[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hepatic ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury significantly influences short-term and long-term outcomes after liver transplantation (LTx). The critical step initiating the injury is known to include sinusoidal endothelial cell (SEC) alteration during the cold preservation period. As carbon monoxide (CO) has potent cytoprotective functions on vascular endothelial cells, this study examined if CO treatment of excised liver grafts during cold storage could protect SECs and ameliorate hepatic I/R injury. Rat liver grafts were preserved in University of Wisconsin (UW) solution containing 5% CO (CO-UW solution) for 18 to 24 hours and were transplanted into syngeneic Lewis rats. After 18 hours of cold preservation, SEC damage was evident with propidium iodide (PI) nuclear staining on SECs, and the frequency of PI(+) SECs was significantly lower in grafts stored in CO-UW solution versus those stored in control UW solution. SEC protection with CO was associated with decreased intercellular cell adhesion molecule translocation and less matrix metalloproteinase release during cold preservation. After LTx with 18 hours of cold preservation, serum alanine aminotransferase levels and hepatic necrosis were significantly less in the CO-UW group than in the control UW group. With 24 hours of cold storage, 35% (7/20) survived with control UW solution, whereas the survival with CO-UW solution improved to 80% (8/10). These beneficial effects of CO-UW solution were associated with a significant reduction of neutrophil extravasation, down-regulation of hepatic messenger RNA for tumor necrosis factor alpha and intercellular cell adhesion molecule 1, and less hepatic extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation. Liver grafts from Kupffer cell-depleted donors or pseudogerm-free donors showed less SEC death during cold preservation, and CO-UW solution further reduced SEC death. In conclusion, CO delivery to excised liver grafts during cold preservation efficiently ameliorates SEC damage and hepatic I/R injury.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Proinflammatory responses play critical roles in hepatic ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury associating with liver transplantation (LTx), and carbon monoxide (CO) can effectively down-regulate them. Using wild-type (WT) to enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-transgenic rat LTx with 18-hour cold preservation in University of Wisconsin solution, this study analyzed the relative contribution of donor and host cells during early posttransplantation period and elucidated the mechanism of hepatic protection by CO. CO inhibited hepatic I/R injury and reduced peak alanine aminotransferase levels at 24 hours and hepatic necrosis at 48 hours. Abundant EGFP(+) host cells were found in untreated WT liver grafts at 1 hour and included nucleated CD45(+) leukocytes (myeloid, T, B, and natural killer cells) and EGFP(+) platelet-like depositions in the sinusoids. However, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis of isolated graft nonparenchymal cells (NPCs) revealed that I/R injury-induced proinflammatory mediators [for example, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS)] were not up-regulated in purified CD45(+) cells of donor or host origin. Instead, TNF-alpha and IL-6 messenger RNA (mRNA) elevation was exclusively seen in isolated CD68(+) cells, whereas iNOS mRNA up-regulation was seen in hepatocytes. Nearly all CD68(+) cells at 1 hour after LTx were EGFP(-) donor Kupffer cells, and CO efficiently inhibited TNF-alpha and IL-6 up-regulation in the CD68(+) Kupffer cell fraction. When graft Kupffer cells were inactivated with gadolinium chloride, activation of inflammatory mediators in liver grafts was significantly inhibited. Furthermore, in vitro rat primary Kupffer cell culture also showed significant down-regulation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory responses by CO. CONCLUSION: These results indicate that CO ameliorates hepatic I/R injury by down-regulating graft Kupffer cells in early postreperfusion period. The study also suggests that different cell populations play diverse roles by up-regulating distinctive sets of mediators in the acute phase of hepatic I/R injury.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have previously shown that carbon monoxide (CO) inhalation at a low concentration provides protection against cold ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury after kidney transplantation. As vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) may promote the recovery process of impaired vascular endothelial cells during I/R injury, we examined whether protective effects of CO involved VEGF induction and its upstream hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1 activation.
Lewis rat kidney graft, preserved in University of Wisconsin at 4 degrees C for 24 hr, was orthotopically transplanted into syngeneic recipient. Recipients were continuously maintained in air or exposed to CO (250 ppm) for 1 hr before and 24 hr after transplant.
Prolonged cold preservation resulted in progressive impairment of kidney graft function with early inflammatory responses. Carbon monoxide significantly protected kidney grafts from cold I/R injury, improved renal function and enhanced recipient survival. Real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction revealed upregulation of HIF-1alpha and VEGF in the CO-treated kidney grafts as early as 1 hr after reperfusion. Western blot showed CO significantly upregulated VEGF expression 1 to 3 hr after kidney transplantation. Considerably more VEGF-positive cells were observed mainly in tubular epithelial cells in CO-treated, but not air-exposed, kidney grafts at 3 hr after reperfusion. YC-1, HIF-1alpha inhibitor, completely abrogated the actions of CO on VEGF induction and reversed the protective effects afforded by CO. Nitric oxide production in the grafts was increased by CO, however, abolished by YC-1.
These results demonstrate that the protective effect of CO against renal cold I/R injury may involve VEGF upregulation through its upstream signal, HIF-1 activation.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The interaction of donor passenger leukocytes and host leukocytes in recipient secondary lymphoid tissues during the early posttransplantation period is crucial in directing host immune reactions toward allograft rejection or acceptance. Responsible T cell clones could be activated through the direct and indirect pathways of allorecognition. We examined the role of the indirect pathway in liver transplantation (LT) tolerance by depleting host antigen-presenting cells (APC) with phagocytic activity [e.g., cluster domain (CD)68+/CD163+ macrophages, CD11c+ dendritic cells (DC)] using liposome-encapsulating clodronate (LP-CL). After Lewis rat cell or liver graft transplantation, Brown Norway (BN) rat recipients pretreated with LP-CL showed a significantly reduced type 1 helper T cell cytokine up-regulation than control-LP-treated recipients. In the LT model, LP-CL treatment and host APC depletion abrogated hepatic tolerance; Lewis liver grafts in LP-CL-treated-BN recipients developed mild allograft rejection, failed to maintain donor major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II+ leukocytes, and developed chronic rejection in challenged donor heart allografts, while control-LP-treated BN recipients maintained tolerance status and donor MHC class II+ hepatic leukocytes. Furthermore, in the BN to Lewis LT model, LP-CL recipient treatment abrogated spontaneous hepatic allograft acceptance, and graft survival rate was reduced to 43% from 100% in the control-LP group. In conclusion, the study suggests that host cells with phagocytic activity could play significant roles in developing LT tolerance.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Following transplantation of green fluorescent protein (GFP)-labeled bone marrow (BM) into irradiated, wild-type Sprague-Dawley rats, propagated GFP(+) cells migrate to adipose tissue compartments. To determine the relationship between GFP(+) BM-derived cells and tissue-resident GFP(-) cells on the stem cell population of adipose tissue, we conducted detailed immunohistochemical analysis of chimeric whole fat compartments and subsequently isolated and characterized adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) from GFP(+) BM chimeras. In immunohistochemistry, a large fraction of GFP(+) cells in adipose tissue were strongly positive for CD45 and smooth muscle actin and were evenly scattered around the adipocytes and blood vessels, whereas all CD45(+) cells within the blood vessels were GFP(+). A small fraction of GFP(+) cells with the mesenchymal marker CD90 also existed in the perivascular area. Flow cytometric and immunocytochemical analyses showed that cultured ASCs were CD45(-)/CD90(+)/CD29(+). There was a significant difference in both the cell number and phenotype of the GFP(+) ASCs in two different adipose compartments, the omental (abdominal) and the inguinal (subcutaneous) fat pads; a significantly higher number of GFP(-)/CD90(+) cells were isolated from the subcutaneous depot as compared with the abdominal depot. The in vitro adipogenic differentiation of the ASCs was achieved; however, all cells that had differentiated were GFP(-). Based on phenotypical analysis, GFP(+) cells in adipose tissue in this rat model appear to be of both hematopoietic and mesenchymal origin; however, infrequent isolation of GFP(+) ASCs and their lack of adipogenic differentiation suggest that the contribution of BM to ASC generation might be minor.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Biliverdin (BV), one of the byproducts of heme catalysis through heme oxygenase (HO) system, is a scavenger of reactive oxygen species (ROS). We hypothesized that BV treatment could protect rat brain cells from oxidative injuries via its anti-oxidant efficacies. Cerebral infarction was induced by transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) for 90 min, followed by reperfusion. BV or vehicle was administered intraperitoneally immediately after reperfusion. The size of the cerebral infarction 2 days after tMCAO was evaluated by 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) stain. Superoxide generation 4 h after tMCAO was determined by detection of oxidized hydroethidine. In addition, the oxidative impairment of neurons were immunohistochemically assessed by stain for lipid peroxidation with 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE) and damaged DNA with 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG). BV treatment significantly reduced infarct volume of the cerebral cortices associated with less superoxide production and decreased oxidative injuries of brain cells. The present study demonstrated that treatment with BV ameliorated the oxidative injuries on neurons and decreased brain infarct size in rat tMCAO model.
Brain Research 02/2008; 1188:1-8. · 2.88 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Transplantation of hepatocytes or hepatocyte-like cells of extrahepatic origin is a promising strategy for treatment of acute and chronic liver failure. We examined possible utility of hepatocyte-like cells induced from bone marrow cells for such a purpose. Clonal cell lines were established from the bone marrow of two different rat strains. One of these cell lines, rBM25/S3 cells, grew rapidly (doubling time, approximately 24 hours) without any appreciable changes in cell properties for at least 300 population doubling levels over a period of 300 days, keeping normal diploid karyotype. The cells expressed CD29, CD44, CD49b, CD90, vimentin, and fibronectin but not CD45, indicating that they are of mesenchymal cell origin. When plated on Matrigel with hepatocyte growth factor and fibroblast growth factor-4, the cells efficiently differentiated into hepatocyte-like cells that expressed albumin, cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1, CYP1A2, glucose 6-phosphatase, tryptophane-2,3-dioxygenase, tyrosine aminotransferase, hepatocyte nuclear factor (HNF)1 alpha, and HNF4alpha. Intrasplenic transplantation of the differentiated cells prevented fatal liver failure in 90%-hepatectomized rats. In conclusion, a clonal stem cell line derived from adult rat bone marrow could differentiate into hepatocyte-like cells, and transplantation of the differentiated cells could prevent fatal liver failure in 90%-hepatectomized rats. The present results indicate a promising strategy for treating human fatal liver diseases.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We evaluated the kinetics by which rat liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs) are repopulated in the reperfused transplanted liver after 18 hours of cold ischemic storage. We found that the majority of LSECs in livers cold-stored for 18 hours in University of Wisconsin solution are seriously compromised and often are retracted before transplantation. Sinusoids rapidly re-endothelialize within 48 hours of transplantation, and repopulation is coincident with up-regulation of hepatocyte vascular endothelial growth factor expression and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 expression on large vessel endothelial cells and repopulating LSECs. Although re-endothelialization occurs rapidly, we show here, using several high-resolution imaging techniques and 2 different rat liver transplantation models, that engraftment of bone marrow-derived cells into functioning LSECs is routinely between 1% and 5%. CONCLUSION: Bone marrow plays a measurable but surprisingly limited role in the rapid repopulation and functional engraftment of bone marrow-derived LSECs after cold ischemia and warm reperfusion.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Carbon monoxide (CO) provides protection against oxidative stress via anti-inflammatory and cytoprotective actions. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that a low concentration of exogenous (inhaled) CO would protect transplanted lung grafts from cold ischemia-reperfusion injury via a mechanism involving the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway. Lewis rats underwent orthotopic syngeneic or allogeneic left lung transplantation with 6 h of cold static preservation. Exposure of donors and recipients (1 h before and then continuously post-transplant) to 250 ppm CO resulted in significant improvement in gas exchange, reduced leukocyte sequestration, preservation of parenchymal and endothelial cell ultrastructure and reduced inflammation compared to animals exposed to air. The beneficial effects of CO were associated with p38 MAPK phosphorylation and were significantly prevented by treatment with a p38 MAPK inhibitor, suggesting that CO's efficacy is at least partially mediated by activation of p38 MAPK. Furthermore, CO markedly suppressed inflammatory events in the contralateral naïve lung. This study demonstrates that perioperative exposure of donors and recipients to CO at a low concentration can impart potent anti-inflammatory and cytoprotective effects in a clinically relevant model of lung transplantation and support further evaluation for potential clinical use.
American Journal of Transplantation 11/2007; 7(10):2279-90. · 6.19 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It is now well established that various adult somatic tissues harbor multipotent stem cells that can differentiate into a broad variety of cell types of all three germ layer origins. It remains controversial, however, whether they are a reservoir of cells utilized for emergent tissue repair or simply a vestige of evolution and, if the former is the case, to what extent they can potentially contribute to reconstitution of a specific organ. To get an insight in such a direction, we examined the extent of contribution of naive intact cells of extrahepatic origin to hepatocyte reconstitution in the transplanted liver with or without injury in the rat.
Liver from wild-type donor rats was transplanted to green fluorescent protein (GFP)-transgenic rats, and GFP-positive hepatocytes were examined with or without liver injury.
The proportion of GFP-positive hepatocytes in the transplanted noninjured liver linearly increased by 0.0048% per week, that is, approximately 5 x 10(3) hepatocytes of extrahepatic origin were generated per day. Liver injury induced by treatment with 2-acetylaminofluorene and CCl4 or the additional application of hepatocyte growth factor did not further increase the percentage of GFP-positive hepatocytes.
The present results indicate that cells derived from nonmanipulated extrahepatic tissues appreciably contribute, though limitedly, to hepatocyte reconstitution in the liver of the rat.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Treatment with inhaled carbon monoxide (CO) has been shown to ameliorate bowel dysmotility caused by surgical manipulation of the gut in experimental animals. We hypothesized that administration of CO dissolved in lactated Ringer's solution (CO-LR) might provide similar protection to that observed with the inhaled gas while obviating some of its inherent problems. Postoperative gut dysmotility (ileus) was induced in mice by surgical manipulation of the small intestine. Some mice were treated with a single intraperitoneal dose of CO-LR immediately after the surgical procedure, whereas other mice received only the LR vehicle. Twenty-four hours later, intestinal transit of a nonabsorbable marker (70-kDa fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled dextran) was delayed in mice subjected to intestinal manipulation but not the sham procedure. Gut manipulation also was associated with increased expression within the muscularis propria of transcripts for interleukin-1beta, cyclooxygenase-2, inducible nitric-oxide synthase, intracellular adhesion molecule-1, and Toll-like receptor-4, as well as infiltration of the muscularis propria with polymorphonuclear leukocytes and activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases and nuclear factor-kappaB. All of these effects were attenuated by treatment with CO-LR. The salutary effect of CO-LR on gut motility, as well as many of the anti-inflammatory effects of CO-LR, was diminished by treatment with a soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) inhibitor, suggesting that the effects of CO are mediated via activation of sGC. These data support the view that a single intraperitoneal dose of CO-LR ameliorates postoperative ileus in mice by inhibiting the inflammatory response in the gut wall induced by surgical manipulation, possibly in a sGC-dependent fashion.
Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 01/2007; 319(3):1265-75. · 3.89 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Carbon monoxide (CO), a byproduct of heme catalysis, was shown to have potent cytoprotective and anti-inflammatory effects. In vivo recipient CO inhalation at low concentrations prevented ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury associated with small intestinal transplantation (SITx). This study examined whether ex vivo delivery of CO in University of Wisconsin (UW) solution could ameliorate intestinal I/R injury. Orthotopic syngenic SITx was performed in Lewis rats after 6 h cold preservation in control UW or UW that was bubbled with CO gas (0.1-5%) (CO-UW). Recipient survival with intestinal grafts preserved in 5%, but not 0.1%, CO-UW improved to 86.7% (13/15) from 53% (9/17) with control UW. At 3 h after SITx, grafts stored in 5% CO-UW showed improved intestinal barrier function, less mucosal denudation and reduced inflammatory mediator upregulation compared to those in control UW. Preservation in CO-UW associated with reduced vascular resistance (end preservation), increased graft cyclic guanosine monophosphate levels (1 h), and improved graft blood flow (1 h). Protective effects of CO-UW were reversed by ODQ, an inhibitor of soluble guanylyl cyclase. In vitro culture experiment also showed better preservation of vascular endothelial cells with CO-UW. The study suggests that ex vivo CO delivery into UW solution would be a simple and innovative therapeutic strategy to prevent transplant-induced I/R injury.
American Journal of Transplantation 11/2006; 6(10):2243-55. · 6.19 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Carbon monoxide (CO), a byproduct of heme catalysis by heme oxygenases, has been shown to provide protection against ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. We examined the cytoprotective effect of CO at a low concentration on cold I/R injury of transplanted lung grafts.
Orthotopic left lung transplantation was performed in syngenic Lewis to Lewis rat combination. Grafts were preserved in University of Wisconsin solution at 4 degrees C for 6 hours. Donors and/or recipients were exposed to CO (250 ppm) in air for 1 hour before surgery and then continuously post-transplantation.
Blood oxygen partial pressure of graft pulmonary veins in the CO-treated group versus the air-treated group was significantly higher. The increase of messenger RNA of inflammatory mediators such as interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and cycloooxygenase-2 was markedly inhibited in the CO-treated group. The expression of phosphorylated-extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1/2 was significantly reduced in the CO-treated group. CO treatment reduced the number of infiltrating macrophages into the lung grafts. Vascular endothelial cells detected by CD31 stain were well preserved in CO-treated grafts, while those in air-treated grafts were faint and interrupted.
These results demonstrate that exogenous low-dose CO treatment of donors and recipients can prevent lung I/R injury and significantly improve function of lung grafts after extended cold preservation and transplantation.
Surgery 09/2006; 140(2):179-85. · 3.37 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The exact role of inducible NOS (iNOS) in liver ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury is controversial. This study was designed to investigate whether donor liver pretreatment with adenovirus encoding iNOS (AdiNOS) ameliorates I/R injury associated with liver transplantation. Orthotopic syngeneic LEW rat liver transplantation (OLT) was performed after 18 or 24 hours' preservation in cold UW. AdiNOS or control gene vector (AdLacZ) was delivered to the liver by donor intravenous pretreatment 4 days before graft harvesting. Uninfected grafts also served as control. Recipients were sacrificed 1 to 48 hours posttransplantation. An abundant hepatic iNOS protein expression and marked serum NO elevation was observed in the AdiNOS-treated group, without affecting endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expression, before harvesting and after OLT. AdiNOS pretreatment markedly improved liver function assessed by serum aspartate aminotransferase/alanine aminotransferase levels and reduced liver necrosis formation. AdiNOS treatment also was associated with reduced ICAM-1 mRNA expression and neutrophil accumulation in the liver graft after OLT compared with untransfected or AdLacZ-treated group. Furthermore, AdiNOS delivery significantly improved transplant survival, compared with AdLacZ or saline controls. AdiNOS pretreatment did not attenuate I/R-induced apoptotic cell death in the liver graft. Administration of a selective inhibitor for iNOS abrogated the protection afforded by AdiNOS pretreatment. In conclusion, donor pretreatment with AdiNOS led to improved liver graft injury and posttransplantation survival. Downregulation of ICAM-1 mRNA and neutrophil infiltration may be associated with the mechanisms by which AdiNOS pretreatment confer the protection against transplant-associated hepatic I/R injury.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report an extremely rare case of recurrent alpha-fetoprotein (AFP)-producing gastric cancer without re-elevation of serum AFP. The patient was a 78-year-old woman with AFP-producing gastric cancer, a rare type of gastric adenocarcinoma. A Borrmann III gastric tumour was surgically resected and AFP-producing gastric cancer was diagnosed based on high levels of serum AFP (705.44 ng/ml) and immunohistochemical examination of the tumour. The serum AFP level decreased to the normal range after resection without any sign of recurrence by imaging, but the patient developed local recurrence of the cancer and died 13 months after surgery. No re-elevation of serum AFP levels was observed after recurrence. Although serum AFP levels are believed to be useful for follow-up in the post-operative period, the possibility that serum AFP levels do not always correlate with the extent of the cancer should be kept in mind.
The Journal of international medical research 01/2006; 34(1):109-14. · 0.96 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Intractable ascites secondary to malignant disease deteriorates the patients' quality of life.
Thirty-three patients, who had undergone Denver peritoneovenous shunt for the treatment of ascites associated with malignant tumor from May 1998 to February 2004, were retrospectively analyzed.
Post-operative complications had occurred in twelve patients, including disseminated intravascular coagulation in eight, pulmonary edema in three and wound hematoma in one. The patients' post-operative mean survival was 54.5 days with occlusion occurring in four (12.1%). Comparison of pre- and postoperative values showed a significant decrease of body weight and abdominal girth. Thirteen patients needed no post-operative therapy for ascites, whereas 17 patients could tentatively remain at home or be discharged.
The Denver shunt for malignant ascites is useful in improving quality of life, if indications are selected properly. Further experience and discussion are necessary to establish the patient selection criteria.
Anticancer research 01/2006; 26(3B):2393-5. · 1.71 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Heart transplantation is the preferred therapy for patients with a variety of end-stage heart diseases. Developments in the use of potent immunosuppressive drugs, technical innovations in transplant surgery, and improvements in postoperative care have significantly improved outcomes of heart transplantation. However, donor organs suffer from perturbations in endothelial cell function during required cold storage and subsequent warm reperfusion that can lead to organ injury (ischemia-reperfusion [I-R]). Thus development of methods for preserving endothelial cell function would contribute to transplant success. Considerable evidence supports an important role for heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in protection against I-R injury. HO-1 catabolizes heme into biliverdin, free iron and CO, the latter acting as an anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic agent. These actions presumably help suppress deleterious effects associated with transplant rejection, endotoxemia and hyperoxia.Initial studies have addressed issues relating to HSV gene transfer to heart: (i) choice of carrier vector; (ii) analysis of the distribution of HSV receptors on the target tissue and (iii) the method of vector delivery. First, we have employed the HERO vector as the virus backbone based on an extensive investigation of various mutant backbones suitable for transgene expression in the absence of cytotoxicity. HERO has a mutation in the ICP0 leader sequence that lowers its expression 50-100 fold yet retains good transgene expression. Second, we determined that the HSV receptors HveA/ HveC were present on human endothelial cell lines. Primary rat cardiomyocytes expressed high levels of HveA but little HveC, yet the virus was able to transduce both in culture. In vivo, HveA was present on both endothelium and myocardium while HveC was present on those cells as well as SMCs.Finally, gene transfer studies in a rat transplantation model were conducted using FluoSpheres to compare the clamped versus perfusion infusion methods for delivering HSV. Introduction of FluoSpheres by these methods showed that higher perfusion rates resulted in increased distribution of the FluoSpheres throughout the rat heart. The clamped model demonstrated high levels of even distribution of particles within specific regions of rat heart, however, perfusion appeared to provide a more even distribution throughout the entire heart. Based on this, we introduced 108 to 1010 pfu of a replication defective HSV vector into rat heart using the clamped or the perfusion methods. The vector readily transduced the endothelial cells of both medium and small vessels within the donor hearts following transplant into the syngeneic recipients using perfusion delivery. However, in the clamp method, EGFP expression was detected in vessels that were limited to specific regions of the rat heart. We are currently engineering the HERO vector to express the HO-1 gene for targeted expression to endothelium in a rat I-R model.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A is responsible for about 50% of drug metabolizing activity in the liver. The present study was undertaken to establish a CYP3A4-active model for in vitro analysis of human drug metabolism. The cells used were immortalized normal human fetal hepatocytes (OUMS-29) and its HNF4alpha-introduced subline (OUMS-29/H-11). The cells were cultivated under high-density three-dimensional conditions in a radial-flow bioreactor (RFB). The number of OUMS-29 cells increased 15-fold over 49 days and their apical surfaces were covered with abundant microvilli, a characteristic of hepatocytes in vivo. The amount of albumin secreted by OUMS-29 cells in the three-dimensional RFB culture was 6-fold higher than those in a monolayer culture. CYP3A4 protein and an intermediate metabolite of testosterone by CYP3A4 were detected in OUMS-29/H11 cells cultivated in RFB >29 days. These results indicate that the RFB culture of OUMS-29/H-11 cells is useful for screening and developing new drugs.
International Journal of Molecular Medicine 11/2004; 14(4):663-8. · 1.96 Impact Factor