[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Here, we examined the effect of black tea and caffeine on lung tumorigenesis in F344 rats induced by the nicotine-derived carcinogen 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) in a 2-year bioassay. NNK was administered s.c. at a dose of 1.5 mg/kg body weight three times weekly for 20 weeks. Animals were given either black tea as drinking water at concentrations of 2%, 1%, or 0.5%, or caffeine in drinking water at concentrations identical to those in 2% and 0.5% tea infusions for 22 weeks. The treatment period began 1 week before and ended 1 week after the NNK administration. The animals were sacrificed on week 101 for the examination of tumors in target organs, including lung, liver, nasal cavity, and other major organs. The NNK-treated group, given 2% black tea, showed a significant reduction of the total lung tumor (adenomas, adenocarcinomas, and adenosquamous carcinomas) incidence from 47% to 19%, whereas the group given 1% and 0.5% black tea showed no change. The 2% tea also reduced liver tumor incidence induced by NNK from 34% in the group given only deionized water to 12%. The tumor incidence in the nasal cavity, however, was not affected by either black tea or caffeine at any of the concentrations tested. The most unexpected finding was the remarkable reduction of the lung tumor incidence, from 47% to 10%, in the group treated with 680 ppm caffeine, a concentration equivalent to that found in the 2% tea. This incidence is comparable to background levels seen in the control group. This study demonstrated for the first time in a 2-year lifetime bioassay that black tea protects against lung tumorigenesis in F344 rats, and this effect appears to be attributed, to a significant extent, to caffeine as an active ingredient of tea.
Cancer Research 10/1998; 58(18):4096-101. · 8.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Studies were conducted to determine the chemopreventive efficacy of several types of tea extracts on azoxymethane-induced colon cancer in male F344 rats. After determining the maximally tolerated dosage of the tea products, their effect in a colon cancer model was investigated. Groups of 36 male F344 rats received 2 subcutaneous doses of 15 mg/kg azoxymethane (AOM) at Weeks 6 and 7. Experimental groups also received as drinking fluids 3600 ppm of black or green tea extracts, 1800 ppm of EGCG, or 1800 ppm of black or green tea polyphenols beginning at 5 weeks of age. Additional groups drank a lower dose of 360 ppm of the five tea products. The experiments were terminated 43 weeks after the first tea exposure. No evidence of toxicity was observed since the body weight gain of all groups was similar. The rats given AOM had carcinoma of the small intestine and of the colon, classified histologically as in situ carcinoma, exophytic, invasive, and Peyer's patch carcinoma. In the small intestine, most of the neoplasms were classified as invasive, but in the colon, most were exophytic. The various tea products failed to produce a significant difference in the incidence of the several types of colon and small intestine carcinoma. The multiplicity of colon cancers ranged from 1.2-2.8 in all groups. The group on 3600 ppm of green tea had a significantly higher tumor multiplicity than the control group on AOM and water. Also, the group on 3600 ppm of green tea had a significantly higher tumor multiplicity than the group on 360 ppm. The tea products did not affect the development aspects of the tumors in most groups. The mechanisms underlying these findings rest on the fact that azoxymethane is metabolized mainly by cytochrome P450 2E1, and this enzyme system is not affected by tea.
Proceedings of The Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine 02/1998; 217(1):104-8.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Two sets of experiments on the role of tea in azoxymethane (AOM) induced colon cancer were performed. The first test involved male F344 rats given 1.25% solutions of black tea beginning at 5 weeks of age and ending at 51 days of age. At 6 and 7 weeks of age, they received 15 mg/kg AOM and were held for 50 weeks. Another group received the AOM dosage at 6 and 7 weeks and were placed on the tea solutions 2 days after the last AOM dosage, at 51 days of age, and held for the 50-week period. The end point was the occurrence and multiplicity of colon cancer, classified as in situ, exophytic, invasive and Peyer's patch carcinomas. Tea failed to affect the incidence and multiplicity of colon cancers when given during or after the AOM administration, but tea after AOM increased the multiplicity of exophytic carcinomas. In a second series of tests, solutions of 0.6, 1.25, 1.75 or 2.5% tea were given, beginning 1 week prior to the two AOM doses and extending for 42 weeks. Also, one group received 1.25% tea and 1.85% whole milk. The incidence of exophytic or invasive colon cancer and tumor multiplicity were similar in all treatment groups, although the incidence of exophytic neoplasms was higher with 2.5% tea. Thus, chronic administration failed to significantly change the incidence and multiplicity of the AOM-induced colon cancers. These findings are accounted for by the underlying mechanism, namely the fact that tea solutions do not alter the amount of cytochrome P-4502E1 required for the metabolic activation of AOM.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Four agents, fumaric acid (FA), N-acetylcysteine (NAC), N-(4-hydroxyphenyl) retinamide (4-HPR) and beta-carotene (beta-CT), were evaluated for potential chemopreventive activity using the tobacco-specific carcinogen 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK)-induced lung tumor model in female A/J mice. The agents were evaluated in both 16-week and 52-week bioassays at two dose levels corresponding to 0.8 maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and 0.4 MTD administered throughout the bioassay either in the diet (FA, 160 and 80 mmol/kg diet; NAC, 160 and 80 mmol/kg diet; 4-HPR, 4 and 2 mmol/kg diet) or by subcutaneous injection twice a week (beta-CT, 32 and 16 mg/kg b.w.). Mice were treated with a single i.p. dose of 10 micromol NNK in saline 1 week after administration of test agent. Lung adenomas were evaluated in the 16-week bioassay, whereas both adenomas and adenocarcinomas of the lung were determined in the 52-week bioassay. Both bioassays showed that all four agents did not significantly inhibit the total tumor incidence and multiplicity of the lung. However, the incidence of adenocarcinomas was reduced (P < 0.01) at 52 weeks in NNK groups given either 0.8 MTD NAC or 0.8 MTD beta-CT compared with the NNK control group. The decreases in adenocarcinomas were accompanied by corresponding increases in adenomas in these treatment groups. Thus, this study showed that FA, NAC, 4-HPR and beta-CT did not inhibit the total tumor formation, however, at the higher doses both NAC and beta-CT significantly retarded the malignant progression in the lung of NNK-treated A/J mice.
Cancer Letters 02/1998; 124(1):85-93. · 4.26 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Observational and experimental studies have suggested that dietary supplementation with selenium can inhibit the development of colon cancer. However, many forms of selenium are toxic. Consequently, the development of efficacious compounds with low toxicity has been pursued.
Two synthetic organoselenium compounds, p-methoxy-benzyl selenocyanate (p-methoxy-BSC) and 1,4-phenylenebis(methylene)selenocyanate (p-XSC), were tested for their ability to inhibit colon carcinogenesis in rats that were treated with the carcinogen azoxymethane and fed low- or high-fat diets.
Groups of 5-week-old male F344 rats (42 animals/ group) were fed either a high-fat diet or a low-fat diet with or without added p-methoxy-BSC (10 or 20 parts per million [ppm]) or p-XSC (20 ppm). Two weeks later, 30 animals in each group received a subcutaneous injection of azoxymethane (15 mg/kg body weight); 1 week later, they received a second injection. The remaining 12 rats in each group received two injections of saline. Three days after the second injection of carcinogen or saline, animals being fed diets with p-methoxy-BSC or p-XSC were switched to corresponding organoselenium-free low- or high-fat diets for the remainder of the study to determine the effects of the selenium compounds on the initiation phase of colon carcinogenesis. At that time, groups of animals that had been maintained on organoselenium-free low- or high-fat diets were switched to diets containing p-methoxy-BSC or p-XSC until the end of the study to determine the effects of these compounds on the postinitiation phase of colon carcinogenesis. All animals were killed during the 38th week after azoxymethane or saline treatment, and histopathologic analysis of the colon tumors was performed. Colon tumor incidence and multiplicity were analyzed statistically.
No obvious toxic effects were observed following dietary administration of 10 or 20 ppmp-methoxy-BSC or 20 ppm p-XSC. Administration of 20 ppm p-methoxy-BSC in a high-fat diet during the initiation and postinitiation phases of colon carcinogenesis significantly (statistically) reduced colon tumor incidence; 10 ppmp-methoxy-BSC in a high-fat diet significantly reduced colon tumor incidence but only when it was given during the postinitiation phase. Colon tumor incidence was also significantly reduced when 20 ppm p-XSC was given in a high-fat diet during the initiation phase of colon carcinogenesis. When 20 ppm p-XSC was administered in either a high-fat diet or a low-fat diet during the postinitiation phase, both colon tumor incidence and multiplicity were significantly reduced; the greatest reductions were in animals fed a low-fat diet.
In this model system, p-methoxy-BSC and p-XSC are effective agents for the chemoprevention of colon cancer. The effects of p-XSC were enhanced in animals fed a low-fat diet.
JNCI Journal of the National Cancer Institute 05/1997; 89(7):506-12. · 14.34 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The human colon can be described as a complex microbial ecosystem, comprising several hundred bacterial species. Some of these enteric bacteria are beneficial to the host and have been shown to exert antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic properties. We have investigated the colon tumor inhibitory activity of Bifidobacterium longum, a lactic acid-producing enterobacterium. The modifying effects of this lactic culture on colonic mucosal and/or tumor cell proliferation, ODC activity and ras-p21 oncoprotein expression in colon carcinogenesis were also analyzed. Male F344 rats were fed a modified AIN-76A diet containing 0 or 2% lyophilized cultures of B. longum and s.c. administered azoxymethane (AOM) dissolved in normal saline at a dose of 15 mg/kg body wt, once weekly for 2 weeks. Vehicle controls received an equal volume of normal saline s.c. Animals were maintained on control or experimental diets until termination of the study. Animals intended for analysis of cell proliferation were killed 20 weeks after the second AOM injection, whereas animals intended for colon tumor analysis and measurement of ODC activity and ras-p21 expression were killed 40 weeks after the last AOM injection. The data demonstrate that dietary administration of lyophilized cultures of B. longum resulted in significant suppression of colon tumor incidence and tumor multiplicity and also reduced tumor volume. Results also revealed that ingestion of B. longum significantly inhibited AOM-induced cell proliferation, ODC activity and expression of ras-p21 oncoprotein. Data suggest that oral administration of probiotic B. longum exerts strong antitumor activity, as indicated by modulation of the intermediate biomarkers of colon cancer, and consequently reduced tumor outcome.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Research was performed on the effect of tea, or tea and milk, instead of drinking water, in rat models of cancer in the mammary gland or colon. Solutions of 1.25% (w/v) black tea, or 1.85% (v/v) milk in tea were prepared three times per week. SD rats were given tea beginning at 42 days of age; one group was gavaged 5 mg 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) at 49 days of age; another group received 8.4 mg 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ) twice per week beginning at age 49, then 14 mg twice a week for 4 weeks more. The groups on DMBA were killed 33 weeks later, and those on IQ 39 weeks later. Tea decreased the mammary gland tumor multiplicity and volume, and milk and tea had a greater protective action. Male F344 rats were given two doses of 15 mg/kg azoxymethane (AOM) on weeks 6 and 7, and some groups started on tea, or tea and milk at 5 weeks; one group started on tea 2 days after AOM. Foci of aberrant crypts in the colon were decreased, after 9 weeks, in the groups on tea, or tea and milk during AOM administration, but not after AOM. Thus, tea decreases mammary tumor induction, and the production of foci of aberrant crypts in the colon. Milk potentiates these inhibiting effects.
Cancer Letters 04/1997; 114(1-2):323-7. · 4.26 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The exposure-responses for several effects of limited exposures to diethylnitrosamine (DEN) in the livers of male Fischer 344 rats were measured and phenobarbital promotion was used to enhance expression of initiation of carcinogenesis. Five doses ranging from a cumulative total of 0.5 to 4 mmol DEN per kg body weight were given as weekly i.p. injections for 10 weeks. This was followed by 4 weeks recovery, after which the groups were maintained on either a basal diet or 0.05% phenobarbital (PB) to promote liver tumor development. All doses of DEN produced ethylation in liver DNA, which increased with dose. Indicative of toxicity, the centrilobular zone of glutamine synthetase-positive hepatocytes was reduced in relationship to exposure up to a cumulative exposure of 3 mmol/kg. The two lower exposures to DEN produced no increase in cell proliferation, whereas higher exposures resulted in marked increases, approximately 4-fold between 1.0 and 2.0 mmol/kg cumulative. At the end of the recovery period (14 weeks), hepatocellular altered foci (HAF), which expressed the placental form of glutathione S-transferase, were induced by all exposures, with an increase of approximately 4-fold between the exposures of 1.0 and 2.0 mmol/kg being the greatest. In rats maintained on basal diet or PB for 24 weeks after exposure, HAF increased further and with exposures of 2.0 mmol/kg and above, all rats developed hepatocellular carcinomas. With 1.0 mmol/kg, no liver tumor occurred in 12 rats without promotion, whereas in those given PB, two adenomas and two carcinomas were present in 12 rats. At the lowest exposure of 0.5 mmol/ kg, no tumor occurred in rats on basal diet, although HAF increased approximately 7-fold. With PB promotion, only one adenoma developed in 12 rats and HAF increased another 2-fold. Thus, the findings document non-linearity for some of the effects of DEN and a near no-effect level for initiation of promotable liver neoplasms at the lowest exposure in spite of a substantial induction of HAF.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study examined the effects of 6-phenylhexyl isothiocyanate (PHITC) on lung tumorigenesis in F344 rats induced by the tobacco-specific nitrosamine 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK). Two biomarkers of NNK metabolism, 4-hydroxy-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (HPB)-releasing hemoglobin adducts and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL) and its glucuronide (NNAL-Gluc) in urine, were also quantified during the course of the tumor induction experiment. Rats were divided into groups as follows: (1) NNK, 2 p.p.m. in drinking water, 60 rats; (2) NNK, 2 p.p.m. in drinking water and PHITC, 1 micromol/g NIH-07 diet, 60 rats; (3) PHITC, 1 micromol/g NIH-07 diet, 20 rats; (4) control, 20 rats. PHITC was added to the diet for 1 week prior to and during 111 weeks of NNK treatment. There were no effects of PHITC on body weight, mortality, blood chemistry or hematology. Seventy percent of the rats treated with NNK had adenoma or adenocarcinoma of the lung. In the rats treated with NNK plus PHITC, the total percent incidence of lung tumors was 26% (P < 0.01 compared with NNK). PHITC had no effect on the total incidence of exocrine pancreatic tumors induced by NNK. The rats treated with PHITC and NNK had significantly lower levels of HPB-releasing hemoglobin adducts throughout the course of the bioassay than did those treated with NNK alone and significantly higher levels of NNAL plus NNAL-Gluc excreted in urine at two time points during the bioassay. These results demonstrate that near lifetime administration of PHITC to rats strongly inhibits the metabolic activation and lung tumorigenicity of NNK.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The mammary carcinogenicity of two diol epoxide metabolites of the commonly occurring environmental carcinogen benzo[j]fluoranthene (BjF) was investigated by direct application to the tissue beneath the mammary glands of female CD rats. The compounds tested were trans-4,5-dihydroxy-anti-6,6a.epoxy-4,5,6,6a-tetrahydroBjF (BjF-4,5-DE) and trans-9,10-dihydroxy-anti-11, 12-epoxy-9,10,11,12-tetrahydroBjF (BjF-9,10-DE). The positive control was trans-3,4-dihydroxy-anti-1,2-epoxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydrobenzo[c]phenanthren e (BcPDE). Groups of 20 female CD rats were maintained on AIN-76A-based high fat diet (23.5% corn oil) and at age 30 days were given three injections of 0.2 mumol of each compound in 0.1 ml dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), or DMSO alone, in the tissue underlying each of the three left thoracic nipples. The three right nipple areas were injected with DMSO alone. On the next day, each rat received three injections of 0.2 mumol of each compound in 0.1 ml DMSO, or DMSO alone, under each of the three left inguinal nipples, and DMSO alone under the three right nipples. The experiment was terminated after 44 weeks. BjF-9,10-DE, mean latent period 21.0 +/- 8.8 weeks, was more active than BjF-4,5-DE, mean latent period 36.2 +/- 8.0 weeks. BjF-9,10-DE induced tumors in 70% of the rats; a total of 38 fibroadenomas and eight adenocarcinomas was observed. BjF-4,5-DE induced tumors in 55% of the rats. These included 17 fibroadenomas, seven dysplastic fibroadenomas, and two adenocarcinomas. BcPDE induced tumors rapidly, with a mean latent period of 9.7 +/- 4.0 weeks. All BcPDE-treated rats had mammary tumors. A total of 46 adenocarcinomas, as well as other tumors, were observed. In the DMSO-treated rats, mammary tumor incidence was 15%. The results of this study demonstrate that BjF-9,10-DE is more carcinogenic in the rat mammary gland than BjF-4,5-DE and that low doses of both diol epoxide metabolites of BjF are effective mammary tumorigens in female CD rats maintained on a high fat diet.
Cancer Letters 10/1996; 106(2):251-5. · 4.26 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 2-Amino-l-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) is a mutagenic and carcinogenic heterocyclic amine present in pyrolysate products of meat and fish and has been shown to induce tumors in the colon, mammary gland, and possibly lymphatic system. Experiments were designed to examine the lymphoma-inducing capacity of PhIP and to test the inhibitory effects of oltipraz on PhIP-induced lymphomas in male F344 rats. Beginning at 5 weeks of age, groups of rats were fed the diets containing 0, 200, and 400 ppm oltipraz with or without 100-400 ppm PhIP. All animals were continued on this regimen until the 58th week. The results indicate that administration of PhIP produced lymphomas in 75% of rats. Most of the large lymphomas were thymomas (65%), and these lymphomas developed in less than 6 months. Death of animals during the course of the study was due to suffocation produced by a large lymphoma that filled the entire thoracic cavity, resulting in collapse of the lungs. Administration of 200-400 ppm oltipraz significantly protected rats from PhIP-induced toxicity; most of the rats survived until termination of the experiments. It is noteworthy that the addition of oltipraz at 200 and 400 ppm in the diet suppressed the PhIP-induced lymphomas to 90-100%. In conclusion, PhIP-induced lymphomas in the laboratory rat appears to be a very useful model to analyze the genesis of lymphomas, and oltipraz serves as a potential chemopreventive agent for lymphomas.
Cancer Research 09/1996; 56(15):3395-8. · 8.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC), which occurs in certain cruciferous vegetables, was tested for its ability to inhibit lung tumorigenesis in rats induced by the tobacco-specific nitrosamine 4-(methylnitrosamino-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) in a study involving virtually lifelong administration of both compounds. In addition, two biomarkers of NNK metabolism [4-hydroxy-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone-releasing hemoglobin adducts and 4-(methylnitrosamino-1-3-pyridyl-1-butanol and its glucuronide in urine] were quantified in randomly selected rats during the course of the study. The rats were assigned to groups as follows: NNK, 2 ppm in drinking water, 60 rats; NNK, 2 ppm in drinking water and PEITC, 3 micromol/g NIH-07 diet, 60 rats; PEITC, 3 micromol/g NIH-07 diet, 20 rats; and untreated controls, 20 rats. NNK was added to the drinking water for 111 weeks and PEITC to the diet for 1 prior to NNK administration and then throughout the 111-week course of treatment. There were no significant differences in body weights or survival among the groups. There were no significant effects of PEITC on blood chemistry or hematology. NNK induced lung tumors (adenoma and/or adenocarcinoma) in 70% of the rats. In the group treated with NNK plus PEITC, 5% of the rats had lung tumors, which was not different from that of control rats. PEITC also appeared to inhibit progression of benign to malignant pancreatic tumors. At intervals during the study, blood was withdrawn from selected rats, and 4-hydroxy-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone-releasing hemoglobin adducts, which are formed upon metabolic activation of NNK, were quantified. The hemoglobin adducts were significantly repressed throughout the study in the rats treated with NNK plus PEITC compared to those treated with NNK. The 24-h urine sample of several rats was analyzed for 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol glucuronide. A 4-6-fold increase in the sum of these metabolites was observed in the rats treated with NNK plus PEITC compared to those treated with NNK. This is also consistent with inhibition of metabolic activation of NNK by PEITC. Collectively, the results of this study provide strong evidence for the efficacy of PEITC as a chemopreventive agent against NNK-induced pulmonary carcinogenesis in rats and indicate that two biomarkers of NNK metabolism, measurable in tobacco consumers, can be modulated in a predictable way by PEITC administration.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Experimental and epidemiologic evidence suggests that increased dietary fiber is associated with decreased breast cancer risk. Little is known about the role played by different types of fiber and, particularly, mixtures of soluble and insoluble fibers similar to those consumed by human populations in reducing breast cancer risk. High intake of fiber may suppress bacterial hydrolysis of biliary estrogen conjugates to free (absorbable) estrogens in the colon and thus may decrease the availability of circulating estrogens necessary for the development and growth of breast cancers.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of wheat bran (an insoluble fiber) and psyllium (a soluble fiber) alone and in combination on overall estrogen status, on fecal bacterial beta-D-glucuronidase (a key diet-responsive estrogen-deconjugating enzyme) activity, and on the induction of mammary tumors in rats treated with N-methylnitrosourea (MNU).
One hundred fifty virgin female F344 rats were fed the NIH-07 diet from 28 days of age until 50 days of age; they were then given a single dose (40 mg/kg of body weight) of MNU by tail vein injection. Three days later, they were randomly assigned to one of five experimental dietary groups (30 animals per group). Soft, white wheat bran (45% dietary fiber content) and psyllium (80% dietary fiber content) were added to a modified (high-fat) American Institute of Nutrition (AIN)-76A diet at the following percents, respectively: 12% + 0% (group 1), 8% + 2% (group 2), 6% + 3% (group 3), 4% + 4% (group 4), and 0% + 6% (group 5). Blood, urine, and feces were collected and analyzed by radioimmunoassay techniques for estrogens. Cecal contents were analyzed for bacterial beta-D-glucuronidase activity. After 19 weeks on the experimental diets, the rats were killed, and mammary tumors were counted and classified by histologic type. Cumulative tumor incidence was evaluated by the Kaplan-Meier life-table method and the logrank test. Tumor number was evaluated by the chi-squared test of association, and tumor multiplicity was evaluated by the Mantel-Haenszel chi-squared test. All statistical tests were two-tailed.
As the level of psyllium relative to that of wheat bran increased, the total tumor number and multiplicity of mammary adenocarcinomas in rats decreased as a statistically significant linear trend across groups 1-5 (P < .05). Compared with the group given wheat bran alone, the group given the 1:1 (wheat bran:psyllium) combination had maximum protection against mammary tumorigenesis, while the groups given the 4:1 or 2:1 (wheat bran:psyllium) combination or psyllium alone had intermediate protection. No statistically significant differences in circulating estrogens or urinary estrogen excretion patterns were observed among the five experimental groups. Fecal estrogen excretion, however, decreased with increasing levels of psyllium (P < .01), and cecal beta-D-glucuronidase activity exhibited a decreasing trend with respect to the increasing psyllium content of the diet across groups 1-5 (P < .01).
The addition of a 4%:4% mixture of an insoluble (wheat bran) fiber and a soluble (psyllium) fiber to a high-fat diet provided the maximum tumor-inhibiting effects in this mammary tumor model. Although increasing levels of dietary psyllium were associated with decreased cecal bacterial beta-D-glucuronidase activity, these changes were not reflected in decreased circulating levels of tumor-promoting estrogens. Therefore, the mechanism(s) by which mixtures of soluble and insoluble dietary fibers protect against mammary tumorigenesis remains to be clarified.
JNCI Journal of the National Cancer Institute 07/1996; 88(13):899-907. · 14.34 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study is to test the long-standing hypothesis that endogenous agents found in human breast fluid and in plasma are potential initiators of breast cancer. Therefore, we evaluated the tumorigenicity in the mammary glands of female CD rats of cholestan-5 alpha,6 alpha-epoxy-3 beta-ol (cholesterol-alpha-epoxide), cholestan-5 beta,6 beta-epoxy-3 beta-ol (cholesterol-beta-epoxide), and 1,5(10)estradiene-3,14,17-trione (estrone-3,4-quinone). As a positive control, trans-3,4-dihydroxy-anti-1,2-epoxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydrobenzo[c]phenanthren e (BcPDE) was used. Rats were fed a high-fat AIN-76A diet (23.5% corn oil) to mimic the Western dietary composition. Because literature data suggest that the endogenous agents tested in this study are weak electrophiles, the total doses of cholesterol epoxides (12.3 mumol/rat) and of estrone-3,4-quinone (30 mumol/rat)were 10- and 25- fold higher, respectively, than that of BcPDE (1.2 mumol/rat). Each agent was dissolved in DMSO, and one-sixth of the total dose was injected under each of six nipples on the right side. The thoracic glands of the rat were treated at 30 days of age, and those located in the inguinal area were treated on the following day. The experiment was terminated at 44 weeks after treatment. Consistent with our previous study, BcPDE was a strong mammary carcinogen. However, there were no differences between rats treated with DMSO alone or those receiving DMSO containing cholesterol-alpha-epoxide, cholesterol-beta-epoxide, or estrone-3,4-quinone. The results of this study clearly indicate, for the first time, that metabolites derived from cholesterol and estrone lack tumorigenic activity in the rat mammary gland, at least under the conditions of the present protocol.
Cancer Research 06/1996; 56(9):1970-3. · 8.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of three promising sulfur-containing compounds, 6-phenylhexyl isothiocyanate (PHITC), phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC), and N-acetylcysteine (NAC), as chemopreventive agents in a long-term bioassay for lung tumorigenesis in F344 rats. PEITC occurs as a constituent of certain cruciferous vegetables, PHITC is a synthetic homologue, and NAC is an endogenous substance. Male F344 rats were treated with the tobacco-specific nitrosamine 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) by s.c. injection at a dose of 1.5 mg/kg body weight three times weekly for 20 weeks. This dose regimen induced a 67% tumor incidence in the lung, a major target organ of NNK. PHITC or PEITC administered in the diet for 22 weeks, a period covering from 1 week before to 1 week after the NNK treatment, exhibited significant inhibition of lung tumorigenesis induced by NNK. The lung tumor incidences in the NNK-treated groups, fed a diet containing 4 mmol/kg (876 ppm) or 2 mmol/kg (438 ppm) PHITC, were 24 and 19% and were 9 and 17% in groups fed PEITC at concentrations of 8 mmol/kg (1304 ppm) or 4 mmol/kg (652 ppm), respectively. In contrast to isothiocyanates, NAC given in the diet at 80 mmol/kg (13056 ppm) or 40 mmol/kg (6528 ppm) exerted no inhibitory effects on the NNK-induced lung tumorigenesis. At the dose studied, NNK did not induce liver and pancreatic tumors in the treated animals, but a significant increase of nasal cavity tumor incidence was observed in the NNK-treated group. However, none of the test compounds showed any effect on the tumorigenesis in this tissue. This study demonstrated that PHITC and PEITC were potent chemopreventive agents for the NNK-induced lung tumorigenesis in F344 rats, whereas NAC was not active at all. These results support further evaluation of these compounds in chemoprevention studies.
Cancer Research 03/1996; 56(4):772-8. · 8.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The dose-related effects of the fiber-rich isolate, soft white wheat bran (SWWB), and the pure fiber, cellulose, on N-nitrosomethylurea (NMU)-induced mammary tumorigenesis was assessed in F344 female rats. SWWB (45% total dietary fiber, TDF) was added to the AIN-76A high-fat diet at 9, 12, 15 and 18%; cellulose (98% TDF) was added to the same diet at 4.5, 6, 7.5 and 9%, to give equivalent amounts of TDF. The experimental diets were fed 3 days post-NMU and continued for a period of 25 weeks, at which time the experiment was terminated and tumors enumerated. It was found that significant inhibition of mammary carcinoma occurred only at 9% SWWB, non-significant inhibition occurred at 12% SWWB, and no inhibition was seen at higher doses. Cellulose-fed animals exhibited consistently higher tumor yields regardless of dose. The difference in tumor yields between the 9% SWWB group and the remaining seven groups was attributable to an increased incidence in tumors characterized histologically as intraductal proliferation and ductal carcinoma in situ in the latter. Analysis of blood, urine and fecal estrogens was conducted to test whether dietary fiber exerted its tumor-inhibiting effect by altering the enterohepatic recycling of estrogens. Although SWWB, in general, lowered urinary estrogen excretion, increased fecal estrogen excretion and lowered blood estrogens, there was no consistent correlation between the amount of SWWB consumed, estrogen status and tumor yields. These results suggest that (i) wheat bran fiber at 9%, or minor constituents associated with it, contain anti-promoting properties that cellulose lacks; (ii) SWWB appears to exert its effects by suppressing the clonal expansion phase of mammary carcinogenesis; (iii) there is an upper limit (12-15% w/w) to the protective effects of SWWB; and (iv) the effects of SWWB on mammary tumorigenesis may not be attributed to alterations in the enterohepatic recycling of estrogens.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the U.S., there has been a steeper rise of the incidence of lung adenocarcinoma than of squamous cell carcinoma of the lung among cigarette smokers. Since 1950, the percentage of all cigarettes sold that had filter tips increased from 0.56 to 92% in 1980 and to 97% in 1990. The tobacco of the filter cigarettes is richer in nitrate than that of the nonfilter cigarettes manufactured in past decades. Because the smoker of cigarettes with lower nicotine yield tends to smoke more intensely and to inhale the smoke more deeply than the smoker of plain cigarettes, the peripheral lung is exposed to higher amounts of nitrogen oxides, nitrosated compounds, and lung-specific smoke carcinogens. It is our working hypothesis that more intense smoking, deeper inhalation of the smoke, and higher smoke delivery of the organ-specific lung carcinogen NNK to the peripheral lung are major contributors to the increased risk of cigarette smokers for lung adenocarcinoma. Bioassay data and biochemical studies in support of this concept are discussed.
Critical Reviews in Toxicology 02/1996; 26(2):199-211. · 6.25 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Naturally occurring and related synthetic isothiocyanates are known to exert chemopreventive effects in several organs in rodent models. The present study was designed to investigate the efficacy of 6-phenylhexyl isothiocyanate (PHITC), a potent chemopreventive agent in the lung tumor model in strain A mice, on azoxymethane-induced colon tumorigenesis. Another aim was to study the modulating effect of PHITC on colonic mucosal and tumor phospholipase A2 (PLA2), phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC), lipoxygenase (LOX), and cyclooxygenase (COX) activities. At 5 weeks of age, groups of male F344 rats were fed control diet or diets containing 320 or 640 ppm of PHITC representing 40 and 80% maximum tolerated dose levels, respectively. At 7 weeks of age, all animals except those in the vehicle-treated groups were given two weekly s.c. injections of azoxymethane at a dose rate of 15 mg/kg body weight/week. All animals continued on their respective dietary regimen for 52 weeks after the carcinogen treatment; then the study was terminated. Colonic mucosa and tumors were analyzed for PLA2, PI-PLC, prostaglandin (PG) E2, COX, and LOX activities. Intestinal tumors were evaluated histopathologically and classified as invasive or noninvasive adenocarcinomas. Intestinal tumor incidence (percentage of animals with tumors) and tumor multiplicity (tumors/animal; tumors/tumor-bearing animal) were compared among the dietary groups. At the 640-ppm dose level, dietary PHITC significantly increased the incidence of intestinal (small intestine plus colon) adenocarcinomas (P < 0.05) as well as the multiplicities of invasive and noninvasive adenocarcinomas of the colon (P < 0.05 to 0.01). At the 320-ppm dose level, PHITC increased the multiplicity (tumors/animal) of noninvasive adenocarcinomas and total (invasive plus noninvasive) adenocarcinomas of the colon (P < 0.05). Dietary PHITC also increased the colon tumor volume (2- to 4.3-fold) in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, PHITC significantly enhanced the activities of PLA2 (50-100%) and levels of PGE2 (2-fold) in the colonic mucosa and in tumors, but it had no significant effect (P > 0.05) on PI-PLC activity. The formation of COX metabolites, particularly PGE2, PGF2 alpha, PGD2, 6-keto PGF1 alpha, and thromboxane B2, as well as LOX metabolites such as 8(S)-, 12(S)- and 15 (S)-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids, were significantly increased in the colonic mucosa and tumors of animals that were fed 640 ppm of PHITC. Although the exact mechanism by which PHITC promotes colon tumorigenesis remains to be elucidated, it is likely that the tumor-promoting effects of PHITC may, at least in part, be related to increased eicosanoid metabolism in the colon.
Cancer Research 10/1995; 55(19):4311-8. · 8.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We compared the mammary carcinogenicity in female CD rats of three fjord region diol epoxides to test our hypothesis that such sterically hindered molecules would be potent carcinogens. The diol epoxides tested were racemic anti-3,4-dihydroxy-1,2-epoxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydrobenzo[c]phenanthrene (BcPDE), anti-11,12-dihydroxy-13,14-epoxy-11,12,13,14-tetrahydrobenzo[g]chrysene (BgCDE) and anti-11,12-dihydroxy-13,14-epoxy-11,12,13,14-tetrahydrodibenzo[a,l ]pyrene (DB[a,l]PDE). Each diol epoxide was dissolved in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) and injected under the six nipples on the left side of the rat, with DMSO only being injected under the nipples on the right side. The total dose of each diol epoxide was 1.2 mumol/rat and there were 20 rats/group. The experiment was terminated 41 weeks after treatment. All three diol epoxides were potent mammary carcinogens, with activity greater than previously observed for a bay region diol epoxide, anti-7,8-dihydroxy-9,10-epoxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydrobenzo[a]pyrene (BPDE). DB[a,l]PDE induced tumors most rapidly, followed by BcPDE and BgCDE. However, different types of tumors were induced. For induction of adenomas and adenocarcinomas, BcPDE and BgCDE had comparable potency; both were more active than DB[a,l]PDE. In contrast, for induction of sarcomas, DB[a,l]PDE was significantly more active than BcPDE and BgCDE. The results of this study support our hypothesis that sterically hindered fjord region diol epoxides are potent mammary carcinogens in the rat.