[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Active HIV infection within the central nervous system (CNS) is confined primarily to microglia. The glial cell compartment acts as a viral reservoir behind the blood-brain barrier. It provides an additional roadblock to effective pharmacological treatment via expression of multiple drug efflux transporters, including P-glycoprotein. HIV/AIDS patients frequently suffer bacterial and viral co-infections, leading to deregulation of glial cell function and release of pro-inflammatory mediators including cytokines, chemokines, and nitric oxide. METHODS: To better define the role of inflammation in decreased HIV drug accumulation into CNS targets, accumulation of the antiretroviral saquinavir was examined in purified cultures of rodent microglia exposed to the prototypical inflammatory mediator lipopolysaccharide (LPS). RESULTS: [3H]-Saquinavir accumulation by microglia was rapid, and was increased up to two-fold in the presence of the specific P-glycoprotein inhibitor, PSC833. After six or 24 hours of exposure to 10 ng/ml LPS, saquinavir accumulation was decreased by up to 45%. LPS did not directly inhibit saquinavir transport, and did not affect P-glycoprotein protein expression. LPS exposure did not alter RNA and/or protein expression of other transporters including multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 and several solute carrier uptake transporters. CONCLUSIONS: The decrease in saquinavir accumulation in microglia following treatment with LPS is likely multi-factorial, since drug accumulation was attenuated by inhibitors of NF-kappabeta and the MEK1/2 pathway in the microglia cell line HAPI, and in primary microglia cultures from toll-like receptor 4 deficient mice. These data provide new pharmacological insights into why microglia act as a difficult-to-treat viral sanctuary site.
Journal of Neuroinflammation 05/2013; 10(1):58. · 4.35 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Accumulating evidence indicates that pesticide exposure is associated with an increased risk for developing Parkinson's disease (PD). Several pesticides known to damage dopaminergic (DA) neurons, such as paraquat, rotenone, lindane, and dieldrin also demonstrate the ability to activate microglia, the resident innate immune cell in the brain. While each of these environmental toxicants may impact microglia through unique mechanisms, they all appear to converge on a common final pathway of microglial activation: NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX2) activation. This review will detail the role of microglia in selective DA neurotoxicity, highlight what is currently known about the mechanism of microglial NOX2 activation in these key pesticides, and describe the importance for DA neuron survival and PD etiology.
Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology 01/2013; · 1.60 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Accumulating evidence suggests that outdoor air pollution may have a significant impact on central nervous system (CNS) health and disease. To address this issue, the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences/National Institute of Health convened a panel of research scientists that was assigned the task of identifying research gaps and priority goals essential for advancing this growing field and addressing an emerging human health concern. Here, we review recent findings that have established the effects of inhaled air pollutants in the brain, explore the potential mechanisms driving these phenomena, and discuss the recommended research priorities/approaches that were identified by the panel.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Microglia are key sentinels of central nervous system health, and their dysfunction has been widely implicated in the progressive nature of neurodegenerative diseases. While microglia can produce a host of factors that are toxic to neighboring neurons, NOX2 has been implicated as a common and essential mechanism of microglia-mediated neurotoxicity. Accumulating evidence indicates that activation of the NOX2 enzyme complex in microglia is neurotoxic, both through the production of extracellular reactive oxygen species that damage neighboring neurons as well as the initiation of redox signaling in microglia that amplifies the pro-inflammatory response. More specifically, evidence supports that NOX2 redox signaling enhances microglial sensitivity to pro-inflammatory stimuli, and amplifies the production of neurotoxic cytokines, to promote chronic and neurotoxic microglial activation. Here, we describe the evidence denoting the role of NOX2 in microglia-mediated neurotoxicity with an emphasis on Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease, describe available inhibitors that have been tested, and detail evidence of the neuroprotective and therapeutic potential of targeting this enzyme complex to regulate microglia.
Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences CMLS 05/2012; 69(14):2409-27. · 5.62 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Increasing evidence links diverse forms of air pollution to neuroinflammation and neuropathology in both human and animal models, but the effects of long-term exposures are poorly understood.
We explored the central nervous system consequences of subchronic exposure to diesel exhaust (DE) and addressed the minimum levels necessary to elicit neuroinflammation and markers of early neuropathology.
Male Fischer 344 rats were exposed to DE (992, 311, 100, 35 and 0 μg PM/m³) by inhalation over 6 months.
DE exposure resulted in elevated levels of TNFα at high concentrations in all regions tested, with the exception of the cerebellum. The midbrain region was the most sensitive, where exposures as low as 100 μg PM/m³ significantly increased brain TNFα levels. However, this sensitivity to DE was not conferred to all markers of neuroinflammation, as the midbrain showed no increase in IL-6 expression at any concentration tested, an increase in IL-1β at only high concentrations, and a decrease in MIP-1α expression, supporting that compensatory mechanisms may occur with subchronic exposure. Aβ42 levels were the highest in the frontal lobe of mice exposed to 992 μg PM/m³ and tau [pS199] levels were elevated at the higher DE concentrations (992 and 311 μg PM/m³) in both the temporal lobe and frontal lobe, indicating that proteins linked to preclinical Alzheimer's disease were affected. α Synuclein levels were elevated in the midbrain in response to the 992 μg PM/m³ exposure, supporting that air pollution may be associated with early Parkinson's disease-like pathology.
Together, the data support that the midbrain may be more sensitive to the neuroinflammatory effects of subchronic air pollution exposure. However, the DE-induced elevation of proteins associated with neurodegenerative diseases was limited to only the higher exposures, suggesting that air pollution-induced neuroinflammation may precede preclinical markers of neurodegenerative disease in the midbrain.
Journal of Neuroinflammation 08/2011; 8:105. · 4.35 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Air pollution is linked to central nervous system disease, but the mechanisms responsible are poorly understood.
Here, we sought to address the brain-region-specific effects of diesel exhaust (DE) and key cellular mechanisms underlying DE-induced microglia activation, neuroinflammation, and dopaminergic (DA) neurotoxicity.
Rats were exposed to DE (2.0, 0.5, and 0 mg/m3) by inhalation over 4 weeks or as a single intratracheal administration of DE particles (DEP; 20 mg/kg). Primary neuron-glia cultures and the HAPI (highly aggressively proliferating immortalized) microglial cell line were used to explore cellular mechanisms.
Rats exposed to DE by inhalation demonstrated elevated levels of whole-brain IL-6 (interleukin-6) protein, nitrated proteins, and IBA-1 (ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule 1) protein (microglial marker), indicating generalized neuroinflammation. Analysis by brain region revealed that DE increased TNFα (tumor necrosis factor-α), IL-1β, IL-6, MIP-1α (macrophage inflammatory protein-1α) RAGE (receptor for advanced glycation end products), fractalkine, and the IBA-1 microglial marker in most regions tested, with the midbrain showing the greatest DE response. Intratracheal administration of DEP increased microglial IBA-1 staining in the substantia nigra and elevated both serum and whole-brain TNFα at 6 hr posttreatment. Although DEP alone failed to cause the production of cytokines and chemokines, DEP (5 μg/mL) pretreatment followed by lipopolysaccharide (2.5 ng/mL) in vitro synergistically amplified nitric oxide production, TNFα release, and DA neurotoxicity. Pretreatment with fractalkine (50 pg/mL) in vitro ameliorated DEP (50 μg/mL)-induced microglial hydrogen peroxide production and DA neurotoxicity.
Together, these findings reveal complex, interacting mechanisms responsible for how air pollution may cause neuroinflammation and DA neurotoxicity.
Environmental Health Perspectives 05/2011; 119(8):1149-55. · 7.26 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: NADPH oxidase is implicated in neurotoxic microglial activation and the progressive nature of Alzheimer's Disease (AD). Here, we test the ability of two NADPH oxidase inhibitors, apocynin and dextromethorphan (DM), to reduce learning deficits and neuropathology in transgenic mice overexpressing human amyloid precursor protein with the Swedish and London mutations (hAPP(751)(SL)).
Four month old hAPP(751)(SL) mice were treated daily with saline, 15 mg/kg DM, 7.5 mg/kg DM, or 10 mg/kg apocynin by gavage for four months.
Only hAPP(751)(SL) mice treated with apocynin showed reduced plaque size and a reduction in the number of cortical microglia, when compared to the saline treated group. Analysis of whole brain homogenates from all treatments tested (saline, DM, and apocynin) demonstrated low levels of TNFα, protein nitration, lipid peroxidation, and NADPH oxidase activation, indicating a low level of neuroinflammation and oxidative stress in hAPP(751)(SL) mice at 8 months of age that was not significantly affected by any drug treatment. Despite in vitro analyses demonstrating that apocynin and DM ameliorate Aβ-induced extracellular superoxide production and neurotoxicity, both DM and apocynin failed to significantly affect learning and memory tasks or synaptic density in hAPP(751)(SL) mice. To discern how apocynin was affecting plaque levels (plaque load) and microglial number in vivo, in vitro analysis of microglia was performed, revealing no apocynin effects on beta-amyloid (Aβ) phagocytosis, microglial proliferation, or microglial survival.
Together, this study suggests that while hAPP(751)(SL) mice show increases in microglial number and plaque load, they fail to exhibit elevated markers of neuroinflammation consistent with AD at 8 months of age, which may be a limitation of this animal model. Despite absence of clear neuroinflammation, apocynin was still able to reduce both plaque size and microglial number, suggesting that apocynin may have additional therapeutic effects independent of anti-inflammatory characteristics.
PLoS ONE 01/2011; 6(5):e20153. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To celebrate the first 10 years of Nature Reviews Neuroscience, we invited the authors of the most cited article of each year to look back on the state of their field of research at the time of publication and the impact their article has had, and to discuss the questions that might be answered in the next 10 years. This selection of highly cited articles provides interesting snapshots of the progress that has been made in diverse areas of neuroscience. They show the enormous influence of neuroimaging techniques and highlight concepts that have generated substantial interest in the past decade, such as neuroimmunology, social neuroscience and the 'network approach' to brain function. These advancements will pave the way for further exciting discoveries that lie ahead.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Microglia, the resident innate immune cells in the brain, have long been implicated in the pathology of neurodegenerative diseases. Accumulating evidence points to activated microglia as a chronic source of multiple neurotoxic factors, including tumor necrosis factor-α, nitric oxide, interleukin-1β, and reactive oxygen species (ROS), driving progressive neuron damage. Microglia can become chronically activated by either a single stimulus (e.g., lipopolysaccharide or neuron damage) or multiple stimuli exposures to result in cumulative neuronal loss with time. Although the mechanisms driving these phenomena are just beginning to be understood, reactive microgliosis (the microglial response to neuron damage) and ROS have been implicated as key mechanisms of chronic and neurotoxic microglial activation, particularly in the case of Parkinson's disease. We review the mechanisms of neurotoxicity associated with chronic microglial activation and discuss the role of neuronal death and microglial ROS driving the chronic and toxic microglial phenotype.
Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics 10/2010; 7(4):354-65. · 5.38 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 neuropathology results from collective effects of viral proteins and inflammatory mediators on several cell types. Significant damage is mediated indirectly through inflammatory conditions promulgated by glial cells, including microglia that are productively infected by HIV-1, and astroglia. Neural and glial progenitors exist in both developing and adult brains. To determine whether progenitors are targets of HIV-1, a multi-plex assay was performed to assess chemokine/cytokine expression after treatment with viral proteins transactivator of transcription (Tat) or glycoprotein 120 (gp120). In the initial screen, ten analytes were basally released by murine striatal progenitors. The beta-chemokines CCL5/regulated upon activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted, CCL3/macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha, and CCL4/macrophage inflammatory protein-1beta were increased by 12-h exposure to HIV-1 Tat. Secreted factors from Tat-treated progenitors were chemoattractive towards microglia, an effect blocked by 2D7 anti-CCR5 antibody pre-treatment. Tat and opiates have interactive effects on astroglial chemokine secretion, but this interaction did not occur in progenitors. gp120 did not affect chemokine/cytokine release, although both CCR5 and CXCR4, which serve as gp120 co-receptors, were detected in progenitors. We postulate that chemokine production by progenitors may be a normal, adaptive process that encourages immune inspection of newly generated cells. Pathogens such as HIV might usurp this function to create a maladaptive state, especially during development or regeneration, when progenitors are numerous.
Journal of Neurochemistry 07/2010; 114(1):97-109. · 3.97 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Microglia, the innate immune cells in the brain, can become chronically activated in response to dopaminergic neuron death, fuelling a self-renewing cycle of microglial activation followed by further neuron damage (reactive microgliosis), which is implicated in the progressive nature of Parkinson's disease. Here, we use an in vitro approach to separate neuron injury factors from the cellular actors of reactive microgliosis and discover molecular signals responsible for chronic and toxic microglial activation. Upon injury with the dopaminergic neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium, N27 cells (dopaminergic neuron cell line) released soluble neuron injury factors that activated microglia and were selectively toxic to dopaminergic neurons in mixed mesencephalic neuron-glia cultures through nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase. mu-Calpain was identified as a key signal released from damaged neurons, causing selective dopaminergic neuron death through activation of microglial nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase and superoxide production. These findings suggest that dopaminergic neurons may be inherently susceptible to the pro-inflammatory effects of neuron damage, i.e. reactive microgliosis, providing much needed insight into the chronic nature of Parkinson's disease.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Air pollution has been implicated as a chronic source of neuroinflammation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) that produce neuropathology and central nervous system (CNS) disease. Stroke incidence and Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease pathology are linked to air pollution. Recent reports reveal that air pollution components reach the brain; systemic effects that impact lung and cardiovascular disease also impinge upon CNS health. While mechanisms driving air pollution-induced CNS pathology are poorly understood, new evidence suggests that microglial activation and changes in the blood-brain barrier are key components. Here we summarize recent findings detailing the mechanisms through which air pollution reaches the brain and activates the resident innate immune response to become a chronic source of pro-inflammatory factors and ROS, culminating in CNS disease.
Trends in Neurosciences 09/2009; 32(9):506-16. · 13.58 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neuronal death is known to trigger reactive microgliosis. However, little is known regarding the manner by which microglia are activated by injured neurons and how microgliosis participates in neurodegeneration. In this study we delineate the critical role of macrophage Ag complex-1 (MAC1), a member of the beta(2) integrin family, in mediating reactive microgliosis and promoting dopaminergic (DAergic) neurodegeneration in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) model of Parkinson's disease. MAC1 deficiency greatly attenuated the DAergic neurodegeneration induced by MPTP or 1-methyl-4-phenyl-pyridium iodide (MPP(+)) exposure both in vivo and in vitro, respectively. Reconstituted experiments created by adding microglia from MAC1(-/-) or MAC1(+/+) mice back to MAC1(+/+) neuron-enriched cultures showed that microglia with functional MAC1 expression was mandatory for microglia-enhanced neurotoxicity. Both in vivo and in vitro morphological and Western blot studies demonstrated that MPTP/MPP(+) produced less microglia activation in MAC1(-/-) mice than MAC1(+/+) mice. Further mechanistic studies revealed that a MPP(+)-mediated increase in superoxide production was reduced in MAC1(-/-) neuron-glia cultures compared with MAC1(+/+) cultures. The stunted production of superoxide in MAC1(-/-) microglia is likely linked to the lack of translocation of the cytosolic NADPH oxidase (PHOX) subunit (p47(phox)) to the membrane. In addition, the production of PGE(2) markedly decreased in neuron plus MAC1(-/-) microglia cocultures vs neuron plus MAC1(+/+) microglia cocultures. Taken together, these results demonstrate that MAC1 plays a critical role in MPTP/MPP(+)-induced reactive microgliosis and further support the hypothesis that reactive microgliosis is an essential step in the self-perpetuating cycle leading to progressive DAergic neurodegeneration observed in Parkinson's disease.
The Journal of Immunology 12/2008; 181(10):7194-204. · 5.52 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by the selective and progressive loss of dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the midbrain substantia nigra. Currently, available treatment is unable to alter PD progression. Previously, we demonstrated that valproic acid (VPA), a mood stabilizer, anticonvulsant and histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, increases the expression of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in astrocytes to protect DA neurons in midbrain neuron-glia cultures. The present study investigated whether these effects are due to HDAC inhibition and histone acetylation. Here, we show that two additional HDAC inhibitors, sodium butyrate (SB) and trichostatin A (TSA), mimic the survival-promoting and protective effects of VPA on DA neurons in neuron-glia cultures. Similar to VPA, both SB and TSA increased GDNF and BDNF transcripts in astrocytes in a time-dependent manner. Furthermore, marked increases in GDNF promoter activity and promoter-associated histone H3 acetylation were noted in astrocytes treated with all three compounds, where the time-course for acetylation was similar to that for gene transcription. Taken together, our results indicate that HDAC inhibitors up-regulate GDNF and BDNF expression in astrocytes and protect DA neurons, at least in part, through HDAC inhibition. This study indicates that astrocytes may be a critical neuroprotective mechanism of HDAC inhibitors, revealing a novel target for the treatment of psychiatric and neurodegenerative diseases.
The International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology 08/2008; 11(8):1123-34. · 5.64 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Particulate matter (PM), a component of air pollution has been epidemiologically associated with sudden deaths, cardiovascular and respiratory illnesses. The effects are more pronounced in patients with pre-existing conditions such as asthma, diabetes or obstructive pulmonary disorders. Clinical and experimental studies have historically focused on the cardiopulmonary effects of PM. However, since PM particles carry numerous biocontaminants that are capable of triggering free radical production and cytokine release, the possibility that PM may affect organs systems sensitive to oxidative stress must be considered. Four independent studies that summarize the neurochemical and neuropathological changes found in the brains of PM exposed animals are described here. These were recently presented at two 2007 symposia sponsored by the Society of Toxicology (Charlotte, NC) and the International Neurotoxicology Association (Monterey, CA).
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Parkinson disease (PD), a chronic neurodegenerative disease, has been proposed to be a multifactorial disorder resulting from a combination of environmental mechanisms (chemical, infectious, and traumatic), aging, and genetic deficits. Microglial activation is important in the pathogenesis of PD.
We investigated dopaminergic (DA) neurotoxicity and the underlying mechanisms of formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP), a bacteria-derived peptide, in relation to PD.
We measured DA neurotoxicity using a DA uptake assay and immunocytochemical staining (ICC) in primary mesencephalic cultures from rodents. Microglial activation was observed via ICC, flow cytometry, and superoxide measurement.
fMLP can cause selective DA neuronal loss at concentrations as low as 10(-13) M. Further, fMLP (10(-13) M) led to a significant reduction in DA uptake capacity in neuron/glia (N/G) cultures, but not in microglia-depleted cultures, indicating an indispensable role of microglia in fMLP-induced neurotoxicity. Using ICC of a specific microglial marker, OX42, we observed morphologic changes in activated microglia after fMLP treatment. Microglial activation after fMLP treatment was confirmed by flow cytometry analysis of major histocompatibility antigen class II expression on a microglia HAPI cell line. Mechanistic studies revealed that fMLP (10(-13) M)-induced increase in the production of extracellular superoxide from microglia is critical in mediating fMLP-elicited neurotoxicity. Pharmacologic inhibition of NADPH oxidase (PHOX) with diphenylene-iodonium or apocynin abolished the DA neurotoxicity of fMLP. N/G cultures from PHOX-deficient (gp91PHOX-/ -) mice were also insensitive to fMLP-induced DA neurotoxicity.
fMLP (10(-13) M) induces DA neurotoxicity through activation of microglial PHOX and subsequent production of superoxide, suggesting a role of fMLP in the central nervous system inflammatory process.
Environmental Health Perspectives 06/2008; 116(5):593-8. · 7.26 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Here, we report that diesel exhaust particles (DEPs), a major constituent of urban air pollution, affect blood-brain barrier function at the tissue, cellular, and molecular levels. Isolated rat brain capillaries exposed to DEPs showed increased expression and transport activity of the key drug efflux transporter, P-glycoprotein (6 h EC(50) was approximately 5 microg/ml). Up-regulation of P-glycoprotein was abolished by blocking transcription or protein synthesis. Inhibition of NADPH oxidase or pretreatment of capillaries with radical scavengers ameliorated DEP-induced P-glycoprotein up-regulation, indicating a role for reactive oxygen species in signaling. DEP exposure also increased brain capillary tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) levels. DEP-induced P-glycoprotein up-regulation was abolished when TNF-receptor 1 (TNF-R1) was blocked and was not evident in experiments with capillaries from TNF-R1 knockout mice. Inhibition of JNK, but not NF-kappaB, blocked DEP-induced P-glycoprotein up-regulation, indicating a role for AP-1 in the signaling pathway. Consistent with this, DEPs increased phosphorylation of c-jun. Together, our results show for the first time that a component of air pollution, DEPs, alters blood-brain barrier function through oxidative stress and proinflammatory cytokine production. These experiments disclose a novel blood-brain barrier signaling pathway, with clear implications for environmental toxicology, CNS pathology, and the pharmacotherapy of CNS disorders.
The FASEB Journal 06/2008; 22(8):2723-33. · 5.70 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Using primary rat mesencephalic neuron-glia cultures as an in vitro model of Parkinson's disease (PD), we tested the effect of curcumin, a natural dietary pigment with well-known anti-inflammation effects, on dopaminergic (DA) degeneration. Curcumin pretreatment mitigated LPS-induced DA neurotoxicity in a concentration-dependent manner and curcumin post-treatment also showed protective effect. Microglia depletion abolished this protective effect of curcumin, indicating that microglia play an important role in this effect. Supportively, observation by immunocytochemistry staining using OX-42 antibody showed that curcumin treatment inhibited LPS-induced morphological change of microglia. Besides, LPS-induced production of many proinflammatory factors and their gene expressions decreased dramatically after curcumin treatment. Results also revealed that curcumin treatment decreased LPS-induced activation of two transcription factors--nuclear factors kappaB (NF-kappaB) and activator protein-1 (AP-1). Taken together, our study implicated that curcumin might be a potential preventive and therapeutic strategy for inflammation-related neurodegenerative diseases.
Neurochemical Research 04/2008; 33(10):2044-53. · 2.13 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: At present, available treatments for Alzheimer's disease (AD) are largely unable to halt disease progression. Microglia, the resident macrophages in the brain, are strongly implicated in the pathology and progressively degenerative nature of AD. Specifically, microglia are activated in response to both beta amyloid (Abeta) and neuronal damage, and can become a chronic source of neurotoxic cytokines and reactive oxygen species (ROS). NADPH oxidase is a multi-subunit enzyme complex responsible for the production of both extracellular and intracellular ROS by microglia. Importantly, NADPH oxidase expression is upregulated in AD and is an essential component of microglia-mediated Abeta neurotoxicity. Activation of microglial NADPH oxidase causes neurotoxicity through two mechanisms: 1) extracellular ROS produced by microglia are directly toxic to neurons; 2) intracellular ROS function as a signaling mechanism in microglia to amplify the production of several pro-inflammatory and neurotoxic cytokines (for example, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, prostaglandin E2, and interleukin-1beta). The following review describes how targeting NADPH oxidase can reduce a broad spectrum of toxic factors (for example, cytokines, ROS, and reactive nitrogen species) to result in inhibition of neuronal damage from two triggers of deleterious microglial activation (Abeta and neuron damage), offering hope in halting the progression of AD.