[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: This study was conducted to retrospectively investigate the indications for renal biopsy in native kidneys and to analyze pathological findings in the last 10 years in a single tertiary pediatric hospital in Serbia. Methods: All patients who underwent renal biopsy at our hospital between 2001 and 2010 were included in the present study. Renal biopsy was performed under fluoroscopy with a biopsy gun. All renal biopsies were studied under light and immunofluorescent microscopy, while electron microscopy was rarely performed. Results: The study group included 150 patients (56% female) who underwent 158 percutaneous native kidney biopsies. Median age was 11.5 years (range 0.2-20 years). The most frequent indications for renal biopsy were nephrotic syndrome (32.9%), asymptomatic hematuria (23.4%), urinary abnormalities in systemic diseases (15.8%) and proteinuria (11.4%). Primary glomerulonephritis (GN) was the most common finding (57.4%), followed by secondary GN (15.5%) and tubulointerstitial diseases (4.5%). According to histopathological diagnosis, the most common causes of primary GN were focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (20.9%), mesangioproliferative GN (14.6%), IgA nephropathy (8.9%) and minimal change disease (13%). Lupus nephritis (6%) and Henoch-Schönlein nephritis (4%) were the most common secondary glomerular diseases. Conclusions: The epidemiology of glomerular disease in our single-center report is similar to that in data from adjacent Croatia and Greece. Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis was the dominant histopathological finding, followed by mesangioproliferative GN and IgA nephropathy.
Journal of nephrology 02/2012; · 2.02 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Renal transplant recipients often suffer from dyslipidemia which is one of the principal risk factors for cardiovascular disease. This study sought to determine characteristics of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles and their associations with carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) in a group of pediatric renal transplant recipients. We also examined the influence of immunosuppressive therapy on measured LDL and HDL particle characteristics. HDL size and subclass distribution were determined using gradient gel electrophoresis, while concentrations of small, dense LDL (sdLDL)-cholesterol (sdLDL-C) and sdLDL-apolipoprotein B (sdLDL-apoB) using heparin-magnesium precipitation method in 21 renal transplant recipients and 32 controls. Renal transplant recipients had less HDL 2b (P < 0.001), but more HDL 3a (P < 0.01) and 3b (P < 0.001) subclasses. They also had increased sdLDL-C (P < 0.01) and sdLDL-apoB (P < 0.05) levels. The proportion of the HDL 3b subclasses was a significant predictor of increased cIMT (P < 0.05). Patients treated with cyclosporine had significantly higher sdLDL-C and sdLDL-apoB concentrations (P < 0.05) when compared with those on tacrolimus therapy. Pediatric renal transplant recipients have impaired distribution of HDL and LDL particles. Changes in the proportion of small-sized HDL particles are significantly associated with cIMT. Advanced lipid testing might be useful in evaluating the effects of immunosuppressive therapy.
Transplant International 08/2011; 24(11):1094-102. · 3.16 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Arterial hypertension is a risk factor affecting graft function in pediatric kidney transplants. Recent pediatric studies reported a high prevalence of hypertension, especially nocturnal hypertension in this population. Data regarding the prevalence of masked hypertension in pediatric patients with kidney transplants are still scarce. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to assess the prevalence of masked and hidden uncontrolled hypertension after renal transplantation. A total of 41 patients (25 males) with stable functioning renal graft were included in the study. Their median age was 14.5 years with the median interval since transplantation of 2.5 years (range 0.3 to 20.6). Spacelabs 90207 was used to measure ambulatory blood pressure (BP) during a 24-h period. Ambulatory hypertension was defined as mean systolic and/or diastolic BP index at day-time or nighttime >or=1. Masked hypertension was defined as normal office BP but daytime ambulatory hypertension in patients without antihypertensive medications. Hidden uncontrolled hypertension was defined as daytime ambulatory hypertension undetected by office BP measurements in treated patients. Antihypertensive medications were prescribed to 58%. Prevalence of nocturnal hypertension was 68%. On the basis of combination of office and ABPM masked hypertension and hidden uncontrolled hypertension was detected in 24% and 21% of the study population, respectively. Regular use of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in transplanted patients enables detection of masked and hidden uncontrolled hypertension.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aims of this investigation were to compare changes of function of adult living kidney grafts transplanted into adult and child recipients and to analyze factors associated with graft function during the first post-transplant year. The study involved 53 adult and 23 pediatric recipients with immediate graft function and without complications that could influence graft function. In comparison to children, adult recipients and their donors were older, and having been longer on hemodialysis they had received more transfusions. Although similar baseline graft function--GFR(0) was transplanted in both groups, absolute and relative GFR in adults rose and maintained stable, while in children absolute GFR decreased and remained similar to the GFR(0) until the end of the study. Significant predictors of kidney function in both adult and child recipients were donor age, ratio between GFR(0) and recipient BSA, induction immunosuppression, and systolic hypertension. In conclusion, the function of adult live kidney grafts changed differently in children and adults because of different functional requirements of recipients but donor age, induction immunosuppression and hypertension are significant predictor of graft function in both adults and children.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We reviewed the clinical, histological and serological parameters of microscopic polyangiitis (MPA) associated with antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) specific to myeloperoxidase (MPO). Six girls and one boy aged 12.0+/-2.6 years (7-15 years) met the following inclusion criteria: (1) clinical manifestations of systemic small vessel involvement; (2) histological demonstration of pauci-immune necrotizing glomerulonephritis; and (3) serological findings of increased concentration of MPO-ANCA by ELISA test. The main clinical manifestations were: influenza-like symptoms (100%), hematuria/proteinuria (100%), purpura (100%), pulmonary-renal syndrome (57%), acute renal failure (ARF) (29%), ischemic cerebral insults (29%), and necrotizing vasculitis of the skin (29%). All patients underwent renal biopsy examined by immunohistochemistry with expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha SMA) in glomerular and interstitial spaces. Patients were followed from 6 months to 5.5 years (35.4+/- 23.2 months). None of the patients died. Two of seven children who had ARF progressed to end stage renal disease; one developed chronic renal failure, and four normalized renal function. ARF and central nervous system involvement at presentation were parameters of poor renal outcome. A high score of fibro-cellular glomerular crescents was associated with worse prognosis. Early treatment enables a favorable prognosis of MPO-ANCA-associated MPA in children.