Sven Dänicke

Friedrich Loeffler Institute, Griefswald, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany

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Publications (309)410.06 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Large areas of peatlands in Germany and the Netherlands are affected by drainage and high nitrogen deposition. Sheep grazing is a common extensive management activity on drained peatlands, in particular on nature protection areas. However, input of easily mineralisable material such as sheep excrements could enhance degradation of soil organic carbon (Corg), thereby increasing the effect of these ecosystems on national GHG budgets. Thus, a microcosm experiment on the influence of sheep excreta on GHG emissions from a histic Gleysol with strongly degraded peat was set up. The 15N and 13C stable isotope tracer technique was used to partition sources of CO2 and N2O. Labeled sheep faeces and urine were obtained by feeding enriched material. Undisturbed soil columns were treated with surface application of urine, faeces or mixtures of both in different label combinations to distinguish between direct effects and possible priming effects. Incubation was done under stable temperature and precipitation conditions. Fluxes as well as 15N and 13C enrichment of N2O and CO2, respectively, were measured for three weeks. Addition of sheep excreta increased emission of total CO2 in proportion to the added carbon amounts. There was no CO2 priming in the peat. No effect on CH4 and N2O was observed under the aerobic experimental conditions. The N2O–N source shifted from peat to excreta, which indicates negative priming, but priming was not significant. The results indicate that sheep excreta do not significantly increase GHG emissions from degraded peat soils. Considering the degraded peatland preserving benefits, sheep grazing on peatlands affected by drainage and high nitrogen deposition should be further promoted.
    Soil Biology and Biochemistry 09/2015; 88:282–293. DOI:10.1016/j.soilbio.2015.06.001 · 4.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The present study aimed to examine the mRNA abundance of the monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and to localize the MCP-1 protein in different subcutaneous (s.c.) and visceral (v.c.) fat depots in high-yielding dairy cows. Early-lactating German Holstein cows (n = 25) were divided into a control (CON) and a conjugated linoleic acids (CLA)-supplemented group to investigate potential effects of dietary CLA treatment on MCP-1. The MCP-1 was localized in different s.c. and v.c. adipose tissue (AT) by immunohistochemistry, whereas the mRNA abundance was investigated using quantitative PCR. Albeit the infiltration of immune cells into bovine AT has been demonstrated to be only marginal, both MCP-1 protein and mRNA could be detected in bovine AT depots. The MCP-1 protein was localized both in the cytoplasm of adipocytes and in the cytoplasm of cells from the stromal vascular fraction; however, the number of MCP-1-positive cells was low. The mRNA abundances of MCP-1 were higher in v.c. compared with s.c. AT. Moreover, neither mRNA abundance nor protein expression of MCP-1 was seriously influenced by CLA supplementation of early-lactating dairy cows. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Journal of Dairy Science 06/2015; DOI:10.3168/jds.2014-9256 · 2.55 Impact Factor
  • PLoS ONE 05/2015; 10(5):e0127208. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0127208 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The peripartal period of dairy cows is associated with a higher incidence of infectious diseases like mastitis or metritis, particularly in high-yielding animals. The onset of lactation induces a negative energy balance and a shift of glucose distribution toward the udder. Glucose is used as primary fuel by monocytes which give rise to macrophages, key cells in the defense against pathogens. The aim of this study was to analyze whether animals with high or low body condition score (BCS) differ in composition and glucose uptake capacities of bovine monocyte subsets. Blood samples were taken from 27 dairy cows starting 42 days before parturition until day 56 after parturition. The cows were allocated to two groups according to their BCS. A feeding regime was applied, in which the BCS high group received higher amounts of concentrate before parturition and concentrate feeding was more restricted in the BCS high group after parturition compared with the BCS low group, to promote postpartal lipolysis and enhance negative energy balance in the BCS high group. Blood cell counts of classical (cM), intermediate (intM) and nonclassical monocytes (ncM) were increased at day 7 after calving. In the BCS low group intM numbers were significantly higher compared to the BCS high group at day 7 after parturition. Within the BCS low group cows suffering from mastitis or metritis showed significantly higher numbers of cM, intM and ncM at day 7 after parturition. Classical monocytes and intM showed similar glucose uptake capacities while values for ncM were significantly lower. Compared with antepartal capacities and irrespective of BCS and postpartal mastitis or metritis, glucose uptake of all monocyte subsets decreased after parturition. In conclusion, whereas glucose uptake capacity of bovine monocyte subsets is altered by parturition, it is not linked to the energy supply of the animals or to postpartal infectious diseases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 05/2015; 166(1-2). DOI:10.1016/j.vetimm.2015.04.007 · 1.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Vitamin E in its natural form comprises eight different compounds, i.e. α-, β-, γ-, and δ forms of each tocopherol (T) and –tocotrienol (T3). The most abundant form of tocopherols, α-tocopherol (αT), is the only form used to supplement animal feed. However, T3 exhibit some unique physiological functions that are not entirely shared by tocopherols (1). In contrast to αT, little is known about plasma and tissue concentrations of T3 in humans and animals. The increase in vitamin E status of laboratory animals supplemented with conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) attracted interest in the interaction between vitamin E and CLA (2). Thus, our study aimed to characterize the concentrations of the different vitamin E congeners in serum and in liver and the hepatic gene expression of factors related to vitamin E metabolism in dairy cows during early lactation, and to test the effects of a dietary supplement with CLA. Methods: Twenty one pluriparous German Holstein cows were randomly assigned to receive either 100 g/d CLA (n = 11; Lutrell pure, BASF, Germany; each 12% of trans-10, cis-12 and cis-9, trans-11 CLA) or a control fat supplement (Silafat, BASF; CTR; n = 10) from days in milk 1 to 182. Blood samples and liver biopsies were collected on d -21, 1, 21, 70, and 105 (liver only) relative to calving. Serum and liver concentrations of vitamin E congeners were quantified by HPLC. The mRNA abundance of α-tocopherol transfer protein (TPP), α-tocopherol associated protein (TAP), and cytochrome P450 4F2 (CYP4F2) were quantified by real-time RT-PCR. Data were analyzed by the MIXED model with treatment, time, and interaction of treatment and time as the fixed effects and cow as the random effect. Results: In the CLA group, mean dry matter intake (21.2 ± 0.24 kg/d; mean ± SEM) did not differ from the CTR group (22.3 ± 0.24 kg/d). There were no significant differences in any of the serum concentrations of the various forms of vitamin E between the CTR and the CLA group. The serum concentrations of αT, γT, βT3, and δT3 changed over time (P < 0.01) and followed a similar pattern in both groups, i.e. showing an increase from d -21 to d 21 and remaining largely unchanged between d 21 and d 70. No CLA by time interactions were observed for the serum concentrations of vitamin E forms except for γT3 (P = 0.06). The molar ratio of the serum vitamin E isoforms to cholesterol was not affected by the CLA supplementation. The molar ratio of all forms of vitamin E to cholesterol in the serum changed during the course of the study (P ≤ 0.02). There were no differences in any of the liver concentrations of various congeners of vitamin E between the CTR and the CLA group. Time-related changes in the liver concentrations of the vitamin E forms were noted in both experimental groups (P < 0.05; P = 0.07 in case of γT3). The hepatic mRNA abundance of genes related to vitamin E metabolism did not differ between the two groups. In the CTR group, TTP mRNA increased during the course of the study from d -21 to 1.62-fold values on d 105 (P < 0.01). There was a trend observed for the interaction between treatment and time for the mRNA abundance of TTP (P = 0.10). In the post partum period, the abundance of mRNA encoding TAP was greater (P < 0.001) on d 105 than on d 70 (2.80- and 2.70-fold for the CTR and CLA group, respectively). The mRNA abundance of CYP4F2 did not change over time and there was also no treatment by time interaction. Conclusion: All four congeners of T3 were detected in serum and liver of dairy cows during late gestation and early lactation, albeit at distinctively lower concentrations than αT and γT. Increasing mRNA expression of TPP with days in milk in the CTR group may point to an involvement of TTP in the increase of αT concentrations in the serum. Finally, our data indicate time-dependent changes in the serum and liver concentrations of the vitamin E congeners and in the hepatic expression of genes related to vitamin E metabolism that were largely unaffected by CLA supplementation.
    69th Conference of the Society of Nutrition Physiology (GfE), Göttingen; 04/2015
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    ABSTRACT: Under moderate climatic conditions, deoxynivalenol (DON) contamination occurs frequently on cereals. Detoxification measures are required to avoid adverse effects on farm animals. In the present study, a wet preservation method with sodium sulfite (Na2SO3) and propionic acid was tested to titrate the optimum Na2SO3-dose for maximum DON reduction of contaminated maize kernels and meal and to examine the interaction between dose and moisture content in dependence on the preservation duration. The DON concentration decreased with increasing amounts of supplemented Na2SO3 and with increasing duration of the preservation period in a bi-exponential fashion. Additionally, the feed structure and moisture content had a significant influence on the decontaminating effect. Variants with 30% moisture content favored higher DON reduction rates compared to 14% moisture, but especially at low moisture contents, DON reduction was more pronounced in maize kernels than in maize meal. In addition to the decrease of DON, a concomitant formation of three different DON sulfonates was observed which differed in their formation pattern over the time course of preservation. The overall results and statistical analysis clarified that Na2SO3 addition of 10 g/kg maize at 30% moisture for eight days was necessary to obtain a complete DON reduction.
    Toxins 03/2015; 7(3):791-811. DOI:10.3390/toxins7030791 · 2.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mainly produced in adipose tissue (AT), leptin is involved in the regulation of energy metabolism. In dairy cows, leptin is upregulated during late lactation and decreased before parturition, when body reserves are re-filled to prepare the animal for the subsequent lactation. The number of mitochondria, the main cellular energy suppliers, increased in AT during fattening in nonlactating dairy cows (1). Based on the metabolic effects leptin exerts in AT, we hypothesized that circulating leptin serum concentrations are related to the number of mitochondria in bovine AT. We aimed to investigate the association between circulating leptin concentrations and the mitochondrial (mt) DNA copy number, reflecting the number of mitochondria within a cell, in relation to adipocyte sizes from dairy cows with increasing body condition. In addition, programmed cell death (apoptosis), which is negatively correlated to adipocyte size in bovine, has been determined. Eight nonpregnant, nonlactating German Holstein cows (age: 4 – 6 years) were moved from a straw diet to a high energy diet by stepwise increasing the concentrate and silage portions from 0 to 60 % and 0 to 40 % of DM within 6 weeks (wk). This diet was maintained for further 9 wk. The mean body weight (BW) gain per cow was 243 ± 33.3 kg and body condition score (BCS) increased from 2.3 ± 0.4 to 4.5 ± 0.4 throughout the experiment (P = 0.001). Blood samples were collected each month and serum leptin concentrations were quantified by ELISA. Subcutaneous AT from the tailhead region was biopsied at the onset, after 8, and 15 wk of the experiment. The samples were either snap frozen in liquid nitrogen for isolating genomic DNA or were fixed in 4% formaldehyde for subsequent paraffin embedding and evaluation of adipocyte sizes (µm²) as well as for the analysis of apoptosis by a TUNEL assay. The relative mtDNA copy number/cell was quantified by a multiplex qPCR targeting the 12S rRNA gene using the ß-globin as an endogenous nuclear control gene. Calculation of mtDNA copies/cell was described earlier (2). Data were analyzed using linear mixed models and associations between parameters were assessed by the Spearman correlation (SPSS). Adipocytes tended to be enlarged (P = 0.090) and both mtDNA copy numbers and leptin concentrations increased 4.7-fold and 2.2-fold, respectively, until wk 8 of the trial. Moreover, the portion of apoptotic cells decreased 2.5-fold (P = 0.026) within the first 8 wks of the trial. Thereafter, all variables investigated herein were not further increased at the end of the trial. Positive correlations were observed between mtDNA copies/cell and adipocyte sizes ( = 0.388, P = 0.067), leptin ( = 0.707, P < 0.001), BW ( = 0.596, P = 0.003) and BCS ( = 0.503, P = 0.012). Increased mtDNA content in enlarged adipocyte sizes may sustain or even increase the energy supply, thus the portion of apoptotic cells was decreased. Leptin might inhibit lipid accumulation (3) and increasing leptin concentrations may thus inhibit a further enlargement of the adipocytes, leading to stagnating mtDNA copies/cells. Stable adipocyte sizes on the other hand will lead to stagnating leptin concentrations.
    69th Conference of the Society of Nutrition Physiology (GfE), Göttingen, Germany; 03/2015
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    ABSTRACT: A dose-response study was carried out to examine the carryover of zearalenone (ZEN), deoxynivalenol (DON) and their metabolites into bovine milk. Therefore, a feeding trial with 30 dairy cows fed with three different levels of Fusarium (FUS) toxin-contaminated maize was performed. A control group (0.02 mg ZEN kg(-1) dry matter (DM) and 0.07 DON kg(-1) DM) was compared with two groups fed contaminated diets. The first diet contained 0.33 mg ZEN kg(-1) DM and 2.62 mg DON kg(-1) DM (group FUS-50) and the second diet contained 0.66 mg ZEN kg(-1) DM and 5.24 mg DON kg(-1) DM (group FUS-100). For milk sample analysis, a new cost-efficient sample preparation method was developed for the simultaneous determination of ZEN, DON and their metabolites. The method comprised the separation of the milk fat followed by an SPE clean-up on Oasis HLB and a LC-MS/MS measurement. The less toxic metabolite de-epoxy-DON had the highest detected concentration (5.6 ng ml(-1) milk) in the milk samples obtained from the feeding trial. Additionally, ZEN (up to 0.29 ng ml(-1)), α-zearalenol (up to 0.17 ng ml(-1)), β-zearalenol (up to 0.95 ng ml(-1)) and DON (up to 2.5 ng ml(-1)) were detected in these samples. The milk toxin concentrations of cows fed the control diet were significantly lower compared with cows fed the contaminated diet. The calculated carryover rates ranged between 0 and 0.0075 for ZEN and metabolites and between 0 and 0.0017 for DON independent of exposure. It can be concluded that dietary toxin concentrations in the feed below or close to the current guidance values do not pose a risk for consumers due to negligible carryover rates.
    Food Additives and Contaminants - Part A Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure and Risk Assessment 03/2015; 32(3):371-380. DOI:10.1080/19440049.2015.1011714 · 2.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: It was hypothesized that long-term intake of a diet contaminated with deoxynivalenol (DON) and differing in the proportion of concentrate might affect hepatocellular integrity and function as well as biomarkers of systemic inflammation in lactating dairy cows. In Period 1 (11 weeks), 26 lactating German Holstein cows (13 primiparous and 13 pluriparous, 31 days in milk, 522 kg body weight, on average) were divided into two groups and fed diets (50% concentrate) with (MYC, n = 12; on average 5.3 mg DON/kg DM) or without (CON, n = 14) DON contaminations. In Period 2 (16 weeks), each group was further divided into two groups to test whether elevated concentrate proportion as additional burden might enhance the toxicity of DON. The cows in MYC60 (n = 6; 4.6 mg DON/kg DM) and CON60 (n = 7) received the diet with 60% concentrate, while cows in MYC30 (n = 6; 4.4 mg DON/kg DM) and CON30 (n = 7) received the diet with 30% concentrate. Blood samples were taken in biweekly intervals for activities of aspartate amino transferase (AST), glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH) and gamma-glutamyl transferase as well as for concentration of total bilirubin and haptoglobin. Biopsies from liver were collected in week 27 for morphological analyses. No DON effect was found for the variables assessed in blood. The diet with 60% concentrate led to higher activities of AST and GLDH in Period 2. No morphological change was found by both light and electron microscopic analyses of liver samples. Results indicated that long-term intake of DON-contaminated diet over 27 weeks led to neither relevant damages of hepatocytes nor systemic inflammatory responses in lactating dairy cows, even if the dietary concentrate proportion was increased to 60%. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
    J Anim Physiol a Anim Nutr 03/2015; DOI:10.1111/jpn.12293 · 1.32 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Nutritional and environmental conditions around conception and during early embryonic development may have significant effects on health and well-being in adult life. Here, a bovine heifer model was used to investigate the effects of rumen-protected fat supplementation on oocyte quality and embryo development. Holstein-Friesian heifers (n=84) received a dietary supplement consisting of rumen-protected conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) or stearic acid (SA), each on top of an isocaloric basic diet. Oocytes were collected via ultrasound-guided follicular aspiration and subjected to in vitro maturation followed by either desorption electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (DESI-MS) for lipid profiling of individual oocytes or in vitro fertilisation and embryo culture. The type of supplement significantly affected lipid profiles of in vitro-matured oocytes. Palmitic acid and plasmalogen species were more abundant in the mass spectra of in vitro-matured oocytes after rumen-protected SA supplementation when compared with those collected from animals supplemented with CLA. Lipid concentrations in blood and follicular fluid were significantly affected by both supplements. Results show that rumen-protected fatty-acid supplementation affects oocyte lipid content and may pave the way for the establishment of a large-animal model for studies towards a better understanding of reproductive disorders associated with nutritional impairments.
    Reproduction Fertility and Development 02/2015; DOI:10.1071/RD14352 · 2.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Using an established model in which subclinical ketosis is induced, the response of differential blood counts and levels of various haematological variables, including the inflammatory marker haptoglobin (Hp), were tested over the last six weeks of parturition until the 56th day post-partum in cows with lower or higher body condition scores (LBC and HBC, respectively; n = 9/group). Animals in the HBC group evidenced subclinical ketosis whereas LBC animals were metabolically healthy. For in vitro examination with ß-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) as a further stimulus, peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) counts of cows with and without subclinical ketosis (n = 5/group) were observed. Counts of leucocytes, granulocytes and lymphocytes (LY) peaked at day 1 post-partum in HBC cows, with a more marked increase in heifers. In subclinical ketosis LY count increased again, with significantly higher values in the HBC group. The red blood cell (RBC) profile was affected by parity (counts were higher in heifers). Hp showed a positive linear correlation with BHB and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA; R(2) = 0.41). PBMC from cows that were not pre-stressed with subclinical ketosis were more sensitive to increasing levels of BHB in vitro, as evidenced by both their higher proliferative capability and increased release of nitric oxide (NO). In summary, cows with subclinical ketosis showed a heightened immune response compared with metabolically healthy individuals, based on increased LY counts, increasing stimulative properties of PBMC and a relationship between Hp and typically increased values of BHB and NEFA. Concentrations of BHB in vivo during subclinical ketosis did not alter the proliferative capability of bovine PBMC in vitro, which was first significantly decreased at a dosage of 5 mM BHB.
    Archives of animal nutrition 02/2015; 69(2):1-15. DOI:10.1080/1745039X.2015.1013666 · 0.89 Impact Factor
  • 02/2015; 14(1). DOI:10.4081/ijas.2015.3539
  • Chapter: Feeds
    Sven Dänicke, Gerhard Flachowsky
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    ABSTRACT: The article contains sections titled: 1.Introduction2.History3.Composition of Feeds and Feed Analysis4.Utilization of Feeds by Animals5.Systems of Energy Evaluation of Feeds6.Feed Characterization and Common Feeds6.1.Water for Drinking6.2.Roughages6.3.Concentrates6.4.Coproducts from Feed, Food, and Biofuel Industry7.Feed Additives8.Feed Hygiene and Feed Safety8.1.Introduction and Legal Classification8.2.Feed Hygiene Status and Feed Spoilage8.2.1.Microbial Feed Spoilage8.2.2.Mycotoxin Contamination of Feedstuffs8.2.3.Mites8.2.4.Endotoxins9.Future Developments in the Field of Feed Science9.1.Plant Breeding Including Biotechnology9.2.Insects9.3.Coproducts9.4.Feed Additives10.Carryover of Feed Substances into Food of Animal Origin10.1.“Desirable” Food Ingredients10.2.“Undesirable” Food Substances
    Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, 01/2015: pages 1-26; , ISBN: 9783527306732
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    ABSTRACT: A feeding trial with 30 dairy cows which were fed rations with three different concentrations of zearalenone (ZEA) and deoxynivalenol (DON) contaminated maize was carried out to examine the ZEA and DON concentration in urine. German Holstein cows (n=30) were divided into three groups (n=10 in each) which received diets with following toxin concentrations: CON (0.02 mg ZEA and 0.07 mg DON, per kg dry matter (DM)), FUS-50 (0.33 mg ZEA and 2.62 mg DON, per kg DM), FUS-100 (0.66 mg ZEA and 5.24 mg DON, per kg DM). For urine analysis, a reliable, cost-efficient and sensitive method for simultaneous determination of ZEA, DON and their metabolites was developed. The method comprises a solid phase extraction clean-up on Oasis HLB cartridges followed by LC-MS/MS measurement. ZEA, alpha-zearalenol, beta-zearalenol, DON and de-epoxydeoxynivalenol (DOM) could be detected in the urine samples of the feeding trial. Thereby, DON was almost completely metabolised to DOM (83-98%) independent of the DON exposure. Moreover, conjugated toxins were the major urinary metabolites based on results of the analysis with beta-glucuronidase treated and untreated samples. Furthermore, relationships between toxin intake and urinary toxin concentration could be established. In conclusion, increased urine toxin concentrations may hint on toxin exposure through the diets and thus the mycotoxins ZEA and DON and their detected metabolites could be used as biomarkers of exposure.
    World Mycotoxin Journal 01/2015; 8(1):63-74. DOI:10.3920/WMJ2014.1745 · 2.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In response to negative energy balance, overconditioned cows mobilize more body fat than thin cows and subsequently are prone to develop metabolic disorders. Changes in adipose tissue (AT) metabolism are barely investigated in overconditioned cows. Therefore, the objective was to investigate the effect of increasing body condition on key regulator proteins of fat metabolism in subcutaneous AT and circulation of dairy cows. Nonlactating, nonpregnant dairy cows (n = 8) investigated in the current study served as a model to elucidate the changes in the course of overcondition independent from physiological changes related to gestation, parturition, and lactation. Cows were fed diets with increasing portions of concentrate during the first 6 wk of the experiment until 60% were reached, which was maintained for 9 wk. Biopsy samples from AT of the subcutaneous tailhead region were collected every 8 wk, whereas blood was sampled monthly. Within the experimental period cows had an average BW gain of 243 ± 33.3 kg. Leptin and insulin concentrations were increased until wk 12. Based on serum concentrations of glucose, insulin, and nonesterified fatty acids, the surrogate indices for insulin sensitivity were calculated. High-concentrate feeding led to decreased quantitative insulin sensitivity check index and homeostasis model assessment due to high insulin and glucose concentrations indicating decreased insulin sensitivity. Adiponectin, an adipokine-promoting insulin sensitivity, decreased in subcutaneous AT, but remained unchanged in the circulation. The high-concentrate diet affected key enzymes reflecting AT metabolism such as AMP-activated protein kinase and hormone-sensitive lipase, both represented as the proportion of the phosphorylated protein to total protein, as well as fatty acid synthase. The extent of phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase and the protein expression of fatty acid synthase were inversely regulated throughout the experimental period, whereas the extent of phosphorylation of hormone-sensitive lipase was consistently decreasing by the high-concentrate diet. Overcondition in nonpregnant, nonlactating dairy cows changed the expression of key regulator proteins of AT metabolism and circulation accompanied by impaired insulin sensitivity, which might increase the risk for metabolic disorders. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Journal of Dairy Science 12/2014; 98(2). DOI:10.3168/jds.2014-8710 · 2.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A total of 80 piglets (7.9 ± 1.0 kg) were used in a feeding experiment with dried oregano. The diets differed in their oregano content: 0 g, 2 g, 4 g and 8 g oregano/kg feed, corresponding to 0, 23.5, 46.9 and 93.9 mg carvacrol/kg DM. After the experimental period of 5 weeks, 20 piglets of both extreme feeding groups were slaughtered: 10 animals of the control group and 10 animals of the group that received 8 g oregano/kg. Ingesta samples of jejunum, caecum and colon were collected and analyzed by FISH and PCR RFLP to compare the diversity of microbiota. The results showed no significant changes in microbiota in response to oregano. The patterns of the PCR-RFLP showed a similarity of 61.8% - 91.8% in both feeding groups. In conclusion, an effect of oregano on the in- testinal microbiota could not be shown under the methods used.
    Food and Nutrition Sciences 12/2014; 5:1628-1636. DOI:10.4236/fns.2014.517175
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    ABSTRACT: Scope: Procyanidins are amongst the most abundant polyphenols in the human diet and they are reported to exhibit several beneficial health effects. However the knowledge about their metabolic fate is rather limited. To investigate the systemic absorption and metabolism of dietary procyanidin B4 a kinetic study using pigs as model system has been performed.Methods and results: After oral application of a single-dose of 10 mg/kg body weight procyanidin B4, urine and plasma were collected over a period of 48 h. Procyanidin B4 and its possible metabolites were analyzed in physiological samples using high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry and gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Procyanidin B4 was detected as intact molecule in urine as well as in plasma. Maximum reached plasma concentration of procyanidin B4 (cmax) was 2.13 ng/mL (3.68 nM) and mean total urinary excretion related to the administered dose was 0.008 ± 0.003%. In addition to that the monomeric structural units catechin and epicatechin were determined as degradation products. Furthermore methylated and conjugated monomeric metabolites were identified. Monomeric metabolites were identified to be the major fraction occurring in the systemic circulation. The analysis of phenolic acids did not show an increase of these possible further metabolites.Conclusion: After oral administration procyanidin B4 is absorbed as intact molecule and it is excreted in urine. In addition it is degraded to the monomeric subunits which are then further metabolized to methylated and glucuronidated conjugates in pigs.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
    Molecular Nutrition & Food Research 12/2014; 58(12). DOI:10.1002/mnfr.201400435 · 4.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the usefulness of follicular fluid (FF) in relation to blood plasma and bile as indicators of exposure of dairy cows to ZEN, DON and their metabolites, a dose–response study was performed with 30 dairy cows. The cows, 10 in each group (named CON; FUS-50, FUS-100), received a diet with three different concentrations of Fusarium toxin-contaminated maize. Thereby, the following dietary concentration were reached: CON (0.02 mg ZEN and 0.07 mg DON, per kg dry matter, DM), FUS-50 (0.33 mg ZEN and 2.62 mg DON, per kg DM) and FUS-100 (0.66 mg ZEN and 5.24 mg DON, per kg DM). ZEN, DON and de-epoxy-DON (de-DON) were detected in FF. Based on the linear regression between toxin concentration in plasma and FF, it seems that about 50 % (m = 0.5) of ZEN present in plasma is present in FF while an increase of 1 ng/ml DON or de-DON in plasma is paralleled by an increase of 1.5 ng/ml DON or 1.1 ng/ml de-DON in FF. ZEN, DON and their metabolites, except zearalenone (ZAN), were also detected in bile. Contrary to DON and de-DON, ZEN and its metabolites were accumulated in bile so that the concentration of ZEN and metabolites was much higher than for DON and de-DON. The main compound was β-zearalenol (β-ZEL). The biliary ZEN, α-zearalenol (α-ZEL) and β-ZEL concentration correlated linearly with each other with an uncertainty of <15 % (r2 ≥ 0.86), whereas the ratio between ZEN: α-ZEL: β-ZEL was about 1.5:1:11. With the help of established linear relationship between toxin intake and toxin concentration, bile could be used as diagnostic indicator to assess the exposure of cows.
    J Anim Physiol a Anim Nutr 12/2014; DOI:10.1111/jpn.12285 · 1.32 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Concentrations of zearalenone (ZEN), deoxynivalenol (DON) and their metabolites α-zearalenol (α-ZEL), β-zearalenol (β-ZEL), zearalanone (ZAN), α-zearalanol (α-ZAL), β-zearalanol (β-ZAL) and de-epoxy-deoxynivalenol (de-DON) in serum, liquor and urine of female piglets fed diets containing 0.01, 0.05, 0.08, 0.17 and 0.29 mg ZEN/kg and 0.03, 0.59, 1.27, 2.01 and 4.52 mg DON/kg during 29 days of treatment were analysed. After 1, 3, 8, 15, 22 and 29 days, four piglets per group were slaughtered. The simultaneous determination of all analytes was carried out using a sensitive and selective in-house-validated liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method after sample preparation with Oasis™ HLB columns. ZEN, α-ZEL, DON and de-DON were detected in serum, whereas in liquor only ZEN, DON and de-DON were found at lower concentrations. In urine, all analytes were detected in considerably higher concentrations as in serum and liquor, whereby α- and β-ZAL could only be detected sporadically. Apart from ZEN in liquor and α- and β-ZAL in urine, the mycotoxin concentrations increased with increasing concentrations of Fusarium toxins in the diet. The toxin intake per kg body weight 3-4 h prior to slaughtering correlated well with the DON and the sum of DON and de-DON concentrations in all three specimens as well as with the ZEN, α-ZEL and the sum of ZEN and metabolite concentrations in urine. Due to the high correlation between the dietary DON concentration and the DON (r = 0.855) and the sum of DON and de-DON (r = 0.870) concentration in serum, the exposure to DON can be evaluated. Moreover, serum levels of these toxins indicative of an exceeding of the guidance value in feed can be established using the corresponding regression equations. Strictly speaking, these relationships are only valid for the experimental conditions of the underlying experiment. For practical application of these relationships, the individual variation needs to be additionally considered. Effects of the duration of toxin exposure within the feeding groups were observed for ZEN, DON and de-DON in all specimens as well as for α-ZEL, β-ZEL and ZAN in urine.
    Archives of animal nutrition 10/2014; 68(6):1-23. DOI:10.1080/1745039X.2014.973227 · 0.89 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A long-term feeding experiment with dairy cows was performed to investigate the effects of feeding a Fusarium toxin contaminated (FUS) and a background-contaminated control (CON) ration with a mean concentrate feed proportion of 50% during the first 11 weeks after parturition (Groups FUS-50, CON-50, Period 1), and with concentrate feed proportions of 30% or 60% during the remaining 17 weeks (Groups CON-30, CON-60, FUS-30 and FUS-60, Period 2), on zearalenone (ZEN) residue levels in blood serum, milk, urine and bile. ZEN, α-zearalenol (α-ZEL) and β-zearalenol (β-ZEL), zearalanone (ZAL), α-zearalanol (α-ZAL) and β-zearalanol (β-ZAL) were determined by HPLC with fluorescence detection. The ZEN concentrations of the rations fed to Groups CON-50, FUS-50 (Period 1), CON-30, CON-60, FUS-30 and FUS-60 (Period 2) amounted to 53.1, 112.7, 35.0, 24.4, 73.8 and 72.5 µg/kg dry matter, respectively. The concentrations of ZEN, α-ZEL, β-ZEL, ZAN, α-ZAL and β-ZAL in serum, urine and milk were lower than 1, 1, 4, 100, 50 and 200 ng/g, respectively, while ZEN, α-ZEL and β-ZEL were detected in bile. Their levels changed with oral ZEN exposure in the course of the experiment and in a similar direction with concentrate feed proportion (Period 2 only). Thus the proportions of the individual β-ZEL, α-ZEL and ZEN concentrations of their sum varied only in narrow ranges of 68-76%, 6-13% and 12-20%, respectively. Interestingly, the bile concentrations of β-ZEL, α-ZEL and ZEN of Groups CON-60 and FUS-60 amounted to only approximately 50%, 45% and 62%, respectively, of those of Groups CON-30 and FUS-30 despite a similar or even lower ZEN exposure. The results indicate that conversion of ZEN to its detectable metabolites was not changed by different dietary concentrate feed proportions while their absolute levels were decreased. These findings might suggest concentrate feed proportion-dependent and rumen fermentation-mediated alterations in ZEN/metabolite degradation, and/or liver associated alterations in bile formation and turnover.
    Archives of animal nutrition 10/2014; 68(6):1-15. DOI:10.1080/1745039X.2014.973236 · 0.89 Impact Factor

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  • 2008–2015
    • Friedrich Loeffler Institute
      • Institute of Animal Nutrition
      Griefswald, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany
  • 2014
    • University of Münster
      • Institute of Food Chemistry
      Muenster, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
  • 2010–2014
    • MSD Animal Health, Germany
      Schleisheim, Bavaria, Germany
  • 2007
    • Hawaii Agriculture Research Center
      Honolulu, Hawaii, United States
  • 2006
    • Leibniz Institute for Farm Animal Biology
      • Institute of Reproductive Biology
      Dummerstorf, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany
  • 2005–2006
    • Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Agropecuarias
      Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires F.D., Argentina
    • Hohenheim University
      • Institute of Animal Nutrition
      Stuttgart, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
  • 1995–2004
    • Martin Luther University of Halle-Wittenberg
      • Institute of Agricultural and Nutritional Sciences
      Halle-on-the-Saale, Saxony-Anhalt, Germany
  • 2002
    • Freie Universität Berlin
      • Institute of Animal Nutrition
      Berlín, Berlin, Germany