Sven Dänicke

MSD Animal Health, Germany, Schleisheim, Bavaria, Germany

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Publications (340)460.87 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Climate change will not only affect crop biomass production but also crop quality. While increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations are known to enhance photosynthesis and biomass production, effects on the chemical composition of plants are less well known. This is particularly true for major crop plants with respect to harvestable yield quality. Moreover, it remains open, how these effects on quality may be realized under field conditions and how management (e.g. plant N nutrition) or environmental factors (e.g. water availability) will alter impacts of elevated CO2. Here we report on a series of free air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experiments with wheat and barley and with maize in which effects of elevated CO2 combined with different levels of N supply (wheat and barley) and with drought stress (maize) on grain and biomass quality characteristics were investigated. Winter wheat and winter barley (1st experiment) and maize (2nd experiment) were grown in the field each for two growing seasons under ambient and elevated CO2 concentration (FACE, 550μmol mol-1). Wheat and barley were grown under adequate N supply and under 50% of adequate N as sub-treatments. In the maize experiment rain shelters were used to create two different levels of plant water supply (well-watered and drought stress – about 50% of well-watered) as sub-treatments. Treatment effects on elemental composition and a variety of quality characteristics of the plant material at final harvest were investigated. This included a detailed analysis of wheat grain protein components and of different fiber fractions of maize. Compiled results of the relative effects of elevated CO2, N and drought stress treatments on different quality parameters of the crops are presented.
    12/2015; 29:57-58. DOI:10.1016/j.proenv.2015.07.155
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    ABSTRACT: Previous studies have shown that chronic oral deoxynivalenol (DON) exposure modulated Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced systemic inflammation, whereby the liver was suspected to play an important role. Thus, a total of 41 barrows was fed one of two maize-based diets, either a DON-diet (4.59 mg DON/kg feed, n = 19) or a control diet (CON, n = 22). Pigs were equipped with indwelling catheters for pre- or post-hepatic (portal vs. jugular catheter) infusion of either control (0.9% NaCl) or LPS (7.5 µg/kg BW) for 1h and frequent blood sampling. This design yielded six groups: CON_CONjugular‑CONportal, CON_CONjugular‑LPSportal, CON_LPSjugular‑CONportal, DON_CONjugular‑CONportal, DON_CONjugular‑LPSportal and DON_LPSjugular‑CONportal. Blood samples were analyzed for blood gases, electrolytes, glucose, pH, lactate and red hemogram. The red hemogram and electrolytes were not affected by DON and LPS. DON-feeding solely decreased portal glucose uptake (p < 0.05). LPS-decreased partial oxygen pressure (pO₂) overall (p < 0.05), but reduced pCO₂ only in arterial blood, and DON had no effect on either. Irrespective of catheter localization, LPS decreased pH and base-excess (p < 0.01), but increased lactate and anion-gap (p < 0.01), indicating an emerging lactic acidosis. Lactic acidosis was more pronounced in the group DON_LPSjugular-CONportal than in CON-fed counterparts (p < 0.05). DON-feeding aggravated the porcine acid-base balance in response to a subsequent immunostimulus dependent on its exposure site (pre- or post-hepatic).
    Toxins 11/2015; 7(11):4773-4796. DOI:10.3390/toxins7114773 · 2.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recently, deoxynivalenol-3-sulfate (DON-3-sulfate) was proposed as a major DON metabolite in poultry. In the present work, the first LC-MS/MS based method for determination of DON-3-sulfate, deepoxy-DON-3-sulfate (DOM-3-sulfate), DON, DOM, DON sulfonates 1, 2, 3, and DOM sulfonate 2 in excreta samples of chickens and turkeys was developed and validated. To this end, DOM-3-sulfate was chemically synthesized and characterized by NMR and LC-HR-MS/MS measurements. Application of the method to excreta and chyme samples of four feeding trials with turkeys, chickens, pullets, and roosters confirmed DON-3-sulfate as the major DON metabolite in all poultry species studied. Analogously to DON-3-sulfate, DOM-3-sulfate was formed after oral administration of DOM both in turkeys and in chickens. In addition, pullets and roosters metabolized DON into DOM-3-sulfate. In vitro transcription/translation assays revealed DOM-3-sulfate to be 2000 times less toxic on the ribosome than DON. Biological recoveries of DON and DOM orally administered to broiler chickens, turkeys, and pullets were 74%-106% (chickens), 51%-72% (roosters), and 131%-151% (pullets). In pullets, DON-3-sulfate concentrations increased from jejunum chyme samples to excreta samples by a factor of 60. This result, put into context with earlier studies, indicates fast and efficient absorption of DON between crop and jejunum, conversion to DON-3-sulfate in intestinal mucosa, liver, and possibly kidney, and rapid elimination into excreta via bile and urine.
    Toxins 11/2015; 7(11):4706-4729. DOI:10.3390/toxins7114706 · 2.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We recently showed that the mRNA expression of genes encoding for specific nutrient sensing receptors, namely the free fatty acid receptors (FFAR) 1, 2, 3, and the hydroxycarboxylic acid receptor (HCAR) 2, undergo characteristic changes during the transition from late pregnancy to lactation in certain adipose tissues (AT) of dairy cows. We hypothesised that divergent energy intake achieved by feeding diets with either high or low portions of concentrate (60% v. 30% concentrate on a dry matter basis) will alter the mRNA expression of FFAR 1, 2, 3, as well as HCAR2 in subcutaneous (SCAT) and retroperitoneal AT (RPAT) of dairy cows in the first 3 weeks postpartum (p.p.). For this purpose, 20 multiparous German Holstein cows were allocated to either the high concentrate ration (HC, n=10) or the low concentrate ration (LC, n=10) from day 1 to 21 p.p. Serum samples and biopsies of SCAT (tail head) and RPAT (above the peritoneum) were obtained at day -21, 1 and 21 relative to parturition. The mRNA abundances were measured by quantitative PCR. The concentrations of short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) in serum were measured by gas chromatography-flame ionisation detector. The FFAR1 and FFAR2 mRNA abundance in RPAT was higher at day -21 compared to day 1. At day 21 p.p. the FFAR2 mRNA abundance was 2.5-fold higher in RPAT of the LC animals compared to the HC cows. The FFAR3 mRNA abundance tended to lower values in SCAT of the LC group at day 21. The HCAR2 mRNA abundance was neither affected by time nor by feeding in both AT. On day 21 p.p. the HC group had 1.7-fold greater serum concentrations of propionic acid and lower concentrations of acetic acid (trend: 1.2-fold lower) compared with the LC group. Positive correlations between the mRNA abundance of HCAR2 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ-2 (PPARG2) indicate a link between HCAR2 and PPARG2 in both AT. We observed an inverse regulation of FFAR2 and FFAR3 expression over time and both receptors also showed an inverse mRNA abundance as induced by different portions of concentrate. Thus, indicating divergent nutrient sensing of both receptors in AT during the transition period. We propose that the different manifestation of negative EB in both groups at day 21 after parturition affect at least FFAR2 expression in RPAT.
    animal 11/2015; DOI:10.1017/S175173111500227X · 1.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Deoxynivalenol (DON) exposure of pigs might cause serious problems when critical dietary toxin concentrations are exceeded. As DON contamination of agricultural crops cannot be completely prevented, detoxification measures are needed. Wet preservation with sodium sulfite resulted in a significant DON reduction of naturally-contaminated maize in previous experiments. The preserved material had a characteristic DON sulfonates (DONS) pattern. DONS is known to be less toxic than DON but its stability was shown to depend on pH, which gives rise to the question if a back-conversion to DON occurs in vivo. Therefore, the toxicokinetics and bioavailability of DON and DONS were studied in pigs. After the administration of a single oral or intravenous bolus of DON or DONS, serial blood samples were collected and subsequently analyzed. DONS was not detectable after oral administration of DONS mixtures. The results showed further that the bioavailability of DONS as DON in pigs fed maize preserved wet with sodium sulfite was significantly decreased compared to untreated control maize (DON), indicating that DONS obviously did not convert back to DON to a large extent in vivo. Moreover, the fact that DONS was not detectable in systemic blood requires further investigations regarding their ingestive and/or metabolic fate.
    Toxins 11/2015; 7(11):4622-4644. DOI:10.3390/toxins7114622 · 2.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of 24 g niacin (nicotinic acid (NA)) supplementation over 40 weeks with two forage-to-concentrate ratios (60% concentrate vs. 30% in the total diet) on performance variables of energy metabolism such as plasma concentrations of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), glucose and nicotinamide (NAM), and the fatty acid profile in rumen fluid. In a 2 × 2 factorial design, 64 German Holstein cows were divided postpartum into four dietary groups: i) 60% concentrate supplemented with 24 g NA (Group 60 + NA); ii) 60% concentrate without NA (Group 60-); iii) 30% concentrate with 24 g NA (Group 30 + NA) and iv) 30% concentrate without NA (Group 30-). The experiment started on the day of calving and continued for 40 weeks. Niacin supplementation did not affect milk yield or composition. The plasma niacin content increased in the supplemented groups, especially Group 30 + NA. Niacin supplementation led to decreased plasma glucose concentrations. The interaction of concentrate × niacin enhanced the molar proportion of propionic acid in rumen fluid in Group 60 + NA. Total short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentrations were increased by level of concentrate, niacin supplementation and the interaction, concentrate × niacin. Plasma levels of NEFA and BHB remained unaffected. In sum, concentrate level, niacin supplementation and the interaction of concentrate × niacin increased plasma NAM concentration, whereas plasma glucose concentration was decreased by niacin supplementation.
    South African Journal Of Animal Science 11/2015; 45(4):395. DOI:10.4314/sajas.v45i4.6 · 0.50 Impact Factor

  • C. Drong · U. Meyer · D. von Soosten · J. Frahm · J. Rehage · G. Breves · S. Dänicke ·
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    ABSTRACT: This work examined preventive effects of a dietary and a medical intervention measure on postpartum (p.p.) ketogenesis in dairy cows overconditioned in late pregnancy. Sixty German Holstein cows were allocated 6 weeks antepartum (a.p.) to three high body condition score (BCS) groups (BCS 3.95 ± 0.08) and one low BCS group (LC, BCS 2.77 ± 0.14). Concentrate proportion in diet a.p. was higher (60% vs. 20%) and increase in proportion p.p. from 30% up to 50% decelerated (3 vs. 2 weeks) in high BCS groups. High BCS cows received a monensin controlled-release capsule (CRC) (HC/MO), a blend of essential oils (HC/EO) or formed a control group (HC). Performance parameters and energy status were evaluated in three periods [day (d) -42 until calving, one until 14 days in milk (DIM), 15 until 56 DIM]. Feed efficiency was 65% and 53% higher in HC/MO than in LC (p < 0.001) and HC groups (p = 0.002) in the second period. Milk fat content was higher in HC/EO (5.60 vs. 4.82%; p = 0.012) and milk urea higher in HC/MO (135 mg/kg) than in LC cows (107 mg/kg; p < 0.001). Increased p.p. levels of non-esterified fatty acids in serum were found in HC (p = 0.003), HC/MO (p = 0.068) and HC/EO (p = 0.002) in comparison with LC cows. Prevalence of subclinical and clinical ketosis was 54% and 46%, respectively, in HC group. Monensin decreased the prevalence to 50% and 7% respectively. Ruminal fermentation pattern showed higher proportions of propionate (23.43 mol % and 17.75 mol %, respectively; p < 0.008) and lower acetate:propionate ratio (2.66 vs. 3.76; p < 0.001) in HC/MO than HC group. Results suggest that a monensin CRC improved energy status and feed efficiency of transition dairy cows while essential oils failed to elicit any effect.
    J Anim Physiol a Anim Nutr 11/2015; DOI:10.1111/jpn.12401 · 1.41 Impact Factor
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    Wendy Liermann · Andreas Berk · Verena Böschen · Sven Dänicke ·
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    ABSTRACT: Effects of grinding and hydro-thermal treatment of feed on growth performance, slaughter traits, nutrient digestibility, stomach content and stomach health were examined by using 96 crossbred fattening pigs. Pigs were fed a grain-soybean meal-based diet processed by various technical treatments. Feeding groups differed in particle size after grinding (finely vs. coarsely ground feed) and hydro-thermal treatment (without hydro-thermal treatment, pelleting, expanding, expanding and pelleting). Fine grinding and hydro-thermal treatment showed significant improvements on the digestibility of crude nutrients and content of metabolisable energy. Hydro-thermal treatment influenced average daily gain (ADG) and average daily feed intake (DFI) significantly. Finely ground pelleted feed without expanding enhanced performances by increasing ADG and decreasing feed-to-gain ratio (FGR) of fattening pigs. Coarsely ground feed without hydro-thermal treatment resulted in the highest ADG and DFI, however also in the highest FGR. Expanded feed decreased DFI and ADG. Slaughter traits were not affected by treatments. Coarsely ground feed without hydro-thermal treatment had protective effects on the health of gastric pars nonglandularis, however, pelleting increased gastric lesions. Hydro-thermal treatment, especially expanding, resulted in clumping of stomach content which possibly induced satiety by slower ingesta passage rate and thus decreased feed intake. Pigs fed pelleted feed showed less pronounced development of clumps in stomach content compared with expanded feed.
    Archives of Animal Nutrition 10/2015; 69(6):1-18. DOI:10.1080/1745039X.2015.1087748 · 1.00 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The present study examined the short-term effects of deoxynivalenol (DON), administered at two different concentrations via a feed preparation using naturally contaminated wheat, on feed intake, liver and kidney metabolism and immunomodulatory properties in horses. Twelve geldings were randomly assigned to one of three dietary treatments for 21 days. DON was provided via naturally contaminated wheat (14.6 ± 6.5 mg DON/kg dry matter). The daily feed intake was adjusted to 4 kg of wheat and 1.7 kg of silage per 100 kg of body weight (BW). Horses were fed one of the following diets: control wheat with 0 % contaminated wheat (CON), wheat mixture containing 53 ± 2 % of DON-contaminated wheat [low DON intake (LDI)] or wheat mixture containing 78 ± 4 % of DON-contaminated wheat [high DON intake (HDI)]. CON, LDI and HDI corresponded to a targeted daily DON intake via the complete ration of <5, 50 and 75 μg/kg BW, respectively. None of the horses demonstrated any clinical signs commonly associated with the intake of DON such as colic or depression. HDI was associated with lower daily wheat intake on day 21. Serum DON concentrations increased with higher DON intake. The non-toxic DON metabolite, deepoxy-deoxynivalenol (DOM-1) was only detected on day 21 of the DON feeding period. No changes in haematological and serum parameters or serum globulins or in the ex vivo proliferation response of peripheral blood mononuclear cells were observed. These results suggest that horses are less sensitive to DON exposure than other domestic species, for example, swine. Therefore, the European Commission guidance value for critical DON concentrations in swine feed (complete diet) of 0.9 mg/kg could be safely applied for rations intended for feeding adult horses as well.
    Mycotoxin Research 09/2015; 31(4). DOI:10.1007/s12550-015-0234-6
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    ABSTRACT: The porcine intestinal epithelium is a primary target for mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) and lipopolysaccharides (LPS). Although epithelial cells are exposed to these toxins mainly from the luminal-chyme compartment an exposure from the blood side resulting from systemic absorption cannot be excluded. Thus, we investigated the effect of DON and LPS, alone or combined, on porcine intestinal epithelial cells IPEC-J2 on a transcriptional, translational and functional level when administered either from apical or basolateral.
    Toxicology Letters 09/2015; 239(3). DOI:10.1016/j.toxlet.2015.09.019 · 3.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The periparturient period is critical according to health, productivity and profitability. As this period is fundamental for the success of the lactation period, the interest in improving periparturient health by dietary supplements increased in recent years. The present study investigated the effects of feeding nicotinic acid (NA) combined with varying dietary energy densities on immunological, hematological and biochemical parameters of periparturient cows differing in parity. Thirty-six multiparous and 20 primiparous dairy cows were enrolled in the study 42 days before expected parturition date until 100 days postpartum with the half of the cows being supplemented with 24 g of NA/d. After parturition a diet with 30% concentrate was fed to all cows which was followed by different concentrate escalation strategies. Dietary NA supplementation was ceased on day 24 postpartum. Dietary NA increased (P = 0.010) serum nicotinamide concentrations (mean of 3.35 ± 1.65 µg/mL), whereas NA could not be detected. Present data emphasize that periparturient cows are faced with major physiological challenges and that both parity-groups have different prerequisites to adapt to those changes irrespective of NA supplementation. The overfeeding of energy to cows which were similar in body condition score had only minor effects on periparturient immune system function and the metabolism of those cows.
    Animals 09/2015; 5(3):910-933. DOI:10.3390/ani5030391
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    ABSTRACT: The mycotoxin zearalenone (ZEN) is frequently contaminating animal feeds including feed used in aquaculture. In the present study, the effects of dietary exposure to ZEN on carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) were investigated. ZEN at three different concentrations (low dose: 332 µg kg(-1), medium dose: 621 µg kg(-1) and high dose: 797 µg kg(-1) final feed, respectively) was administered to juvenile carp for four weeks. Additional groups received the mycotoxin for the same time period but were fed with the uncontaminated diet for two more weeks to examine the reversibility of the ZEN effects. No effects on growth were observed during the feeding trial, but effects on haematological parameters occurred. In addition, an influence on white blood cell counts was noted whereby granulocytes and monocytes were affected in fish treated with the medium and high dose ZEN diet. In muscle samples, marginal ZEN and α-zearalenol (α-ZEL) concentrations were detected. Furthermore, the genotoxic potential of ZEN was confirmed by analysing formation of micronuclei in erythrocytes. In contrast to previous reports on other fish species, estrogenic effects measured as vitellogenin concentrations in serum samples were not increased by dietary exposure to ZEN. This is probably due to the fact that ZEN is rapidly metabolized in carp.
    Toxins 09/2015; 7(9):3465-3480. DOI:10.3390/toxins7093465 · 2.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: It is well observed that feeding energy-dense diets in dairy cows during the dry period can cause metabolic imbalances after parturition. Especially dairy cows with high body condition score (BCS) and fed an energy-dense diet were prone to develop production diseases due to metabolic disturbances postpartum. An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of an energy-dense diet and nicotinic acid (NA) on production and metabolic variables of primiparous and multiparous cows in late pregnancy and early lactation which were not pre-selected for high BCS. Thirty-six multiparous and 20 primiparous German Holstein cows with equal body conditions were fed with energy-dense (60% concentrate/40% roughage mixture; HC group) or adequate (30% concentrate/70% roughage mixture; LC group) diets prepartum. After parturition, concentrate proportion was dropped to 30% for all HC and LC groups and was increased to 50% within 16 days for LC and within 24 days for HC cows. In addition, half of the cows per group received 24 g NA supplement per day and cow aimed to attenuate the lipid mobilisation postpartum. Feeding energy-dense diets to late-pregnant dairy cows elevated the dry matter (p < 0.001) and energy intake (p < 0.001) as well as the energy balance (p < 0.001) without affecting the BCS (p = 0.265) during this period. However, this did not result in any metabolic deviation postpartum as the effects of prepartum concentrate feeding were not carried over into postpartum period. Multiparous cows responded more profoundly to energy-dense feeding prepartum compared with primiparous cows, and parity-related differences in the transition from late pregnancy to lactation were obvious pre- and postpartum. The supplementation with 24 g NA did not reveal any effect on energy metabolism. This study clearly showed that energy-dense feeding prepartum did not result in metabolic imbalances postpartum in multiparous and primiparous cows not selected for high BCS. A genetic predisposition for an anabolic metabolic status as indicated by high BCS may be crucial for developing production diseases at the onset of lactation.
    Archives of animal nutrition 09/2015; 69(5):319-339. DOI:10.1080/1745039X.2015.1073002 · 1.00 Impact Factor
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    Anja Peters · Ulrich Meyer · Sven Dänicke ·
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    ABSTRACT: The supplementation of exogenous fibrolytic enzymes (EFE) to dairy cows diets could be a strategy to improve fiber degradation in the rumen which is especially important for the early lactating cow characterized by a high milk energy output and an insufficient energy intake. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of a fibrolytic enzyme product (Roxazyme® G2 Liquid, 3.8 and 3.9 mL/kg TMR DM) supplemented to a total mixed dairy cow ration (TMR) on production performance and blood parameters during early (trial 1) and mid-lactation (trail 2). In addition, rumination activity was measured in trial 2. The nutrient digestibility of the experimental TMR was obtained by using wethers. In the digestibility trial EFE was supplemented at a rate of 4.4 mL/kg Roxazyme® G2 Liquid TMR-DM. The TMR contained 60% forage and 40% concentrate (DM basis). Twenty eight (50 ± 16 days in milk; DIM) and 26 (136 ± 26 DIM) Holstein cows were used in two 8-wk, completely randomized trails, stratified by parity and milk yield level. One ml of the enzyme product contained primarily cellulase and xylanase activities (8,000 units endo-1,4-ß glucanase, 18,000 units endo-1,3(4)-ß glucanase and 26,000 units 1,4-ß xylanase). No differences in digestibility of DM, OM, CP, NDF and ADF were observed (P > 0.05) between the control and the EFE supplemented TMR. Addition of EFE to the TMR fed to early (trial 1) and mid-lactation cows (trial 2) did not affect daily dry matter intake (DMI), milk yield, 4% fat-corrected milk, energy-corrected milk (ECM), concentration of milk fat, protein, fat-protein-quotients, somatic cell score, energy balance, and gross feed efficiency of early and mid-lactation cows (P > 0.05). Mid-lactation cows (trial 2) fed with TMR enzyme showed a tendency of a slightly higher ECM yield (P = 0.09). The tested blood parameters were not affected by treatment in trial 1 and 2 (P > 0.05). EFE supplementation did not alter daily time spent ruminating in trial 2 (P = 0.44). In conclusion, under the conditions of this study no positive effects of enzyme supplementation on dairy performance and health status of dairy cows during early and mid-lactation were observed.
    09/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.aninu.2015.09.001
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    ABSTRACT: Large areas of peatlands in Germany and the Netherlands are affected by drainage and high nitrogen deposition. Sheep grazing is a common extensive management activity on drained peatlands, in particular on nature protection areas. However, input of easily mineralisable material such as sheep excrements could enhance degradation of soil organic carbon (Corg), thereby increasing the effect of these ecosystems on national GHG budgets. Thus, a microcosm experiment on the influence of sheep excreta on GHG emissions from a histic Gleysol with strongly degraded peat was set up. The 15N and 13C stable isotope tracer technique was used to partition sources of CO2 and N2O. Labeled sheep faeces and urine were obtained by feeding enriched material. Undisturbed soil columns were treated with surface application of urine, faeces or mixtures of both in different label combinations to distinguish between direct effects and possible priming effects. Incubation was done under stable temperature and precipitation conditions. Fluxes as well as 15N and 13C enrichment of N2O and CO2, respectively, were measured for three weeks. Addition of sheep excreta increased emission of total CO2 in proportion to the added carbon amounts. There was no CO2 priming in the peat. No effect on CH4 and N2O was observed under the aerobic experimental conditions. The N2O–N source shifted from peat to excreta, which indicates negative priming, but priming was not significant. The results indicate that sheep excreta do not significantly increase GHG emissions from degraded peat soils. Considering the degraded peatland preserving benefits, sheep grazing on peatlands affected by drainage and high nitrogen deposition should be further promoted.
    Soil Biology and Biochemistry 09/2015; 88:282–293. DOI:10.1016/j.soilbio.2015.06.001 · 3.93 Impact Factor
  • Sadri · D. Von Soosten · U. Meyer · J. Kluess · S. Dänicke · B. Saremi · H. Sauerwein ·
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    ABSTRACT: Carbohydrates are not the only macronutrients triggering insulin release following food intake. Besides other components, leucine (Leu) has been demonstrated to induce insulin secretion in humans and in laboratory rodents. We hypothesized that Leu stimulates the release of insulin in dairy cows, and thus our objective was to test the effects of a single-dose of Leu infused intraduodenally on the concentrations of insulin, glucose and free amino acids (AA) in blood plasma as compared to infusions with either glucose or saline. Six duodenum-fistulated Holstein cows were studied in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design with 3 periods of 7 d, in which the treatments were applied at the end of each period. The treatments were duodenal bolus infusions of Leu (DIL; 0.15 g/kg BW), glucose (DIG; at Leu equimolar dosage) or saline (SAL). Blood samples were taken at -15, 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 75, 90, 120, 180, 210, 240 and 300 min relative to the infusion and the concentrations of insulin, glucose and AA were determined in plasma. In DIG, insulin and glucose concentrations peaked at 30-40 and 40-50 min after the infusion, respectively. Insulin concentrations were greater (P<0.05) from 30-50 min in DIG than DIL and SAL. In DIG, glucose concentrations were greater (P≤0.01) from 30-75 and 40-50 min than in DIL and SAL, respectively. In DIL, Leu concentrations peaked 50-60 min after infusion, reaching 20 and 15-fold greater values than that in DIG and SAL, respectively. The plasma concentrations of total AA minus Leu were affected by treatment (P<0.0001), resulting in lowest mean concentrations of total AA minus Leu in DIL, followed by DIG and SAL. The data suggest that Leu infusion did not elicit an apparent insulin response, but may stimulate the tissue uptake of AA by mechanisms yet to be elucidated.
    66th Annual Meeting of the European Association for Animal Production, Warsaw, Poland; 08/2015
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    ABSTRACT: The inhibition of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP4) via specific inhibitors is known to result in improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity and decreased accumulation of hepatic fat in type II diabetic human patients. The metabolic situation of dairy cows can easily be compared to the status of human diabetes and non-alcoholic fatty liver. For both, insulin sensitivity is reduced, while hepatic fat accumulation increases, characterized by high levels of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and ketone bodies.Therefore, in the present study, a DPP4 inhibitor was employed (BI 14332) for the first time in cows. In a first investigation BI 14332 treatment (intravenous injection at dosages of up to 3 mg/kg body weight) was well tolerated in healthy lactating pluriparous cows (n = 6) with a significant inhibition of DPP4 in plasma and liver. Further testing included primi- and pluriparous lactating cows suffering from subclinical ketosis (β-hydroxybutyrate concentrations in serum > 1.2 mM; n = 12). The intension was to offer effects of DPP4 inhibition during comprehensive lipomobilisation and hepatosteatosis. The cows of subclinical ketosis were evenly allocated to either the treatment group (daily injections, 0.3 mg BI 14332/kg body weight, 7 days) or the control group. Under condition of subclinical ketosis, the impact of DPP4 inhibition via BI 14332 was less, as in particular β-hydroxybutyrate and the hepatic lipid content remained unaffected, but NEFA and triglyceride concentrations were decreased after treatment. Owing to lower NEFA, the revised quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (surrogate marker for insulin sensitivity) increased. Therefore, a positive influence on energy metabolism might be quite possible. Minor impacts on immune-modulating variables were limited to the lymphocyte CD4+/CD8+ ratio for which a trend to decreased values in treated versus control animals was noted. In sum, the DPP4 inhibition in cows did not affect glycaemic control like it is shown in humans, but was able to impact hyperlipemia, as NEFA and TG decreased.
    PLoS ONE 08/2015; 10(8):e0136078. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0136078 · 3.23 Impact Factor
  • Sven Dänicke · Janine Winkler ·
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the review was to evaluate the opportunities for diagnosing the zearalenone (ZEN) exposure and intoxication of farm animals by analyzing biological specimens for ZEN residue levels. Metabolism is discussed to be important when evaluating species-specific consequences for the overall toxicity of ZEN. Besides these toxicological facts, analytics of ZEN residues in various animal-derived matrices requires sensitive, matrix-adapted multi-methods with low limits of quantification, which is more challenging than the ZEN analysis in feed. Based on dose-response experiments with farm animals, the principle usability of various specimens as bio-indicators for ZEN exposure is discussed with regard to individual variation and practicability for the veterinary practitioner. ZEN residue analysis in biological samples does not only enable evaluation of ZEN exposure but also allows the risk for the consumer arising from contaminated foodstuffs of animal origin to be assessed. It was compiled from literature that the tolerable daily intake of 0.25 μg ZEN/kg body weight and day is exploited to approximately 8 %, when a daily basket of animal foodstuffs and associated carry over factors are assumed at reported ZEN contamination levels of complete feed. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
    Food and chemical toxicology: an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association 08/2015; 84. DOI:10.1016/j.fct.2015.08.009 · 2.90 Impact Factor
  • H Sadri · S Dänicke · Ulrich Meyer · J Rehage · J Frank · H Sauerwein ·
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    ABSTRACT: The fat-soluble vitamin E comprises the 8 structurally related compounds (congeners) α-, β-, γ-, and δ-tocopherol (with a saturated side chain) and α-, β-, γ-, and δ-tocotrienol (with a 3-fold unsaturated side chain). Little is known regarding the blood and liver concentrations of the 8 vitamin E congeners during the transition from pregnancy to lactation in dairy cows. We thus quantified tocopherols (T) and tocotrienols (T3) in serum and liver and hepatic expression of genes involved in vitamin E metabolism in pluriparous German Holstein cows during late gestation and early lactation and investigated whether dietary supplementation (from d 1 in milk) with conjugated linoleic acids (CLA; 100 g/d; each 12% of trans-10,cis-12 and cis-9,trans-11 CLA; n = 11) altered these compared with control-fat supplemented cows (CTR; n = 10). Blood samples and liver biopsies were collected on d -21, 1, 21, 70, and 105 (liver only) relative to calving. In both groups, the serum concentrations of αT, γT, βT3, and δT3 increased from d -21 to d 21 and remained unchanged between d 21 and 70, but were unaffected by CLA. The concentrations of the different congeners of vitamin E in liver did not differ between the CTR and the CLA groups. In both groups, the concentrations of the vitamin E forms in liver changed during the course of the study. The hepatic mRNA abundance of genes controlling vitamin E status did not differ between groups, but α-tocopherol transfer protein and tocopherol-associated protein mRNA increased with time of lactation in both. In conclusion, the concentrations of vitamin E congeners and the expression of genes related to vitamin E status follow characteristic time-related changes during the transition from late gestation to early lactation but are unaffected by CLA supplementation at the dosage used. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Journal of Dairy Science 07/2015; 98(10). DOI:10.3168/jds.2015-9710 · 2.57 Impact Factor

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  • 2010-2015
    • MSD Animal Health, Germany
      Schleisheim, Bavaria, Germany
  • 2008-2015
    • Friedrich Loeffler Institute
      • Institute of Animal Nutrition
      Griefswald, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany
  • 1995-2009
    • Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg
      • Institute of Agricultural and Nutritional Sciences
      Halle-on-the-Saale, Saxony-Anhalt, Germany
  • 2007
    • Hawaii Agriculture Research Center
      Honolulu, Hawaii, United States
  • 2005-2006
    • Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Agropecuarias
      Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires F.D., Argentina