J P Osborne

University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpor, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

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Publications (80)600.98 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We aimed to investigate the relationship between movement disorders, changes on brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and vigabatrin therapy in children with infantile spasms. Retrospective review and brain MRI analysis of children enrolled in the International Collaborative Infantile Spasms Study (ICISS) who developed a movement disorder on vigabatrin therapy. Comparisons were made with controls within ICISS who had no movement disorder. Ten of 124 infants had a movement disorder and in eight it had developed on vigabatrin therapy. Two had a movement disorder that resolved on dose-reduction of vigabatrin, one had improvement on withdrawing vigabatrin, two had resolution without any dose change, and in three it persisted despite vigabatrin withdrawal. The typical brain MRI changes associated with vigabatrin therapy were noted in two infants. Ten control infants were identified. Typical MRI changes noted with vigabatrin were noted in three controls. It is possible that in two out of eight cases, vigabatrin was associated with the development of a movement disorder. In six out of eight cases a causal relationship was less plausible. The majority of infants treated with vigabatrin did not develop a movement disorder. MRI changes associated with vigabatrin do not appear to be specifically related to the movement disorder.
    Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology 06/2013; · 2.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: The indications for surgery and outcomes of patients who underwent surgical removal of subependymal giant cell astrocytomas (SEGAs) in our institution between 2000 and 2011 were reviewed. METHODS: We reviewed the clinical details of 16 patients with a diagnosis of Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC) who underwent surgery for SEGA in Bristol since 2000. We collected information on age, sex, epilepsy history and cognitive status. We reviewed the indications for surgery, age at surgery, surgical approach, and the size and location of the lesions. We analysed mortality, completeness of tumour resection, intraoperative blood transfusion, shunt placements, and surgical complications. RESULTS: 13 patients had surgery due to hydrocephalus. Increasing size of SEGA without hydrocephalus was an indication for surgery in two patients, and in one patient, the SEGA was removed because of its size and location at initial scan. 13 patients had complete tumour resection. One patient had tumour recurrence. Hydrocephalus failed to resolve or reoccurred in four patients post operatively necessitating shunt insertion. The surgical approach was transcortical in 14 patients and transcallosal in two. There was zero mortality in this series. There were no reports of cognitive decline or worsening epilepsy following surgery. CONCLUSION: Surgery is a safe and effective treatment for SEGA. It is the authors' view that surgery remains the most appropriate treatment strategy for SEGAs that are amenable to surgery. More work needs to be undertaken to assess prospectively the neurocognitive impact of surgery, and the relative advantages of different surgical approaches.
    European journal of paediatric neurology: EJPN: official journal of the European Paediatric Neurology Society 11/2012; · 2.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Infantile spasms is a severe infantile seizure disorder. Several factors affect developmental outcome, especially the underlying etiology of the spasms. Treatment also affects outcome. Both age at onset of spasms and lead time to treatment (the time from onset of spasms to start of treatment) may be important. We investigated these factors. Developmental assessment using Vineland Adaptive Behaviour Scales (VABS) at 4 years of age in infants enrolled in the United Kingdom Infantile Spasms Study. Date of or age at onset of spasms was obtained prospectively. Lead time to treatment was then categorized into five categories. The effects of lead time to treatment, age of onset of spasms, etiology, and treatment on developmental outcome were investigated using multiple linear regression. Age of onset ranged (77 infants) from <1 to 10 months (mean 5.2, standard deviation 2.1). Lead time to treatment was 7 days or less in 11, 8-14 days in 16, 15 days to 1 month in 8, 1-2 months in 15, >2 months in 21 and not known in 6. Each month of reduction in age at onset of spasms was associated with a 3.1 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.64-5.5, p = 0.03] decrease, and each increase in category of lead time duration associated with a 3.9 (95% CI 7.3-0.4, p = 0.014) decrease in VABS, respectively. There was a significant interaction between treatment allocation and etiology with the benefit in VABS in those allocated steroid therapy being in children with no identified etiology (coefficient 29.9, p=0.004). Both prompt diagnosis and prompt treatment of infantile spasms may help prevent subsequent developmental delay. Younger infants may be more at risk from the epileptic encephalopathy than older infants.
    Epilepsia 06/2011; 52(7):1359-64. · 3.96 Impact Factor
  • John P. Osborne, Andrew J. Green
    05/2011: pages 129.1 - 129.13; , ISBN: 9781444345384
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    ABSTRACT: The epileptic encephalopathies of infancy and childhood are a collection of epilepsy disorders characterized by refractory, severe seizures and poor neurological outcome, in which the mechanism of disease is poorly understood. We report the clinical presentation and evolution of epileptic encephalopathy in a patient, associated with a loss-of-function mutation in the phospholipase C-β 1 gene. We ascertained a consanguineous family containing a male infant who presented with early-onset epileptic encephalopathy for detailed clinical phenotyping and molecular genetic investigation. In addition, a cohort of 12 consanguineous families of children with infantile spasms were analysed for linkage to the phospholipase C-β 1 gene locus. The male infant presented with tonic seizures in early infancy and subsequently developed infantile spasms. Over time, he developed drug-resistant epilepsy associated with severe neurological regression and failure to thrive. Molecular genetic investigation revealed a homozygous loss-of-function 0.5-Mb deletion, encompassing the promoter element and exons 1, 2 and 3 of phospholipase C-β 1 in the index case. Linkage to the phospholipase C-β 1 locus was excluded in the 12 other consanguineous families, consistent with genetic heterogeneity in this disorder. Although phospholipase C-β 1 deficiency has not previously been reported in humans, the Plcb1 homozygote knockout mouse displays early-onset severe tonic seizures and growth retardation, thus recapitulating the human phenotype. Phospholipase C-β 1 has important functions in both hippocampal muscarinic acetylcholine receptor signalling and in cortical development. Thus, the discovery of a phospholipase C-β 1 mutation allows us to propose a novel potential underlying mechanism in early-onset epileptic encephalopathy.
    Brain 10/2010; 133(10):2964-70. · 9.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To examine the underlying etiology of infantile spasms from the United Kingdom Infantile Spasms Study (UKISS), using the pediatric adaptation of ICD 10. Infants were enrolled in a randomized controlled trial or a parallel epidemiologic study. Etiological information included history, examination, and investigations. The infants were classified as proven etiology, if a neurologic disease was identified; as no identified etiology, if no neurologic disease was identified; and as not fully investigated, if a major piece of information was missing. Proven etiology was subclassified using the pediatric adaptation of ICD 10. The results were then examined to identify further methods of classification. Of 207 infants, 127 (61%) had proven etiology, 68 (33%) had no identified etiology, and 12 (6%) were not fully investigated. Etiologies were prenatal in 63, perinatal in 38, postnatal in 8, and 18 other. The most common etiologies were: hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) 21 (10%), chromosomal 16 (8%), malformations 16 (8%), stroke 16 (8%), tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) 15 (7%), and periventricular leukomalacia or hemorrhage 11 (5%). The remaining 32 etiologies were all individually uncommon. Response to treatment is given for individual etiologies. Our method of classification allows the reporting of results by individual diseases, disease groups, or categories and is structured and clear. It avoids the use of poorly defined terms such as symptomatic and cryptogenic. It can adapt to new neurologic diseases, such as gene defects, and can be used for comparison of different groups of infants, thereby aiding meta-analysis.
    Epilepsia 10/2010; 51(10):2168-74. · 3.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Infantile spasms is the name given to a difficult to treat, severe infantile epilepsy with high morbidity. The United Kingdom Infantile Spasms Study (UKISS) showed that absence of spasms on days 13 and 14 after randomisation was more common in infants allocated hormonal treatments than vigabatrin. At 12-14 months, those with no identified aetiology allocated hormonal treatment had better development. However, epilepsy outcome was not affected by treatment allocated. It is not known if the difference in development persists as the infants grow. Infants in UKISS were followed up blind to treatment allocation by telephone at a mean age of 4 years using the Vineland Adaptive Behaviour Scales (VABS) and an epilepsy questionnaire. 9 of 107 enrolled infants had died. 77 were traced and consented to take part. The median (quartile) VABS scores were 60 (42, 97) for the 39 allocated hormonal treatment and 50 (36, 67) for the 38 allocated vigabatrin (Mann-Whitney U=575; p=0.091; median difference (95% CI): 8 (-1 to 19)). For those with no identified aetiology, VABS scores were 96 (52, 102) for the 21 allocated hormonal treatment and 63 (37, 92) for the 16 allocated vigabatrin (U=98.5; p=0.033; median difference (95% CI): 14 (1 to 42)).The proportions in each treatment group with epilepsy were similar. For all 77 infants, development and epilepsy outcomes were not significantly different between the two treatment groups. The better development seen at 14 months in those with no identified aetiology allocated hormonal treatment was seen again at 4 years in this study.
    Archives of Disease in Childhood 05/2010; 95(5):382-6. · 3.05 Impact Factor
  • J P Osborne, F J K O'Callaghan
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    ABSTRACT: The current regulations for conducting non-commercial clinical trials in Europe are many and complex. These are explored from the perspective of a UK based non-commercial international clinical trial. The reasons for the difficulties encountered are discussed and suggestions made as to how best to overcome them. Improvements are suggested for our law makers and competent authorities. It is argued that the current regulatory environment could be considered unethical as it inhibits and delays research.
    Archives of Disease in Childhood 10/2009; 94(9):729-33. · 3.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) in children is associated with a high incidence of serious morbidity and mortality. The presenting features are variable. It can be diagnostically challenging and the optimal treatment is uncertain. To describe the features of a series of children with CVST treated in a single paediatric neurology centre and to discuss the role of local thrombolysis. Electronic databases were searched using diagnostic labels and International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes to identify children aged 1 month to under 17 years with CVST. Their records were reviewed. 21 children were identified over a period of 8.25 years with a median age of 7.1 years. The presenting symptoms included headache (15 children), vomiting (14 children) and visual disturbance (eight children). Signs found included papilloedema (16 children), fever (six children) and sixth nerve palsy (six children). The most common underlying condition was middle ear infection (13 children). All cases received unfractionated heparin and four severe cases received local pharmacological thrombolysis. 48% of cases had an adverse outcome (death, chronic intracranial hypertension, residual hemiparesis or sixth nerve palsy). CVST has non-specific presenting features and a high risk of significant morbidity. CVST is typically found in association with a predisposing condition. Although heparin is the mainstay of treatment, thrombolysis may reverse deterioration as seen in three cases in this series. However, there is insufficient evidence to recommend the routine use of thrombolysis at present.
    Archives of Disease in Childhood 07/2009; 94(10):790-4. · 3.05 Impact Factor
  • European Journal of Paediatric Neurology - EUR J PAEDIATR NEUROL. 01/2009; 13.
  • European Journal of Paediatric Neurology - EUR J PAEDIATR NEUROL. 01/2009; 13.
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    ABSTRACT: (1) In a population-based study of tuberous sclerosis (TSC), to identify the number of patients presenting with symptomatic giant cell astrocytomas (GCAs); (2) within a subset of this population, to identify the number who would be diagnosed with GCAs on predetermined radiological criteria. Patients with TSC in Wessex (a geographical region of England) were identified, and their medical history determined. A subset were invited to have a cranial MRI if they did not have a history of a symptomatic GCA and if they were likely to tolerate cranial imaging without a general anaesthetic. Scans were performed according to a standard protocol on a single scanner and were reported blindly by a neuroradiologist. 179 people were identified with TSC. Ten of these had a history of treatment for a symptomatic GCA. Forty-one of the remainder had a cranial MRI. Thirty-nine of these had subependymal nodules, of whom 24 (59%) had at least one (maximum 11) that showed enhancement with gadolinium. In seven (17%), the lesion was >1 cm, and all of these lesions showed gadolinium enhancement. In this study, the proportion of patients with TSC who had a history of symptomatic GCA was 5.6%. In the subset without such a history, who underwent imaging, the number diagnosed as having a GCA on radiological criteria was much higher (59% gadolinium enhancement and 17% >1 cm in size). Screening for GCAs (performing scans on asymptomatic patients with TSC) would therefore identify large numbers of patients who had not presented with symptoms. This finding leads us to recommend that screening should not be undertaken.
    Archives of Disease in Childhood 06/2008; 93(9):751-4. · 3.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In tuberous sclerosis, the protein products of the TSC1 and TSC2 genes, hamartin and tuberin, act together in regulating the P13 kinase-Akt-mTOR-S6 kinase cell growth pathway. This finding raises the possibility that drugs could substitute for the role of the hamartin-tuberin complex in this pathway and thereby ameliorate some aspects of the disease in affected individuals. One such drug, rapamycin, is currently beginning evaluation. Mutations are still only found in two thirds of affected individuals and a negative mutation screen should not be taken as evidence of absence of the disease. The need for detailed clinical examination and investigation remains paramount, especially in evaluating parents. Seizures in the first 5 years of life, but particularly in the first year, including infantile spasms, require urgent intervention. We do not advocate screening but we do suggest urgent evaluation for possible raised intracranial pressure secondary to giant cell astrocytomas and for bleeding from renal angiomyolipomas where preserving renal function is a priority.
    Archives of Disease in Childhood 06/2008; 93(9):728-31. · 3.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Infantile spasms (West's Syndrome) is a syndrome which includes a peculiar type of epileptic seizure, the spasms, and an electroencephalogram (EEG) abnormality often called hypsarrhythmia. Psychomotor retardation is frequently found at follow up. Approximately two thirds of affected infants will have a detectable underlying neurological abnormality, but still little is known about the pathophysiological basis for infantile spasms and treatment remains problematic. To compare the effects of single pharmaceutical therapies used to treat infantile spasms in terms of control of the spasms, resolution of the EEG, relapse rates, psychomotor development, subsequent epilepsy, side effects, and mortality. Published data: Cochrane Epilepsy Group Specialised Register, CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library 2007, Issue 4), MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the reference lists of all retrieved articles.Unpublished data: ISRCTN Register (www.controlled-trials.com), correspondence with colleagues and drug companies, and requests at international conferences. All randomised controlled trials of the administration of drug therapy to patients with infantile spasms. Data collection from all relevant publications was independently undertaken by three review authors using a standard proforma. Analysis included assessment of study quality and looking for sources of heterogeneity. We found 12 small RCTs (less than 60 patients enrolled) and two larger RCT (more than 100 patients enrolled). These 14 studies looked at a total of 681 patients treated with a total of nine different pharmaceutical agents. Overall methodology of the studies was poor, partly because of ethical dilemmas such as giving placebo injections to children. Two studies showed that placebo was not as good as active treatment in resolving the spasms. The strongest evidence suggested that hormonal treatment leads to resolution of spasms faster and in more infants than does vigabatrin. Responses without subsequent relapse may be no different. The same study suggests that hormonal treatments (prednisolone or tetracosactide) might improve the long-term developmental outcome compared with vigabatrin in infants not found to have an underlying cause for their infantile spasms. To date, there have been few well-designed RCTs that considered the treatment of infantile spasms, and the numbers of patients enrolled have been small. Overall methodology has been poor, hence it is not clear which treatment is optimal in the treatment of this epilepsy syndrome. Hormonal treatment resolves spasms in more infants than vigabatrin but this may or may not translate into a better long-term outcome. If prednisone or vigabatrin are used then high dosage is recommended. Vigabatrin may be the treatment of choice in tuberous sclerosis. Resolution of the EEG features may be important but this has not been proven. Further research using large studies with robust methodology is still required.
    Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) 02/2008; · 5.70 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Tuberous sclerosis (TSC) is a multisystem autosomal dominant hamartosis whose genetics is complicated by reduced penetrance and widely varying clinical expression. Results of linkage analyses have variously suggested two different locations for a TSC gene. A collaborative dataset has been assembled to clarify the issue of genetic heterogeneity. We have now analyzed the data from a combined sample of 111 families. Using Ott's HOMOG programs, we completed three tests of homogeneity: (1) for chromosome 9q, (2) for chromosome 11q, and (3) for the combined 9q and 11q data. For test 1 the chi-square (1 df) was 21.54 (p less than 0.001), for test 2 the chi-square (1 df) was 0.13 (p greater than 0.35), and for test 3 the chi-square (2 df) was 37.61 (p less than 0.0001). Additionally, we examined the combined data for evidence that a third, as yet unlinked locus exists. Results of this last test were suggestive but not significant. Clearly loci for TSC are present on both chromosomes 9q and 11q. The maximum likelihood estimate of the proportion of chromosome 9q-linked families is 0.38, for chromosome 11q-linked families is 0.47, and for the unlinked type 0.15. Alternative explanations for these latter families include chance sampling of recombinants, nongenetic phenocopies, or misclassification.
    Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 12/2006; 615(1):256 - 264. · 4.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To determine the frequency of mutations in CDKL5 in both male and female patients with infantile spasms or early onset epilepsy of unknown cause, and to consider whether the breadth of the reported phenotype would be extended by studying a different patient group. Two groups of patients were investigated for CDKL5 mutations. Group 1 comprised 73 patients (57 female, 16 male) referred to Cardiff for CDKL5 analysis, of whom 49 (42 female, 7 male) had epileptic seizure onset in the first six months of life. Group 2 comprised 26 patients (11 female, 15 male) with infantile spasms previously recruited to a clinical trial, the UK Infantile Spasms Study. Where a likely pathogenic mutation was identified, further clinical data were reviewed. Seven likely pathogenic mutations were found among female patients from group 1 with epileptic seizure onset in the first six months of life, accounting for seven of the 42 in this group (17%). No mutations other than the already published mutation were found in female patients from group 2, or in any male patient from either study group. All patients with mutations had early signs of developmental delay and most had made little developmental progress. Further clinical information was available for six patients: autistic features and tactile hypersensitivity were common but only one had suggestive Rett-like features. All had a severe epileptic seizure disorder, all but one of whom had myoclonic jerks. The EEG showed focal or generalised changes and in those with infantile spasms, hypsarrhythmia. Slow frequencies were seen frequently with a frontal or fronto-temporal predominance and high amplitudes. The spectrum of the epileptic seizure disorder, and associated EEG changes, in those with CDKL5 mutations is broader than previously reported. CDKL5 mutations are a significant cause of infantile spasms and early epileptic seizures in female patients, and of a later intractable seizure disorder, irrespective of whether they have suspected Rett syndrome. Analysis should be considered in these patients in the clinical setting.
    Journal of Medical Genetics 10/2006; 43(9):729-34. · 5.70 Impact Factor
  • Andrew L Lux, John P Osborne
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    ABSTRACT: Studying infantile spasms is challenging because there are so many aspects of variation that introduce potential bias. These might relate to the many underlying etiologies, and variations in clinical semiology and electroencephalographic features that relate more to age or timing of investigation than to the underlying epilepsy or seizures type. New gene defects associated with the CDKL5/STK9 and ARX genes are associated with infantile spasms, but these illustrate that, when studying neurodevelopmental outcomes, it is necessary to deal also with heterogeneity at the level of genotype-phenotype correlation. We discuss these design issues with consideration of data from the United Kingdom infantile spasms study (UKISS)--in which neurodevelopmental outcomes show evidence of an interaction between underlying etiologic classification and randomised treatment--and with consideration to proposals on study design from the recent consensus statement of the West Delphi group. In the continual debate about whether we should "lump" or "split" when studying epilepsy syndromes, we propose the adoption of study designs using valid and consistent methods that permit both lumping and splitting.
    Epilepsy Research 09/2006; 70 Suppl 1:S77-86. · 2.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Tuberous sclerosis (TS) is a multi- system disorder with complex genetics. The neurodevelopmental manifestations of TS are responsible for considerable morbidity. The prevalence of epilepsy and intellectual disabilities among individuals with TS have been well described. Ours is the first study that explores the prevalence and pattern of psychopathology in a population-based sample of adults with TS. Sixty subjects were identified through a capture-recapture analysis of TS. Information was gathered as to seizure history, cognitive functioning (WISC-III) and psychopathology (SADS-L, SAPPA). Lifetime psychopathology was categorized according to Research Diagnostic Criteria. The overall pattern of mental illness (MI) was examined as well as how this varied with IQ and seizure history. Twenty-four (40.0%) subjects had a history of MI. The most common diagnosis was that of an affective disorder [18 (30.0%)], the majority of which were major depressive episodes. Alcoholism [4 (6.7%)] and anxiety disorders [3 (5.0%)] were the next most common diagnoses. Two (3.3%) subjects had had a tic disorder. Only one individual had a diagnosis of schizophrenia. MI was found in 75.0% of those with a history of epilepsy and 37.5% of those without epilepsy. MI was significantly more prevalent in those with a full-scale IQ above 70. A significant proportion of adult with TS experience MI. MI was significantly more [corrected] prevalent in subjects with a full-scale IQ above 70. Reasons for such a finding are explored, and related methodological considerations for future research outlined.
    Journal of Intellectual Disability Research 09/2006; 50(Pt 8):561-9. · 1.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Infantile spasms is a severe infantile seizure disorder that is difficult to treat and has a high morbidity. Absence of spasms on days 13 and 14 after randomisation is more common in infants allocated hormone treatments than in those allocated vigabatrin. We sought to assess whether early control of spasms is associated with improved developmental or epilepsy outcomes. Infants enrolled in the United Kingdom Infantile Spasms Study (UKISS) were randomly assigned hormone treatment (n=55) or vigabatrin (n=52) and were followed up until clinical assessment at 12-14 months of age. We assessed neurodevelopment with the Vineland adaptive behaviour scales (VABS) at 14 months of age on an intention to treat basis. Of 107 infants enrolled, five died and 101 survivors reached both follow-up assessments. Absence of spasms at final clinical assessment (hormone 41/55 [75%] vs vigabatrin 39/51 [76%]) was similar in each treatment group (difference 1.9%, 95% CI -18.3% to 14.4%; chi(2)=0.05; p=0.82). Mean VABS score did not differ significantly (hormone 78.6 [SD 16.8] vs vigabatrin 77.5 [SD 12.7]; difference 1.0, 95% CI -4.9 to 7.0; t(99)=0.35, p=0.73). In infants with no identified underlying aetiology, the mean VABS score was higher in those allocated hormone treatment than in those allocated vigabatrin (88.2 [17.3] vs 78.9 [14.3]; difference 9.3, 95% CI 1.2 to 17.3; t(95)=2.28, p=0.025). Hormone treatment controls spasms better than does vigabatrin initially, but not at 12-14 months of age. Better initial control of spasms by hormone treatment in those with no identified underlying aetiology may lead to improved developmental outcome.
    The Lancet Neurology 12/2005; 4(11):712-7. · 23.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To determine normal melatonin excretion patterns in healthy children without sleep disorder and to compare these with those of patients with tuberous sclerosis complex and sleep disorder responsive to exogenous melatonin, we measured 6-sulfatoxymelatonin excretion in 21 healthy children and in 7 patients with tuberous sclerosis complex and sleep disorder responsive to melatonin (a 5 mg oral dose increasing total sleep time). Total excretion, cosinor percentage, and acrophase time of 6-sulfatoxymelatonin excretion were estimated. In normal children, total 6-sulfatoxymelatonin excretion was range 11.1 to 40.2 microg (mean 19.0 microg, SD 7.4 microg); cosinor percentage rhythm range was 52.9% to 100% (mean 87%, median 94%); and acrophase time range was 23 hours, 54 minutes to 10 hours, 42 minutes (mean 5 hours, 54 minutes; median 4 hours, 12 minutes). Fifth and 95th percentiles were 11.1 to 29.0 microg, 57.8% to 99.9%, and 2 hours, 1 minute to 10 hours, 4 minutes. In tuberous sclerosis, normal patterns of melatonin excretion were seen in responders. Circadian patterns of melatonin excretion were similar in children and adults. We propose that exogenous melatonin can act by a simple sedative action.
    Journal of Child Neurology 02/2005; 20(1):21-5. · 1.39 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

3k Citations
600.98 Total Impact Points


  • 2013
    • University of Malaya
      Kuala Lumpor, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
  • 2003–2013
    • University of Bath
      • Department for Health
      Bath, England, United Kingdom
  • 2004–2012
    • University of Bristol
      • Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry
      Bristol, England, United Kingdom
    • Bristol Hospital
      Bristol, Connecticut, United States
  • 2011
    • Wilhelmstift Catholic Children's Hospital
      Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany
  • 1986–2011
    • Royal United Hospital Bath NHS Trust
      Bath, England, United Kingdom
  • 2006
    • Cardiff University
      • Institute of Medical Genetics
      Cardiff, WLS, United Kingdom
    • King's College London
      • Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
      London, ENG, United Kingdom
  • 2000–2003
    • University of Cambridge
      • • Department of Psychology
      • • Department of Psychiatry
      Cambridge, ENG, United Kingdom
  • 1995
    • University of British Columbia - Vancouver
      • Department of Pediatrics
      Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
  • 1991
    • University College London
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 1987
    • MRC Clinical Sciences Centre
      London Borough of Harrow, England, United Kingdom