[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previously, it was reported that intraluteal implants containing prostaglandin E1 or E2 (PGE1 and PGE2) in Angus or Brahman cows prevented luteolysis by preventing loss of mRNA expression for luteal LH receptors and luteal unoccupied and occupied LH receptors. In addition, intraluteal implants containing PGE1 or PGE2 upregulated mRNA expression for FP prostanoid receptors and downregulated mRNA expression for EP2 and EP4 prostanoid receptors. Luteal weight during the estrous cycle of Brahman cows was reported to be lesser than that of Angus cows but not during pregnancy. The objective of this experiment was to determine whether intraluteal implants containing PGE1 or PGE2 alter vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2), angiopoietin-1 (ANG-1), and angiopoietin-2 (ANG-2) protein in Brahman or Angus cows. On Day 13 of the estrous cycle, Angus cows received no intraluteal implant and corpora lutea were retrieved, or Angus and Brahman cows received intraluteal silastic implants containing vehicle, PGE1, or PGE2 on Day 13 and corpora lutea were retrieved on Day 19. Corpora lutea slices were analyzed for VEGF, FGF-2, ANG-1, and ANG-2 angiogenic proteins via Western blot. Day-13 Angus cow luteal tissue served as preluteolytic controls. Data for VEGF were not affected (P > 0.05) by day, breed, or treatment. PGE1 or PGE2 increased (P < 0.05) FGF-2 in luteal tissue of Angus cows compared with Day-13 and Day-19 Angus controls but decreased (P < 0.05) FGF-2 in luteal tissue of Brahman cows when compared w Day-13 or Day-19 Angus controls. There was no effect (P > 0.05) of PGE1 or PGE2 on ANG-1 in Angus luteal tissue when compared with Day-13 or Day-19 controls, but ANG-1 was decreased (P < 0.05) by PGE1 or PGE2 in Brahman cows when compared with Day-19 Brahman controls. ANG-2 was increased (P < 0.05) on Day 19 in Angus Vehicle controls when compared with Day-13 Angus controls, which was prevented (P < 0.05) by PGE1 but not by PGE2 in Angus cows. There was no effect (P > 0.05) of PGE1 or PGE2 on ANG-2 in Brahman cows. PGE1 or PGE2 may alter cow luteal FGF-2, ANG-1, or ANG-2 but not VEGF to prevent luteolysis; however, species or breed differences may exist.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Testicular cell proliferation and differentiation is critical for development of normal testicular function and male reproductive maturity. The objective of the current study was to evaluate histoarchitecture, expression of genes marking specific cells and important functions, as well as testosterone production of the developing goat testes. Testes were harvested from Alpine bucks at 0, 2, 4, 6, and 8 mo of age (n = 5/age group). Paired testes weight increased from 2 to 4 (P < 0.001) and 4 to 6 mo (P < 0.01). The greatest increases in seminiferous tubule and lumen diameters, and height of the seminiferous epithelium occurred between 2 and 4 mo (P < 0.001). Genes expressed in haploid germ cells [Protamine1 (PRM1), Outer Dense Fiber protein 2 (ODF2), and Stimulated by Retinoic Acid gene 8 (STRA8)] increased dramatically at the same time (P < 0.001). Expression of other genes decreased (P < 0.05) during testicular maturation. These genes included P450 side chain cleavage (CYP11A1), Sex determining region Y-box 9 (SOX9), Insulin-like Growth Factor 1 Receptor (IGF1R), and Heat Shock Protein A8 (HSPA8). The Glutathione S-Transferase A3 (GSTA3) gene, whose product was recently recognized as a primary enzyme involved in isomerization of androstenedione in man and livestock species including goats, sheep, cattle, pigs, and horses, uniquely peaked in expression at 2 mo (P < 0.05). Follicle-Stimulating Hormone Receptor (FSHR) mRNA abundance tended to steadily decrease with age (P = 0.1), while Luteinizing Hormone Receptor (LHCGR) mRNA abundance in testes was not significantly different across the ages. Testosterone content per g of testicular tissue varied among individuals. However, testosterone content per testis tended to increase at 6 mo (P = 0.06). In conclusion, major changes in cellular structure and gene expression in goat testes were observed at 4 mo of age, when spermatogenesis was initiated. Male goats mature rapidly and represent a good model species for the study of agents that enhance or impair development of testicular functions.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In rodents, livestock and primate species, a single dose of the synthetic glucocorticoid dexamethasone acutely lowers testosterone biosynthesis. To determine the mechanism of decreased testosterone biosynthesis, stallions were treated with 0.1mg/kg dexamethasone 12h prior to castration. Dexamethasone decreased serum concentrations of testosterone by 60% compared to saline-treated control stallions. Transcriptome analyses (microarrays, northern blots and quantitative PCR) of testes discovered that dexamethasone treatment decreased concentrations of glucocorticoid receptor alpha (NR3C1), alpha actinin 4 (ACTN4), luteinizing hormone receptor (LHCGR), squalene epoxidase (SQLE), 24-dehydrocholesterol reductase (DHCR24), glutathione S-transferase A3 (GSTA3) and aromatase (CYP19A1) mRNAs. Dexamethasone increased concentrations of NFkB inhibitor A (NFKBIA) mRNA in testes. SQLE, DHCR24 and GSTA3 mRNAs were predominantly expressed by Leydig cells. In man and livestock, the GSTA3 protein provides a major 3-ketosteroid isomerase activity: conversion of Δ(5)-androstenedione to Δ(4)-androstenedione, the immediate precursor of testosterone. Consistent with the decrease in GSTA3 mRNA, dexamethasone decreased the 3-ketosteroid isomerase activity in testicular extracts. In conclusion, dexamethasone acutely decreased the expression of genes involved in hormone signaling (NR3C1, ACTN4 and LHCGR), cholesterol synthesis (SQLE and DHCR24) and steroidogenesis (GSTA3 and CYP19A1) along with testosterone production. This is the first report of dexamethasone down-regulating expression of the GSTA3 gene and a very late step in testosterone biosynthesis. Elucidation of the molecular mechanisms involved may lead to new approaches to modulate androgen regulation of the physiology of humans and livestock in health and disease.
The Journal of steroid biochemistry and molecular biology. 07/2014;
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to estimate the heritability of 3 measures of temperament in Brahman and Brahman-influenced calves (n = 1,209). Individual animal pen scores (PS) were determined by a trained observer who evaluated groups of 5 or 4 calves at a time for willingness to be approached by a human. Exit velocity (EV) was the rate (m/s) at which each calf exited a squeeze chute. Temperament score (TS) was calculated individually as (PS + EV)/2. Temperament was evaluated at 5 different times of record (28 d pre-weaning, weaning, 28 d post-weaning, 56 d post-weaning, and yearling). Contemporary groups (n = 34) were comprised of calves of the same sex born in the same season of the same yr. There were an average of 36 calves per contemporary group and group size ranged from 3 to 78 calves. Average weaning age (186 d) ranged from 105 to 304 d. Calves were born from 2002 through 2012. Random effects included additive genetic and the permanent environmental variance. The fixed effects analyzed were age of dam, sex of calf, contemporary group, fraction of Brahman (2 levels: 1 and 0.5), age of calf at record, and weaning age. At weaning, the mean PS was 2.68 ± 0.1, the mean EV was 2.41 ± 0.1, and the mean TS was 2.48 ± 0.1. The PS was affected by fraction of Brahman (P = 0.034) and tended to be affected by age of dam (P = 0.06). The EV was affected by contemporary group (P < 0.001) and tended to be affected by weaning age (P = 0.074). Contemporary group affected TS (P < 0.001). All 3 methods of temperament evaluation were affected by time of record (P < 0.001). The regression coefficients for PS, EV, and TS were 0.0023 ± 0.0014, 0.0022 ± 0.0012, and 0.0015 ± 0.0012 m⋅s(-1)⋅d(-1) of age, respectively. Estimates of maternal genetic effects were always 0 and omitted from final models. Estimates of heritability were 0.27 ± 0.1, 0.49 ± 0.1, and 0.43 ± 0.1 for EV, PS, and TS, respectively. Estimates of permanent environmental variances as proportions of phenotypic variance were 0.33 ± 0.1, 0.23 ± 0.1, and 0.33 ± 0.1 for EV, PS, and TS, respectively. There appears to be sufficient additive genetic variance for selective improvement of temperament characteristics in Brahman cattle.
Journal of Animal Science 05/2014; · 2.09 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The influence of temperament on the alteration of metabolic parameters in response to a lipopolysaccharide(LPS) challenge was investigated. Brahman bulls were selected based on temperament score. Bulls (10 months; 211±5kg BW; n = 6, 8 and 7 for Calm, Intermediate and Temperamental groups, respectively) were fitted with indwelling jugular catheters to evaluate peripheral blood concentrations of glucose, blood urea nitrogen (BUN),non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), insulin, epinephrine and cortisol before and after LPS administration (0.5 μg/kg BW LPS). Feed intake was also recorded. Intermediate bulls consumed more feed than the Temperamental bulls during the challenge (p = 0.046). Pre-LPS glucose (p = 0.401) and BUN (p = 0.222) did not differ among the temperament groups. However, pre-LPS insulin (p = 0.023) was lower, whereas pre-LPS NEFA (p < 0.001),cortisol (p < 0.001) and epinephrine (p < 0.001) were greater in Temperamental than in Calm and Intermediate bulls. Post-LPS glucose was increased in Calm and Intermediate bulls but not in Temperamental bulls(p < 0.001). Insulin concentrations post-LPS were greater in Calm than in Intermediate and Temperamental bulls (p < 0.001). Concentrations of NEFA post-LPS were greater in Temperamental than in Calm and Intermediate bulls (p < 0.001). Serum BUN concentration increased post-LPS, with values being greater in Calm and Intermediate than in Temperamental bulls (p = 0.012). Collectively, these data demonstrate that animal temperament is related to the metabolic responses of Brahman bulls following a provocative endotoxin challenge.Specifically, Temperamental bulls may preferentially utilize an alternate energy source (i.e. NEFA) to a greater degree than do bulls of Calm and Intermediate temperaments. The use of circulating NEFA from lipolysis may reduce the negative metabolic consequences of an immune response by allowing for a prompt answer to increasing energy demands required during immunological challenge, compared with the time required for glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: RF-amide related peptide 3 (RFRP3), the mammalian homologue of avian gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH), has been shown to negatively regulate the secretion of LH and may contribute to reproductive seasonality in some species. Herein, we examined the presence and potential role of the RFRP3-signaling system in regulating LH secretion in the mare during the breeding and non-breeding seasons. Hypothalamic NPVF mRNA (the precursor mRNA for RFRP3) was detected at the level of the dorsomedial nucleus (DMH) and paraventricular nucleus (PVN), but expression did not change with season. A greater number of RFRP3-expressing cells was observed throughout the rostral-caudal extension of the DMH. Further, adenohypophyseal expression of the RFRP3 receptor (NPFFR1) during the winter anovulatory season did not differ from that during either the follicular or luteal phases of the estrous cycle. When tested in primary adenohyphyseal cell culture, or in vivo during both the breeding and non-breeding seasons, neither equine nor ovine peptide sequences for RFRP3 suppressed basal or GnRH-mediated release of LH. However, infusion of RF9, an RFRP3 receptor-signaling antagonist, into seasonally-anovulatory mares induced a robust increase in secretion of LH both before and following continuous treatment with GnRH. Results indicate that the cellular machinery associated with RFRP3 function is present in the equine hypothalamus and adenohypophysis. However, evidence for functionality of the RFRP3 signaling network was only obvious when an antagonist (RF9) was employed. As GnRH-induced release of LH was not affected by RF9, its actions may occur upstream from the gonadotrope to stimulate or disinhibit secretion of GnRH.
Biology of Reproduction 01/2014; · 4.03 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Effective tick management on grazing animals is facilitated by accurate noninvasive detection methods. Fecal analysis provides information about animal health and nutrition. Diet affects fecal composition, stress may do likewise. The constituents in feces which may be affected by tick burdens and in turn affect near infrared spectra have not been reported. Our objective was to examine the interaction between plane of nutrition and tick burden on fecal composition in cattle. Angus cross steers (n = 28, 194 ± 3.0 kg) were assigned to one of four treatments (n = 7 per group) in a 2 x 2 factorial design: moderate (14.0 ± 1.0% CP, 60 ± 1.5% TDN) vs. low (9.0 ± 1.0% CP, 58 ± 1.5% TDN) plane of nutrition, and control (no tick) vs. tick treatment (infestation of 300 pair of adult Lone Star ticks [Amblyomma americanum] per treated animal). Fecal samples were collected at approximately 0700 h on d -7, 0, 7,10,14,17, and 21 relative to tick infestation. Fecal constituents measured were: DM, OM, pH, Lactobacillus spp., Escherchia coli, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate, valerate, isovalerate, immunoglobulin A (IgA), and cortisol. Experimental d affected (P < 0.05). all constituents measured. Plane of nutrition affected (P < 0.05) DM, OM, VFAs, and IgA. Tick treatment numerically (P = 0.13) reduced cortisol. A multivariate stepwise selection model containing cortisol andE. Coli values on d 10 and d 14 accounted for 33% of the variation in daily adult female tick feeding counts across both planes of nutrition (P < 0.07). Within the moderate plane of nutrition, a model containing only cortisol on d 10 and d 14 described 59 % of the variation in the number of feeding ticks (P < 0.02). Similarly, a model including cortisol, propionate, isovalerate, and DM at d 10 and d 14 d described 95% of the variation in total feeding ticks in the low plane of nutrition. Of the constituents measured, fecal cortisol offers the best possibility of non-invasively assessing stress by way of a single assay but the presence of ticks would still need to be confirmed visually. Although several constituents measured in this study should exist in sufficient quantity to directly affect near infrared spectra, none stood out as a clear descriptor of prior observed differences in fecal spectra between tick-treated versus non tick-treated animals. There were, however, groups of fecal constituents related to daily adult female tick feeding numbers (as a visual estimation of tick stress).
Journal of Animal Science 05/2013; · 2.09 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A decrease in fertility can have a negative economic impact, both locally and over a broader geographical scope, and this is especially the case with regard to the cattle industry. Therefore, much interest exists in evaluating proteins that might be able to increase the fertility of sperm. Heparin binding proteins (HBPs), specifically the fertility associated antigen (FAA) and the Type-2 tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP-2), act to favor the capacitation and acrosome reaction and perhaps even modulate the immune system's response toward the sperm. The objective of this research was to determine the effect on fertility of adding recombinant FAA (rFAA) and recombinant TIMP-2 (rTIMP-2) to bovine semen before cryopreservation for use in an artificial insemination (AI) program in a tropical environment. For this experiment, 100 crossbred (Bos taurus x Bos indicus) heifers were selected based on their estrus cycle, body condition score (BCS), of 4 to 6 on a scale of 1 to 9, and adequate anatomical conformation evaluated by pelvic and genital (normal) measurements. Heifers were synchronized using estradiol benzoate (EB), Celosil® (PGF2α) (Shering-Plough) and a controlled internal drug release (CIDR) device was inserted that contained progesterone. Inseminations were performed in two groups at random, 50 animals per group. The control group was inseminated with conventional semen. The treatment group was inseminated with semen containing rFAA (25 µg/mL) and rTIMP-2 (25 µg/mL). In the control group a 16% pregnancy rate was obtained versus a 40% pregnancy rate for the HBP treatment group, resulting in a significant difference (P = 0.0037). Given the results herein, one may conclude that the HBPs can increase fertility and could be an option for cattle in tropical conditions; however, one needs to consider the environment, nutrition, and the genetic interaction affecting the final result in whatever reproductive program that is implemented.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(6):e65083. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: During early pregnancy in sheep, the elongating conceptus secretes interferon-τ (IFNT) and the conceptus as well as endometrial epithelia produce prostaglandins (PG) via PG synthase 2 (PTGS2) and cortisol via hydroxysteroid (11-β) dehydrogenase 1 (HSD11B1). Ovarian progesterone induces and PG and IFNT stimulates endometrial HSD11B1 expression and keto-reductase activity as well as many epithelial genes that govern trophectoderm proliferation, migration, and attachment during elongation. The primary aim of these studies was to test the hypothesis that HSD11B1-derived cortisol has a biological role in endometrial function and conceptus development during early pregnancy in sheep. In study 1, cyclic ewes received vehicle, cortisol, PF 915275 (PF; a selective inhibitor of HSD11B1), cortisol and PF, meloxicam (a selective inhibitor of PTGS2), cortisol and meloxicam, recombinant ovine IFNT, or IFNT and PF into the uterus from day 10 to day14 after estrus. Cortisol and IFNT stimulated endometrial HSD11B1 expression and activity, increased endometrial PTGS2 activity and the amount of PG in the uterine lumen, and up-regulated many conceptus elongation-related genes in the endometrium. Some effects of cortisol and IFNT were mediated by PTGS2-derived PG. In study 2, bred ewes received PF 915275 or recombinant ovine IFNT and into the uterus from day 10 to day 14 after mating. Inhibition of HSD11B1 activity in utero prevented conceptus elongation, whereas IFNT rescued conceptus elongation in PF-infused ewes. These results suggest that HSD11B1-derived cortisol mediates, in part, actions of ovarian progesterone and the conceptus on endometrial function and support the hypothesis that IFNT, PG, and cortisol coordinately regulate endometrial functions important for conceptus elongation and implantation during early pregnancy in sheep.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study was designed to characterize potential sexually dimorphic stress and immunological responses following a corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) challenge in beef cattle. Six female (heifers) and six male (bulls) Brahman calves (264 ± 12 d of age) were administered CRH intravenously (0.5 µg of CRH/kg body mass) after which serum concentrations of cortisol increased from 0.5 h to 4 h. From 1 h to 4 h after CRH administration, serum cortisol concentrations were greater in heifers than in bulls. In all cattle, increased serum concentrations of TNF-α, IL-6 and IFN-γ were observed from 2.5 h to 3 h after CRH, with greater concentrations of IFN-γ and IL-6 in heifers than bulls. Heifer total leukocyte counts decreased 1 h after CRH administration, while bull leukocyte counts and percent neutrophils decreased 2 h after CRH administration. Heifers had greater rectal temperatures than bulls, yet rectal temperatures did not change following administration of CRH. There was no effect of CRH administration on heart rate. However, bulls tended to have increased heart rate 2 h after CRH administration than before CRH. Heifer heart rate was greater than bulls throughout the study. These data demonstrate that acute CRH administration can elicit a pro-inflammatory response, and cattle exhibit a sexually dimorphic pro-inflammatory cytokine and cortisol response to acute CRH administration.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The influence of nutrition on puberty in beef heifers is complex and under neuroendocrine control. The stores of body fat in mammals are a determinant of the onset and maintenance of puberty. Body fat stores are greater in heifers with greater residual feed intake than in their more efficient herdmates. A one unit increase in residual feed intake resulted in a reduction of 7.54 d in age at puberty in Bos taurus beef heifers. However, Bos indicus-influenced heifers, which reach puberty at older ages, were not found to have sexual maturity influenced by selection for residual feed intake. The strong influence of body fat stores on return to estrus after calving does indicate that selection for leaner beef heifers could affect reproductive performance relative to puberty and postpartum rebreeding of first calf heifers. The influence of intermediary metabolism, through signals at the central nervous system, regulates the GnRH pulse generator, thereby influencing pituitary and ovarian function culminating with puberty and return to ovarian cydicity following calving. Tropically adapted cattle (i.e., Santa Gertrudis and Brahman) selected for low residual feed intake had a lesser response of insulin to a glucose challenge than their less efficient herdmates. These studies indicate the possibility that animals with differing residual feed intake (efficiencies) may have differing intermediary metabolism and, therefore, differing rates of reaching puberty. Selection for low residual feed intake results in selection of leaner heifers that reach puberty at older ages. These leaner heifers calve later in their first and subsequent calving seasons. Selection for residual average daily gain has no negative influence on age at puberty or calving interval. Selection for residual average daily gain may be an acceptable method to improve feed efficiency without harming reproductive efficiency.
Journal of Animal Science 10/2012; · 2.09 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ticks are external parasites, which pose a significant economic burden to domestic animal agriculture. The effects of ticks on grazing animals may be exacerbated during periods of low nutrition, such as those encountered during drought. It is not completely understood how plane of nutrition and tick burden interact to affect metabolism in cattle. The objective of the current research was to examine the plane of nutrition by tick-burden interaction in cattle and determine the effects of this interaction on physiological indicators of growth and metabolism. Eight-month-old Angus cross steers (n = 28, 194 ± 3.0 kg) were stratified by pretrial BW and DMI into 1 of 4 groups (n = 7/group) in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. Categories were: moderate (14.0 ± 1.0% CP, 60 ± 1.5% TDN) vs. low (9.0 ± 1.0% CP, 58 ± 1.5% TDN) plane of nutrition and control (no tick) vs. tick treatment (300 pair of adult Amblyomma americanum per treated animal). Steers were individually fed their respective experimental diets ad libitum and feed intake was monitored for 35 d before and 21 d after the start of tick infestation (d 0). Blood samples were harvested via coccygeal venipuncture on d -7, 0, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 13, 17, and 21. Plasma cortisol and IGF-I were determined by RIA. Metabolic indicators were determined by colorimetric assay. Steers weighed 195 ± 6 kg on d -35, but on d -7 and d 21, the moderate steers weighed more than the low steers (244.1 ± 8.7 vs. 227.7 ± 8.4 kg, P < 0.07; and 283.4 ± 8.0 vs. 244.0 ± 7.9 kg, P < 0.001, respectively). Cortisol was affected by plane of nutrition and treatment (P < 0.08). Insulin-like growth factor-I was greater (P < 0.01) in moderate than in low and control animals (P < 0.02), compared with tick-treated animals. Tick treatment had no effect (P > 0.05) on any of the metabolites measured in this study. Plane of nutrition affected (P < 0.02) albumin, blood urea nitrogen, and glucose in that values from the moderate group animals were greater than those from the low group. Although cortisol was related to both tick treatment and nutritional status in the current study, with respect to the combination of parasitism and suboptimal nutrition, IGF-I was the most highly indicative constituent measured. Tick burden affected various characteristics of growth and metabolism in these growing cattle and the effects were exacerbated by a low plane of nutrition.
Journal of Animal Science 06/2012; 90(10):3442-50. · 2.09 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) is influenced by the proinflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-1β, and TNF-α in critically ill humans. Information about the association of cytokines with the HPA axis in neonatal foals is lacking.
The objectives were to describe for hospitalized septic and nonseptic foals (1) temporal changes in blood concentrations of ACTH, and cortisol, and leukocyte cytokine gene expression, and (2) coassociation of these HPA axis hormones with blood leukocyte cytokine gene expression.
Hospitalized septic foals (N = 15) and hospitalized nonseptic foals (N = 11).
Blood samples, obtained from study foals at admission (T = 0), and 24 (T = 1), 48 (T = 2), 72 (T = 3), and 96 (T = 4) hours after admission, were processed to isolate RNA from leukocytes and to harvest plasma and serum for hormone assays. Plasma ACTH and serum cortisol concentrations were determined by radioimmunoassay. Leukocyte mRNA expression of IL-1β IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and TNF-α was determined using RT-PCR.
Cortisol concentrations were greater (P < .05) in foals at admission than at other time points. The expressions of IL-8 and IL-10 mRNA were lower (P < .05) at each time point in septic than in nonseptic foals. Among septic foals, ACTH was positively associated (P = .0026) with IL-6 mRNA expression.
Sepsis influences secretion of the HPA axis hormones and expression of cytokines in foals. A positive association with the HPA axis and IL-6 expression was detected. The clinical importance of these findings requires additional study.
Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 03/2012; 26(3):654-61. · 2.06 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In ruminants, the elongating conceptus secretes interferon tau (IFNT), the pregnancy recognition signal, and prostaglandins (PGs). Progesterone from the ovary induces prostaglandin synthase two (PTGS2) and hydroxysteroid (11-beta) dehydrogenase 1 (HSD11B1) in the endometrial epithelia, and PTGS2-derived PGs regulate endometrial functions and conceptus elongation. The enzyme HSD11B1 interconverts inactive cortisone and active cortisol. These studies determined the effects of pregnancy, IFNT, and PGs on endometrial HSD11B1 expression and activity in the ovine uterus. Study one found that HSD11B1 activity was present in both the endometrium and conceptus during early pregnancy. In study two, ewes received intrauterine infusions of vehicle as a control (CX) or meloxicam (MEL), a PTGS2 inhibitor, from Days 8 to 14 of pregnancy. Endometrial HSD11B1 activity and cortisol in the uterine lumen were substantially lower in MEL-infused ewes. In study three, cyclic ewes received intrauterine infusions of vehicle as a CX, MEL, recombinant ovine IFNT, or IFNT and MEL. Infusion of IFNT increased endometrial HSD11B1 expression and activity and cortisol in the uterine lumen, and this effect was diminished by coinfusion of MEL. In study four, cyclic ewes were infused with vehicle as a CX, IFNT, PGE2, PGF2 alpha, or PGI2. Infusion of all the PGs and IFNT increased endometrial HSD11B1 expression and activity, and IFNT and PGI2 infusion increased cortisol in the uterine lumen. These studies support the idea that IFNT and PGs from the conceptus regulate endometrial HSD11B1 expression and activity that regenerates bioactive cortisol in the ovine uterus during early pregnancy to influence endometrial functions and conceptus elongation.
Biology of Reproduction 12/2011; 86(4):124. · 4.03 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The decrease in the fertility of males can have a negative economic impact on the production of milk and meat in cattle. As a result, interest exists in evaluating diverse proteins that might be able to increase the fertility of sperm. This is the case of the heparin-binding proteins (HBP), specifically the fertility-associated antigen (FAA) and the Type-2 tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP-2), which act to favour capacitation and the acrosome reaction, perhaps by modulating the immune system response toward the sperm. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of adding recombinant FAA and recombinant TIMP-2 to Hereford sexed semen (X-chromosome-bearing sperm) for use in an IVF program. For IVF, X-sorted semen was prepared both with and without HBP. For this, 25μg of FAA and 25μg of TIMP-2 were added per milliliter of semen and were left to adsorb for 20min. The semen was then diluted, packaged in straws and cryopreserved. Ovaries were obtained from a slaughterhouse and transported to the laboratory to obtain cumulus-oocyte complexes by follicular aspiration and were cultured in maturation medium (TCM-199 supplemented with FSH, LH and oestradiol) for 24h. All incubations were performed at 38.5°C in a humidified atmosphere of 5% CO(2) in air. For insemination, frozen-thawed semen was washed by centrifugation in 2 concentration gradients of a silica-based colloid solution. The sperm concentration used for IVF was 1×10(6) spermatozoamL(-1). Gametes were co-incubated for 22h in fertilization medium (TALP added with BSA, heparin, penicillamine, hypotaurine and epinephrine). For IVD, presumptive zygotes were incubated for 7 days in a modified IVD medium (SOF) supplemented with FCS and BSA. A total of 363 in vitro-matured oocytes were used in the control vs 405 oocytes in the treatment group. A Pearson chi-square test was used to determine the statistical significance. The cleavage rates for the control (61.4%) and treatment (83.7%) groups were different (P<0.001). However, the numbers of blastocysts, expanded blastocysts and hatched blastocysts produced in the control (10.2, 6.3 and 0%, respectively) and treatment (7.4, 7.4 and 0.7%, respectively) groups were similar (all P>0.1). The fact that there was an increase in the early embryonic development rates and not in the development of the embryos to the blastocyst stage suggests that HBP could play a role in fertilization, but not in embryo development. The results also demonstrate that the addition of the recombinant proteins to the semen increased the fertilizing capacity of the sperm at a concentration of 1×10(6) sperm cellsmL(-1) of fertilization medium. To further elucidate the effect of the HBP, an evaluation of sperm penetration and pronuclei formation is proposed as a complement to these results.
Reproduction Fertility and Development 12/2011; 24(1):197-8. · 2.58 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previously, it was reported that chronic intra-uterine infusion of PGE(1) or PGE(2) every 4h inhibited luteolysis in ewes by altering luteal mRNA for luteinizing hormone (LH) receptors and unoccupied and occupied luteal LH receptors. However, estradiol-17β or PGE(2) given intra-uterine every 8h did not inhibit luteolysis in cows, but infusion of estradiol+PGE(2) inhibited luteolysis. In contrast, intra-luteal implants containing PGE(1) or PGE(2) in Angus or Brahman cows also inhibited the decline in circulating progesterone, mRNA for LH receptors, and loss of unoccupied and occupied receptors for LH to prevent luteolysis. The objective of this experiment was to determine how intra-luteal implants of PGE(1) or PGE(2) alter mRNA for prostanoid receptors and how this could influence luteolysis in Brahman or Angus cows. On day-13 Angus cows received no intra-luteal implant and corpora lutea were retrieved or Angus and Brahman cows received intra-luteal silastic implants containing Vehicle, PGE(1), or PGE(2) and corpora lutea were retrieved on day-19. Corpora lutea slices were analyzed for mRNA for prostanoid receptors (FP, EP1, EP2, EP3 (A-D), EP3A, EP3B, EP3C, EP3D, and EP4) by RT-PCR. Day-13 Angus cow luteal tissue served as pre-luteolytic controls. mRNA for FP receptors decreased in day-19 Vehicle controls compared to day-13 Vehicle controls regardless of breed. PGE(1) and PGE(2) up-regulated FP gene expression on day-19 compared to day-19 Vehicle controls regardless of breed. EP1 mRNA was not altered by any treatment. PGE(1) and PGE(2) down-regulated EP2 and EP4 mRNA compared to day-19 Vehicle controls regardless of breed. PGE(1) or PGE(2) up-regulated mRNA EP3B receptor subtype compared to day-19 Vehicle control cows regardless of breed. The similarities in relative gene expression profiles induced by PGE(1) and PGE(2) support their agonistic effects. We conclude that both PGE(1) and PGE(2) may prevent luteolysis by altering expression of mRNA for prostanoid receptors, which is correlated with changes in luteal mRNA for LH receptors reported previously in these same cows to prevent luteolysis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study was designed to determine the influence of temperament on endotoxin-induced changes in body temperature, sickness behavior, and stress hormone concentrations in cattle. Brahman bulls were selected based on temperament score measured 28 d prior to weaning. In dwelling recording devices were used to monitor rectal temperature, and jugular catheters were used to collect blood samples to determine cortisol and epinephrine concentrations before and after LPS administration (0.5 μg/kg body weight). Temperamental bulls had the lowest peak rectal temperature and sickness behavior scores relative to the Calm and Intermediate bulls. Prior to the administration of LPS, Temperamental bulls had greater cortisol and epinephrine concentrations than Calm or Intermediate bulls. Cortisol concentrations increased following LPS administration but were not affected by temperament. Epinephrine concentrations peaked 1 h after LPS administration in Calm bulls. Temperamental bulls did not exhibit an epinephrine response to LPS challenge. These data demonstrate that the temperament of calves can modulate the physiological, behavioral, and endocrine responses of pre-pubertal Brahman bulls to endotoxin challenge. Specifically, temperament differentially affected the rectal temperature, sickness behavior and epinephrine, but not cortisol, responses to LPS challenge.