative controls, respectively. Anti-ASP-1 and anti-ASP-2 antibody titers exceeded 1 : 100000. Each vaccinated hamster was challenged orally with 100 L3. Two groups of vaccinated hamsters (i.e., those vaccinated with either irL3 or ASP-2 formulated with Quil A) exhibited significant reductions in adult hookworm burdens, compared with control hamsters. The hookworms recovered from the hamsters vaccinated with ASP-2 plus Quil A were reduced in length. Splenomegaly, which was observed in control hamsters, was not seen in hamsters vaccinated with either irL3 or ASP-2 formulated with Quil A. These results indicate that ASP-2 is a promising molecule for the development of a hookworm vaccine.
The Journal of Infectious Diseases 04/2004; 189(5):919-29. DOI:10.1086/381901 · 6.00 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Ancylostoma-secreted proteins are a family of nematode-specific cysteine-rich secreted proteins belonging to the pathogenesis-related protein superfamily. Previously we reported that third stage infective larvae of Ancylostoma caninum produce two different Ancylostoma-secreted proteins, a single and double-domain Ancylostoma-secreted protein, designated as Ancylostoma-secreted protein-1 and Ancylostoma-secreted protein-2, respectively. Here we report that adult A. caninum hookworms produce and release four additional Ancylostoma-secreted proteins (Ancylostoma-secreted protein-3-6). Using antiserum against adult excretory/secretory products, Ancylostoma-secreted protein cDNAs were isolated from cDNA expression libraries. Immunolocalisation experiments using specific antisera indicated that the single-domain Ac-Ancylostoma-secreted protein-3 is located in the adult pharyngeal and oesophageal glands. Ac-Ancylostoma-secreted protein-4, Ancylostoma-secreted protein-5 and Ancylostoma-secreted protein-6 are composed of two pathogenesis-related protein domains linked in tandem as a heterodimorphic repeat. Ac-Ancylostoma-secreted protein-4 is localised to the cuticular surface of the adult hookworm, whereas Ac-Ancylostoma-secreted protein-5 was found in the intestinal brush border membrane, and Ancylostoma-secreted protein-6 in the cephalic and excretory glands. All of the adult Ancylostoma-secreted proteins were identified in excretory/secretory products of adult hookworms by Western blotting and are presumably released by the parasite. None of the adult Ancylostoma-secreted proteins were detected by immunoblotting in L3 extracts, although mRNAs of Ac-Ancylostoma-secreted protein-3 and Ac-Ancylostoma-secreted protein-4 were present in the larval stage. The functions of the adult Ancylostoma-secreted proteins are unknown, although the secretion of multiple family members by the adult suggests an important role in the establishment or maintenance of the parasitic relationship.
International Journal for Parasitology 09/2003; 33(9):897-907. DOI:10.1016/S0020-7519(03)00111-5 · 3.87 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Antibody against adult Ancylostoma caninum excretory-secretory (ES) products was used to immunoscreen a cDNA expression library leading to the isolation of cDNAs encoding putative hookworm fatty-acid and retinol-binding proteins. Ac-far-1 and Ac-far-2 cDNAs encode open reading frames corresponding to approximately 20kDa proteins with 91 percent amino acid identity. Ac-FAR-1 and Ac-FAR-2 exhibit clear similarities to other FARs of parasitic nematodes, most closely to two of the FAR proteins of Caenorhabditis elegans (Ce-FAR-1 and Ce-FAR-2). By reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay, Ac-far-1 mRNA was detected in both adult and third-stage larvae of A. caninum. However, the respective proteins were detectable by immunoblot only in adult hookworm ES products and adult extracts. Using fluorescence-based binding assays, bacterial recombinant Ac-FAR-1 was found to bind fatty acids and retinol (Vitamin A) with dissociation constants in the micromolar region. Circular dichroism spectra indicated that Ac-FAR-1 possesses a high level of alpha-helix, similar to Ov-FAR-1 from Onchocerca volvulus. This is the first demonstration of a functional FAR secreted by adult hookworms and provides further evidence that FAR proteins secreted by parasitic nematodes are crucial to parasitism.