[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Allogeneic transplantation remains the standard of care for patients with Hurler syndrome. As enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) has become available, controversy has emerged in regards to whether the use of enzyme in the peri-transplant period is appropriate. An analysis was performed on 74 patients with Hurler syndrome transplanted at the University of Minnesota between 1990 and 2003, before our use of ERT associated with transplant, with the intention of determining if patients at higher risk during the transplant can be identified based on evaluations and events before transplantation. Age, the presence of hydrocephalus, a history of cardiovascular issues or upper airway obstruction before transplant was not associated with significant differences in survival. In contrast, patients who had a history of lower airway disease, including reactive airway disease or bronchiolitis, or a history of pneumonia, had a significantly inferior outcome based on OS. The risk for serious respiratory complications was also assessed by evaluating the incidence of intubation. Overall, 31% of these patients were intubated. The risk of intubation was higher in older patients and in those with a history of lower airway disease. These findings have implications for the care of patients with high-risk features.
Bone marrow transplantation 11/2009; 45(7):1239-46. · 3.00 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Children with Hurler syndrome (mucopolysaccharidosis type IH (MPSIH)) have skeletal, joint and soft tissue abnormalities that may persist or progress after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). We report our single center experience with development of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) in 43 children with MPSIH after HSCT. Twenty-three children (59%) developed CTS following HSCT; 19 of the 39 children with enzyme activity in the normal or heterozygous range developed CTS (49%), whereas all four children with low heterozygous or absent enzyme activity developed CTS after HSCT. Fourteen of 19 related donor marrow recipients, eight of 19 of those receiving an unrelated donor graft and one of five unrelated cord blood recipients developed CTS. The mean age at surgical release was 4.8 years. With each year increase in age at HSCT, there was a 55% increased risk. Age and enzyme activity after HSCT were significant factors in the development of CTS. Transplantation by 2 years of age reduced the risk of developing CTS by 46%; higher enzyme activity led to a 78% reduction in the risk of developing CTS. However, children transplanted for MPSIH remain at risk for the development of CTS, and should be monitored on an ongoing basis by nerve conduction velocity testing.
Bone Marrow Transplantation 04/2007; 39(6):331-4. · 3.54 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Advances in medical treatment have prolonged the lives of children with Hurler syndrome or mucopolysaccharidosis I requiring increased attention to the assessment of their long-term outcomes and functional abilities. Adaptive functions are critical for understanding functional outcomes after treatment and developing focused interventions. We investigated the development of various adaptive functions in children who have had hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) for Hurler syndrome and risk factors that are associated with the development of these functions. We examined the development of 41 children who had 3 or more Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales records assessed before and after transplant. Communication, daily living skills, socialization, and motor functions were measured. While standard scores decline over time, development of skills continue with a slower than average rate compared with peers. A cross-sectional nontransplanted comparison group showed more deficits after age 2 years than the transplanted group. In contrast to cognitive ability, age at transplant was not significantly associated with ultimate adaptive level. Baseline cognitive level before HSCT and growth of cognition after HSCT were associated with adaptive functions especially for communication and daily living skills. Socialization was predicted by cumulative medical risk factors, likely due to restricted social exposure in children with complicated transplant courses. Overall, measurement of adaptive behaviors demonstrated that HSCT allows long-term slow improvement of functional outcomes for children with Hurler syndrome. Children with Hurler syndrome with good cognitive levels before HSCT and continued growth of cognition after HSCT show good adaptive functions. Although cognitive and orthopedic problems as well as medical complications limit adaptive ability, identifying these problems early allow beneficial targeted interventions.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Patients with inherited metabolic storage disorders are at a higher risk of developing pulmonary complications after hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). This single-center prospective study of 48 consecutive inherited metabolic storage disorder patients was performed to identify risk factors for the development of pulmonary complications after HCT. Before HCT, subjects underwent bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) for cell count, culture, nitrite levels, and analysis of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines. The overall incidence of pulmonary complications was 52% (infectious, 23%; noninfectious, 29%) over a period of 4 years. Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage was the most frequent noninfectious complication and occurred in 19% of patients, all of whom had a diagnosis of mucopolysaccharidosis (Hurler and Maroteaux-Lamy syndromes). Levels of interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor alpha, macrophage inflammatory protein 1alpha, and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor in BAL fluid samples obtained before HCT were higher in patients with mucopolysaccharidoses than in patients with leukodystrophies. In addition, levels of IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-8, and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor were increased in the BAL fluid of patients who developed noninfectious pulmonary complications compared with those who did not develop pulmonary complications. It is interesting to note that most noninfectious pulmonary complications occurred in patients with mucopolysaccharidoses, especially diffuse alveolar hemorrhage, which occurred exclusively in patients with mucopolysaccharidoses. Higher levels of bronchial proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines may be predictive of the development of subsequent posttransplantation noninfectious complications in patients with mucopolysaccharidoses, especially those with Hurler syndrome. Larger studies will be required to further elucidate etiologic mechanisms and predictive factors.
Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation 05/2006; 12(4):430-7. · 3.94 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hurler syndrome is a debilitating genetic disease with a typical life span of 5 to 8 years. Early hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) mitigates disease symptoms and improves survival. However, morbidity and mortality associated with HSCT can limit its success. We describe the initial experience with combined use of enzyme replacement therapy (ERT, laronidase) and HSCT in Hurler syndrome.
Thirteen transplants were performed in 12 patients. ERT was given at a standard dose of 0.58 mg/kg per week. Transplant conditioning regimen and donor graft source were determined by institutional protocol.
The median age at initiation of ERT was 12 months (range, 8 to 18 months). The median duration of pre-HSCT ERT was 12 weeks (range, 4 to 28). All but 1 patient tested showed decrease in urinary GAG excretion during ERT. ERT infusion-related toxicity was limited to mild reactions. Development of antibodies to laronidase did not correlate with infusion reactions or responses in urinary GAG excretion. ERT was given for a median of 7 weeks (range, 3 to 20) after HSCT. After transplantation, eight patients demonstrated complete donor engraftment and four suffered graft failure. Two patients required ventilator support and three developed acute GVHD. Eleven of the 12 patients are surviving with a median follow-up of 3 months (range, 1 to 7 months).
In children with Hurler syndrome, ERT with HSCT is feasible and well tolerated. Development of antibodies against exogenous enzyme does not appear to correlate with infusion reactions or response to ERT. A prospective study is needed to determine the effect of concomitant ERT on transplant outcomes.
Genetics in Medicine 03/2005; 7(2):143-6. · 5.56 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Haemolytic anaemia is a recognized complication of haematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) and can result from alloimmune- or autoimmune-derived antibodies. Unlike alloimmune haemolytic anaemia, autoimmune haemolytic anaemia (AIHA) is poorly understood, particularly in the paediatric population where only case reports have been published. Between January 1995 and July 2001, 439 consecutive allogeneic HCT were performed in paediatric patients at the University of Minnesota, 31% (n = 136) from related donors (RD) and 69% (n = 303) from unrelated donors (URD). Nineteen cases of AIHA were identified with documented significant haemolysis and a positive direct antiglobulin test. All cases of AIHA occurred in URD transplants, yielding a cumulative incidence of AIHA post-transplant of 6% at 1 year. Patients transplanted for non-malignant disease, particularly metabolic diseases, had a higher incidence of AIHA post-HCT when compared with patients transplanted for malignancies (RR 4.2 95% CI 1.2-15.4, P = 0.01). Mortality was high in our series of 19 patients with 10 (53%) dying following the onset of AIHA, three as a direct consequence of haemolysis. Fifty per cent of deaths occurred from infection while on immunosuppressive therapy to treat haemolysis. Alternative treatment strategies were employed, with the majority of patients demonstrating disease refractory to traditional steroid therapy.
British Journal of Haematology 11/2004; 127(1):67-75. · 4.94 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cerebral X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is a disorder of very-long-chain fatty acid metabolism, adrenal insufficiency, and cerebral demyelination. Death occurs within 2 to 5 years of clinical onset without hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). One hundred twenty-six boys with X-ALD received HCT from 1982 to 1999. Survival, engraftment, and acute graft-versus-host disease were studied. Degree of disability associated with neurologic and neuropsychological function and cerebral demyelination were evaluated before and after HCT. Complete data were available and analyzed for 94 boys with cerebral X-ALD. The estimated 5- and 8-year survival was 56%. The leading cause of death was disease progression. Donor-derived engraftment occurred in 86% of patients. Demyelination involved parietal-occipital lobes in 90%, leading to visual and auditory processing deficits in many boys. Overall 5-year survival of 92% in patients with 0 or 1 neurologic deficits and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) severity score less than 9 before HCT was superior to survival for all others (45%; P <.01). Baseline neurologic and neuropsychological function, degree of disability, and neuroradiologic status predicted outcomes following HCT. In this first comprehensive report of the international HCT experience for X-ALD, we conclude that boys with early-stage disease benefit from HCT, whereas boys with advanced disease may be candidates for experimental therapies.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To study the efficacy of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT) for ameliorating the clinical manifestations of alpha-mannosidosis.
Four patients with alpha-mannosidosis underwent allogeneic HCT at the University of Minnesota. Diagnosis was established by assay of leukocyte alpha-mannosidase activity level. Physical features, donor engraftment, leukocyte alpha-mannosidase activity, neuropsychologic function, and hearing were monitored before and after transplantation, with follow-up ranging from 1 to 6 years.
All 4 patients showed slowing of their neurocognitive development and sensorineural hearing loss before HCT. All patients are alive, with normalization of leukocyte enzyme activity after HCT. Intellectual function has stabilized, with improvement in adaptive skills and verbal memory function in 3 of 4 patients. Hearing has improved to normal or near normal for speech frequencies in 3 patients. No new skeletal abnormalities have developed.
HCT can halt the progressive cognitive loss in patients with alpha-mannosidosis. Early diagnosis and treatment with HCT is critical for optimal results.
Journal of Pediatrics 06/2004; 144(5):569-73. · 4.04 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: I-cell disease or mucolipidosis type II, a rare inherited storage disorder of lysosomal enzyme localization, is characterized by dysostosis multiplex, progressive severe psychomotor retardation and death by 5-8 years from congestive heart failure and recurrent pulmonary infections. A 19-month old girl with I-cell disease received a bone marrow transplant (BMT) from an HLA-identical carrier brother. At the age of 7 years, 5 years after BMT, she has no history of respiratory infections. Her cardiac function remains normal with a shortening fraction of 47%, and she continues to gain neurodevelopmental milestones, albeit at a very slow rate. Musculoskeletal deformities have worsened despite BMT. This is the first report describing neurodevelopmental gains and prevention of cardiopulmonary complications in I-cell disease after BMT.
Bone Marrow Transplantation 12/2003; 32(9):957-60. · 3.54 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Hurler syndrome, an autosomal recessive storage disease of childhood, leads to death within the first decade of life from progressive deposition of glycosaminoglycans within the myointima of the coronary arteries and airways. Cardiac ultrasound findings of patients with this syndrome >10 years after successful bone marrow transplantation are described.
The American Journal of Cardiology 10/2003; 92(7):882-6. · 3.21 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The potential benefits of unrelated donor marrow transplantation are offset by the immunologic complications of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and infection. Therefore, we used cryopreserved umbilical cord blood (UCB) as a strategy to reduce the risks of GVHD and treatment-related mortality (TRM) and improve survival. Data on 102 patients (median age 7.4 years) who received transplants between 1994 and 2001 for the treatment of malignant (n = 65; 68% were high-risk patients) and nonmalignant (n = 37) diseases were evaluated. Log-rank tests and Cox regression analyses were used to determine the effects of various demographic, graft-related, and treatment factors on engraftment, GVHD, TRM, relapse, and survival. As of October 15, 2001, the median follow-up was 2.7 years (range, 0.3-7.2). Incidences of neutrophil and platelet engraftment were 0.88 (CI, 0.81-0.95) and 0.65 (CI, 0.53-0.77), respectively. Notably, incidences of severe acute and chronic GVHD were 0.11 (CI, 0.05-0.17) and 0.10 (CI, 0.04-0.16), respectively. At 1 year after transplantation, proportions of TRM and survival were 0.30 (CI, 0.21-0.39) and 0.58 (CI, 0.48-0.68), respectively. In Cox regression analyses, CD34 cell dose was the one factor consistently identified as significantly associated with rate of engraftment, TRM, and survival. Despite the low incidence of GVHD, the proportion of patients with leukemia relapse at 2 years was 0.17 (CI, 0.00-0.38) and 0.45 (CI, 0.28-0.61) for patients with standard and high-risk disease, respectively. There is a high probability of survival in recipients of UCB grafts that are disparate in no more than 2 human leukocyte antigens (HLAs) when the grafts contain at least 1.7 x 10(5) CD34(+) cells per kilogram of recipient's body weight. Therefore, graft selection should be based principally on CD34 cell dose when multiple UCB units exist with an HLA disparity of 2 or less.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hurler syndrome (HS) is an autosomal recessive, inherited metabolic storage disorder due to deficiency of lysosomal alpha-L-iduronidase (IDU) enzyme activity. Untreated patients develop progressive mental retardation and multisystem morbidity with a median life expectancy of 5 years. Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) can achieve stabilization and even improvement of intellect, with long-term survival. However, children with HS have an increased incidence of graft failure, usually with concomitant autologous marrow reconstitution. Between 1983 and 2000, 71 Hurler children underwent HCT at the University of Minnesota. Of these 71, 19 (27%) experienced graft failure. We report HCT outcomes in all 11 Hurler patients receiving a second HCT at the University of Minnesota. Median age at second HCT was 25 months (range, 16 to 45 months); median time from first HCT was 8 months (range, 4 to 18.5 months). The conditioning regimen consisted of cyclophosphamide/TBI/ATG (n = 8) or busulfan/cyclophosphamide/ATG (n = 3). The source of bone marrow was an unrelated donor in six, matched sibling in four, and mismatched related in one. Five of the 11 grafts were T cell depleted prior to infusion. Overall, 10 of 11 patients showed donor-derived engraftment, of whom three developed grade 3 to 4 acute GVHD. Five of 11 patients are surviving a median of 25 months (range, 2 months to 12 years) with an overall actuarial survival of 50% (95% CI, 27% to 93%) at 4 years. All five show sustained donor engraftment with normalization of IDU activity levels. Three of five evaluable patients demonstrated stabilization of neuropsychological function after second HCT. Currently, allogeneic donor-derived hematopoiesis provides the only chance for long-term survival and improved quality of life in Hurler patients. While graft failure in Hurler patients requires further investigation, a timely second HCT can be well-tolerated and beneficial.
Bone Marrow Transplantation 04/2002; 29(6):491-6. · 3.54 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is the only treatment for selected inherited metabolic storage diseases (IMSD); a significant shortcoming is failure to achieve donor-derived engraftment. This study was undertaken to determine whether busulfan pharmacokinetics (BU PK) are altered in children with IMSD and whether BU concentrations are important in achieving engraftment. BU samples were obtained from 39 IMSD children, including 20 children with Hurler syndrome, undergoing HCT. Patients received oral BU (40 mg/m(2)/dose x 8 doses), cyclophosphamide (60 mg/kg/day x 2 doses) and TBI (750 cGy in one fraction) as a preparative regimen. Median (range) oral clearance corrected for bioavailability (Cl/F in ml/min/kg), area under the curve (AUC in ng min/ml) and BU plasma concentration (Cp in ng/ml) with the fourth dose were 5.2 (2.1-11.4), 318 294 (112 893-640 995) and 950 (314-1780), respectively. Children < 3 years of age had lower AUC and Cp but higher Cl/F (P < or = 0.03). BU Cp (P = 0.06) or marrow cell dose (P = 0.32) was not different in Hurler syndrome compared to other IMSD. A median BU Cp of 959 and 831 ng/ml was achieved in children with full and failed early engraftment, respectively. There was no difference in early and late engraftment between children with Hurler and other IMSD. In conclusion, we found no significant association between engraftment, marrow cell dose and BU exposure when combined with CY and TBI in children with IMSD.
Bone Marrow Transplantation 05/2001; 27(8):855-61. · 3.54 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Wolman disease is characterized by severe diarrhea and malnutrition leading to death during infancy. Lysosomal acid lipase deficiency is the cause of the symptoms and signs. It is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner. All Wolman disease patients have adrenal gland calcification. Previous therapeutic attempts have failed to provide remission. We report successful long-term bone marrow engraftment in a patient with Wolman disease resulting in continued normalization of peripheral leukocyte lysosomal acid lipase enzyme activity. Diarrhea is no longer present. Now, at 4 years of age, this patient is gaining developmental milestones. Cholesterol and triglyceride levels are normal. Liver function is normal. This is the first long-term continued remission reported for Wolman disease.
Bone Marrow Transplantation 10/2000; 26(5):567-70. · 3.54 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The childhood-onset cerebral form of X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy, a demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system, leads to a vegetative state and death within 3-5 years once clinical symptoms are detectable. The hypothesis to be tested was whether bone-marrow transplantation can over an extended period of time halt the inexorable progressive demyelination and neurological deterioration.
12 patients with childhood onset of cerebral X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy have been followed for 5-10 years after bone-marrow transplantation. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), neurological, neuropsychological, electrophysiological, and plasma very-long-chain fatty acid (VLCFA) measurements were used to evaluate the effect of this treatment.
MRI showed complete reversal of abnormalities in two patients and improvement in one. One patient showed no change from baseline to last follow-up. All eight patients who showed an initial period of continued demyelination stabilised and remained unchanged thereafter. Motor function remained normal or improved after bone-marrow transplantation in ten patients. Verbal intelligence remained within the normal range for 11 patients. Performance (non-verbal) abilities were improved or were stable in seven patients. Decline in performance abilities followed by stability occurred in five patients. Plasma VLCFA concentrations decreased by 55% and remained slightly above the upper limits of normal.
5-10-year follow-up of 12 patients with childhood-onset cerebral X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy shows the long-term beneficial effect of bone marrow transplantation when the procedure is done at an early stage of the disease.
The Lancet 09/2000; 356(9231):713-8. · 39.06 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Odontoid dysplasia is recognized as a major component of the constellation of dysostosis multiplex lesions associated with Hurler's syndrome (MPS 1H). Because of this abnormality, there is an increased risk of atlantoaxial subluxation with potential cervical spinal cord injury. A significant alteration of the natural history of the disease with respect to the visceral, cardiac, and skeletal systems has resulted in an increased life span for MPS 1H patients associated with engraftment from normal donors.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the longitudinal changes of odontoid dysplasia in MPS 1H following engraftment from bone-marrow transplantation (BMT).
A retrospective review of sequential plain film or cervical spine MR was performed in patients with MPS 1H. Odontoid morphology was graded as aplasia, severe dysplasia, moderate dysplasia, mild dysplasia, or normal. Odontoid morphology was plotted against the time interval. Fully engrafted, nontransplanted, and partially engrafted patients had careful imaging evaluation of the odontoid process.
Ten patients were studied with a mean interval follow-up of 8.7 years post-BMT. Seven patients were totally engrafted. Two patients were nontransplanted, and one patient had only partial engraftment (20% enzyme activity). All totally engrafted patients had a progressive improvement in the grade of odontoid dysplasia following BMT. Patients with partial engraftment or without transplantation demonstrated static or increasing odontoid dysplasia. MR imaging showed abnormal dural soft-tissue masses at the level of C2 in all patients. Reduction in the grade of odontoid dysplasia was not associated with significant change in the appearance of the upper cervical soft-tissue masses.
For the first time, this report documents that patients with MPS 1H show a decrease in the degree of odontoid dysplasia on imaging after successful engraftment following BMT.