Dan Howard

Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Peping, Beijing, China

Are you Dan Howard?

Claim your profile

Publications (19)57.91 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Aliskiren is the first oral direct renin inhibitor to be approved for the treatment of hypertension. The pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profile of aliskiren has been extensively characterized in Caucasian individuals; however, drug disposition, treatment response and tolerability can vary among ethnic groups, and these variations are difficult to predict. To evaluate the single- and multiple-dose pharmacokinetics of aliskiren in healthy Chinese subjects. This was a randomized, single-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled study. On day -1, subjects were randomized to one of four cohorts (aliskiren 75, 150, 300 or 600 mg). On day 1, eight individuals in each cohort received a single dose of active treatment and two received placebo. Subjects randomized to aliskiren 300 mg received additional once-daily doses on days 5-11 to establish steady-state pharmacokinetics. Subjects receiving aliskiren 75, 150 or 600 mg (cohorts 1, 2 and 4) completed the study at the end of the 96-hour pharmacokinetic assessment period. Subjects receiving aliskiren 300 mg (cohort 3) had additional pharmacokinetic assessments on days 5-15. The study was carried out at the Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Beijing, China, and included 40 healthy Chinese subjects. The main outcome measures were the pharmacokinetic parameters for aliskiren, including area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time zero to infinity (AUC(infinity)) and maximum plasma concentration (C(max)). Aliskiren AUC(infinity) and C(max) increased greater than proportionally across the 8-fold dose range (75-600 mg; mean AUC(infinity) 291-4726 ng x h/mL, mean C(max) 62-699 ng/mL), but a dose-proportional 2-fold increase was observed within the clinically approved dose range (150-300 mg; mean AUC(infinity) 876-1507 ng x h/mL, mean C(max) 137-271 ng/mL). At steady state, the mean AUC during the dosage interval (AUC(tau)) for aliskiren 300 mg (1532 +/- 592 ng x h/mL) was similar to the AUC(infinity) observed following a single dose. Aliskiren exhibits similar single-dose and steady-state pharmacokinetics in Chinese subjects compared with those observed in Caucasian individuals in previous studies.
    Clinical Drug Investigation 03/2010; 30(4):221-8. · 1.70 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Gender and body weight influence the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of many drugs. This pooled analysis of 17 clinical studies evaluated the effect of gender, body mass index (BMI), body weight, and lean body weight (LBW) on the pharmacokinetics of the direct renin inhibitor aliskiren in healthy volunteers (n = 392). A separate pooled analysis of 5 clinical studies in patients with hypertension (n = 2327) assessed the influence of gender and BMI on the effects of aliskiren on plasma renin activity and blood pressure. Area under the aliskiren plasma concentration-time curve (AUC(τ)) was 22% lower and the peak aliskiren plasma concentration (C(max)) was 24% lower in men than women (P < .05). BMI was not significantly correlated with AUC(τ) (r = 0.005; P = .917); AUC(τ) was negatively correlated with body weight (r = -0.235; P < .0001) and LBW (r = -0.295; P < .0001). Results were similar for C(max). Adjusting individual aliskiren AUC(τ) and C(max) values for overall mean body weight or LBW abolished gender differences. Based on r(2) values, LBW variation accounted for 8.9% of aliskiren AUC(τ) variation. In patients with hypertension, gender and BMI did not significantly influence the effects of aliskiren on plasma renin activity or blood pressure. It was concluded that lower systemic exposure to aliskiren in men versus women relates to differences in body weight; neither gender nor body weight has clinically relevant effects on the pharmacokinetics or pharmacodynamics of aliskiren.
    The Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 02/2010; 50(12):1358-66. · 2.84 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This study investigated the potential pharmacokinetic interaction between the direct renin inhibitor aliskiren and modulators of P-glycoprotein and cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4). Aliskiren stimulated in vitro P-glycoprotein ATPase activity in recombinant baculovirus-infected Sf9 cells with high affinity (K(m) 2.1 micromol/L) and was transported by organic anion-transporting peptide OATP2B1-expressing HEK293 cells with moderate affinity (K(m) 72 micromol/L). Three open-label, multiple-dose studies in healthy subjects investigated the pharmacokinetic interactions between aliskiren 300 mg and digoxin 0.25 mg (n = 22), atorvastatin 80 mg (n = 21), or ketoconazole 200 mg bid (n = 21). Coadministration with aliskiren resulted in changes of <30% in AUC(tau) and C(max,ss) of digoxin, atorvastatin, o-hydroxy-atorvastatin, and rho-hydroxy-atorvastatin, indicating no clinically significant interaction with P-glycoprotein or CYP3A4 substrates. Aliskiren AUC(tau) was significantly increased by coadministration with atorvastatin (by 47%, P < .001) or ketoconazole (by 76%, P < .001) through mechanisms most likely involving transporters such as P-glycoprotein and organic anion-transporting peptide and possibly through metabolic pathways such as CYP3A4 in the gut wall. These results indicate that aliskiren is a substrate for but not an inhibitor of P-glycoprotein. On the basis of the small changes in exposure to digoxin and atorvastatin and the <2-fold increase in exposure to aliskiren during coadministration with atorvastatin and ketoconazole, the authors conclude that the potential for clinically relevant drug interactions between aliskiren and these substrates and/or inhibitors of P-glycoprotein/CPY3A4/OATP is low.
    The Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 10/2008; 48(11):1323-38. · 2.84 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Hypertension and type 2 diabetes are common comorbidities, thus many patients receiving antihypertensive medication require concomitant therapy with hypoglycemic or lipid-lowering drugs. The aim of these three studies was to investigate the pharmacokinetics, safety and tolerability of aliskiren, a direct renin inhibitor for the treatment of hypertension, co-administered with the glucose-lowering agents metformin or pioglitazone or the lipid-lowering agent fenofibrate in healthy volunteers. In three open-label, multiple-dose studies, healthy volunteers (ages 18 to 45 years) received once-daily treatment with either metformin 1000 mg (n = 22), pioglitazone 45 mg (n = 30) or fenofibrate 200 mg (n = 21) and aliskiren 300 mg, administered alone or co-administered in a two-period study design. Blood samples were taken frequently on the last day of each treatment period to determine plasma drug concentrations. Co-administration of aliskiren with metformin decreased aliskiren area under the plasma concentration- time curve during the dose interval (AUC(tau)) by 27% (geometric mean ratio [GMR] 0.73; 90% confidence interval [CI] 0.64, 0.84) and maximum observed plasma concentration (C(max)) by 29% (GMR 0.71; 90% CI 0.56, 0.89) but these changes were not considered clinically relevant. Co-administration of aliskiren with fenofibrate had no effect on aliskiren AUC (GMR 1.05; 90% CI 0.96, 1.16) or C(max) (GMR 1.05; 90% CI 0.80, 1.38); similarly, co-administration of aliskiren with pioglitazone had no effect on aliskiren AUC(tau) (GMR 1.05; 90% CI 0.98, 1.13) or C(max) (GMR 1.01; 90% CI 0.84, 1.20). All other AUC and C(max) GMRs for aliskiren, metformin, pioglitazone, ketopioglitazone, hydroxypioglita-zone and fenofibrate were close to unity and the 90% CI were contained within the bioequivalence range of 0.80 to 1.25. Co-administration of aliskiren with metformin, pioglitazone or fenofibrate had no significant effect on the pharmacokinetics of these drugs in healthy volunteers. These findings indicate that aliskiren can be co-administered with metformin, pioglitazone or fenofibrate without the need for dose adjustment.
    Current Medical Research and Opinion 09/2008; 24(8):2313-26. · 2.37 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Aliskiren is a direct renin inhibitor approved for the treatment of hypertension. This study investigated the effects of aliskiren on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of a single dose of acenocoumarol in healthy volunteers. This two-sequence, two-period, randomized, double-blind crossover study recruited 18 healthy subjects (ages 18-45) to receive either aliskiren 300 mg or placebo once daily on days 1-10 of each treatment period and a single dose of acenocoumarol 10 mg on day 8. Treatment periods were separated by a 10-day washout. Blood samples were taken frequently for determination of steady-state plasma concentrations of aliskiren (LC-MS/MS) and of R(+)- and S(-)-acenocoumarol (HPLC-UV), prothrombin time (PT) and international normalized ratio (INR). Co-administration with aliskiren had no effect on exposure to R(+)-acenocoumarol. Geometric mean ratios (GMR; aliskiren:placebo co-administration) for R(+)-acenocoumarol AUC(0-t) and C(max) were 1.08 and 1.04, respectively, with 90% CI within the range 0.80-1.25. Co-administration of aliskiren resulted in a 19% increase in S(-)-acenocoumarol AUC(0-t) (GMR 1.19; 90% CI 0.92, 1.54) and a 9% increase in C(max) (GMR 1.09; 90% CI 0.88, 1.34). The anticoagulant effect of acenocoumarol was not affected by co-administration of aliskiren. Geometric mean ratios were 1.01 for all pharmacodynamic parameters (AUC(PT), PT(max), AUC(INR) and INR(max)), with 90% CI within the range 0.97-1.05. Aliskiren has no clinically relevant effect on the pharmacokinetics or pharmacodynamic effects of a single dose of acenocoumarol in healthy volunteers, hence no dosage adjustment of acenocoumarol is likely to be required during co-administration with aliskiren.
    Current Medical Research and Opinion 08/2008; 24(9):2449-56. · 2.37 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This multicenter, double-blind study evaluated the effects of aliskiren, a direct renin inhibitor approved for hypertension, on cardiac repolarization and conduction. Healthy volunteers (n = 298) were randomized to aliskiren 300 mg, aliskiren 1200 mg, moxifloxacin 400 mg (positive control), or placebo once daily for 7 days. Digitized electrocardiograms were obtained at baseline and day 7 of treatment over 23 hours postdose. Placebo-adjusted mean changes from baseline in QTcF (Fridericia corrected), QTcI (individualized correction), PR, and QRS intervals were compared at each time point (time-matched analysis) and for values averaged across the dosing period (baseline-averaged analysis). In time-matched analysis, mean changes in QTcF with aliskiren were below predefined limits for QTc prolongation (mean increase <5 milliseconds; upper 90% confidence interval [CI] <10 milliseconds) except aliskiren 1200 mg at 23 hours (5.2 milliseconds; 90% CI 2.2, 8.1). With moxifloxacin, significant QTcF prolongation occurred at most time points, confirming the sensitivity of the assay. Baseline-averaged analysis was consistent with time-matched analysis. Instances of QTcF interval >450 milliseconds or a >30-millisecond increase from baseline with aliskiren (< or = 1%) were similar or lower than placebo (< or = 4%). Results were similar for QTcI. Aliskiren had no effect on PR or QRS duration. In conclusion, aliskiren at the highest approved dose (300 mg) and a 4-fold higher dose had no effect on cardiac repolarization or conduction in healthy volunteers.
    The Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 07/2008; 48(7):799-811. · 2.84 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the dose-proportionality of the pharmacokinetics of aliskiren, the first in a new class of orally active direct renin inhibitors approved for the treatment of hypertension. This was an open-label, single-center, single-dose, randomized, 4-period crossover study. Following a 21-day screening period, 32 healthy male or female subjects (ages 18 - 45 years) were randomized to 1 of 4 aliskiren dosing sequence groups (8 subjects per group): 75, 150, 300 and 600 mg. Blood samples were obtained for determination of plasma aliskiren concentrations (HPLC/MS/MS) for 96 h post dose. Log-transformed pharmacokinetic parameters AUC and C(max) were analyzed to determine dose-proportionality using the power model, parameter = A*(Dose)(beta), where A = intercept and beta = dose-proportionality coefficient. The predefined dose-proportionality criteria over the dose range 75 â 600 mg were 90% confidence intervals (CI) for beta contained within the range 0.89 - 1.11. AUC and Cmax values increased with increasing doses of aliskiren. Both AUC and C(max) were associated with high variability (coefficient of variation 55 - 64% for AUC and 59 - 117% for C(max)). The estimated proportionality coefficients (beta) for AUC(0-infiniti), AUC(0-t) and C(max) were 1.18 (90% CI 1.10, 1.25), 1.29 (90% CI 1.22, 1.36) and 1.42 (90% CI 1.31, 1.52), respectively. Dose-proportionality was, therefore, not demonstrated across the entire 8-fold dose range. For the clinical dose range of 150 â 300 mg, increases of 2.3- and 2.6-fold were observed for AUC and C(max), respectively. All doses of aliskiren were well tolerated. Exposure to aliskiren was greater than proportional over the dose range of 75 - 600 mg. Over the therapeutic dose range of 150 â 300 mg approved for the treatment of hypertension, AUC and Cmax increased by 2.3- and 2.6-fold, respectively. The pharmacokinetics of aliskiren show relatively high intersubject variability.
    International journal of clinical pharmacology and therapeutics 06/2008; 46(5):252-8. · 1.20 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: What is already known about this subject. Vildagliptin is a new, potent, and selective inhibitor of DPP-4. The efficacy and safety of vildagliptin in type 2 diabetes has been intensively studied in diverse subject populations. There has been little information published about the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of vildagliptin. What this study adds. No clinically relevant changes in pharmacokinetics or pharmacodynamics were observed between young and elderly, male and female, or high body mass index (BMI) and low BMI subjects. The results suggest that no dose modification is necessary for vildagliptin based on the age, gender, or BMI of a subject. To evaluate the effect of age, gender, and body mass index (BMI) on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of vildagliptin. Forty healthy subjects received a single oral dose of 100 mg vildagliptin to assess the effects of age, gender, and BMI on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, reflected by the time course of inhibition of DPP-4 activity, of vildagliptin. Peak concentration and exposure (AUC((0-infinity))) of vildagliptin were 17% (90% CI 2, 35%) and 31% (90% CI 18, 45%) higher in elderly vs. young subjects. Renal clearance was reduced by 32% (90% CI 17, 45%) in elderly subjects. The pharmacokinetics of vildagliptin were not significantly influenced by gender or BMI. Inhibition of DPP-4 activity was similar regardless of age, gender, or BMI. The pharmacokinetics of a single oral 100 mg dose of vildagliptin were not affected by gender and BMI. Exposure to vildagliptin was higher in elderly patients, but this was not associated with any difference in the effect of DPP-4 inhibition. Based on these results, no vildagliptin dose adjustment is necessary for age, gender, or BMI.
    British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 04/2008; 65(3):338-46. · 3.58 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Aliskiren is the first in a new class of orally effective direct renin inhibitors approved for the treatment of hypertension. This multiple-dose study investigated the potential for pharmacokinetic interactions between aliskiren and three drugs, each predominantly eliminated by a different clearance/metabolic pathway: allopurinol (glomerular filtration), celecoxib (cytochrome P450 metabolism) and cimetidine (P-glycoprotein and organic anion/cation transporters). Three open-label, multiple-dose studies in healthy subjects investigated possible pharmacokinetic interactions between aliskiren 300 mg od and allopurinol 300 mg od (n = 20), celecoxib 200 mg bid (n = 22), or cimetidine 800 mg od (n = 22). Subjects received aliskiren alone or co-administered with allopurinol, celecoxib or cimetidine. Allopurinol and celecoxib were also administered alone and in combination with aliskiren. Plasma drug concentrations were determined by LC/MS/MS. Co-administration of aliskiren with allopurinol had no effect on allopurinol AUC(tau) (ratio of geometric means 0.93 [90% CI, 0.88, 0.98]) or oxypurinol AUC(tau) (mean ratio 1.12 [90% CI, 1.08, 1.16]) and C(max) (mean ratio 1.08 [90% CI, 1.04, 1.13]), with 90% CI within the bioequivalence range 0.80-1.25, and a minor effect on allopurinol C(max) (mean ratio 0.88 [90% CI, 0.78, 1.00]). Aliskiren co-administration had no effect on AUC(tau) or C(max) of celecoxib (mean ratios and 90% CI within range 0.80-1.25). Neither allopurinol nor celecoxib significantly altered aliskiren AUC(tau) or C(max) (geometric mean ratios 0.88-1.02 with 90% CI including 1.00, but with some 90% CI outside the 0.80-1.25 range due to high variability). Co-administration of aliskiren with cimetidine increased aliskiren AUC(tau) by 20% (mean ratio 1.20 [90% CI, 1.07, 1.34]) and C(max) by 25% (mean ratio 1.25 [90% CI, 0.98, 1.59]). In this multiple-dose study, aliskiren showed no clinically relevant pharmacokinetic interactions when co-administered with allopurinol, celecoxib or cimetidine in healthy subjects.
    Current Medical Research and Opinion 04/2008; 24(3):717-26. · 2.37 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This study investigated the pharmacokinetics, safety, and tolerability of aliskiren administered alone or in combination with either the loop diuretic furosemide or an oral extended-release formulation of isosorbide-5-mononitrate (ISMN). In separate studies, 22 healthy subjects (ages 18-45 years) received either ISMN 40 mg or furosemide 20 mg once-daily for 3 days followed by a 3-day washout. Subjects then received aliskiren 300 mg once-daily for 7 days followed by combination therapy for 3 days. Pharmacokinetic assessments were taken at regular intervals over 24 h after dosing on the last day of each treatment period. At steady state, aliskiren AUC(tau) was decreased by 7% (geometric mean ratio [90% CI], 0.93 [0.84, 1.04]), and C(max) by 20% (0.80 [0.65, 0.97]) with furosemide coadministration compared with aliskiren administration alone. Aliskiren coadministration reduced furosemide AUC(tau) by 28% (0.72 [0.64, 0.81]) and C(max) by 49% (0.51 [0.39, 0.66]) compared with furosemide alone. Coadministration of aliskiren and ISMN was associated with only minor changes in the pharmacokinetic parameters of aliskiren (AUC(tau) 1.03 [0.90, 1.18]; C(max) 0.94 [0.69, 1.29]) and ISMN (AUC(tau) 0.88 [0.71, 1.10]; C(max) 0.94 [0.79, 1.13]). Headache and dizziness were the most common adverse events in both studies; dizziness and BP values below normal (SBP < 90 and/or DBP < 50 mmHg) were more frequent with aliskiren and ISMN coadministration than with either agent alone. Coadministration of aliskiren and ISMN had no clinically relevant effect on either aliskiren or ISMN pharmacokinetics. In conclusion, coadministration of aliskiren and furosemide reduced furosemide exposure and had a minor effect on aliskiren pharmacokinetics. The clinical significance of reduced systemic exposure to furosemide during coadministration of aliskiren is uncertain.
    Cardiovascular Therapeutics 02/2008; 26(4):238-46. · 2.85 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Aliskiren is the first orally bioavailable direct renin inhibitor approved for the treatment of hypertension. It acts at the point of activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, or renin system, inhibiting the conversion of angiotensinogen to angiotensin I by renin and thereby reducing the formation of angiotensin II by angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and ACE-independent pathways. Aliskiren is a highly potent inhibitor of human renin in vitro (concentration of aliskiren that produces 50% inhibition of renin 0.6 nmol/L). Aliskiren is rapidly absorbed following oral administration, with maximum plasma concentrations reached within 1-3 hours. The absolute bioavailability of aliskiren is 2.6%. The binding of aliskiren to plasma proteins is moderate (47-51%) and is independent of the concentration. Once absorbed, aliskiren is eliminated through the hepatobiliary route as unchanged drug and, to a lesser extent, through oxidative metabolism by cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4. Unchanged aliskiren accounts for approximately 80% of the drug in the plasma following oral administration, indicating low exposure to metabolites. The two major oxidized metabolites of aliskiren account for less than 5% of the drug in the plasma at the time of the maximum concentration. Aliskiren excretion is almost completely via the biliary/faecal route; 0.6% of the dose is recovered in the urine. Steady-state plasma concentrations of aliskiren are reached after 7-8 days of once-daily dosing, and the accumulation factor for aliskiren is approximately 2. After reaching the peak, the aliskiren plasma concentration declines in a multiphasic fashion. No clinically relevant effects of gender or race on the pharmacokinetics of aliskiren are observed, and no adjustment of the initial aliskiren dose is required for elderly patients or for patients with renal or hepatic impairment. Aliskiren showed no clinically significant increases in exposure during coadministration with a wide range of potential concomitant medications, although increases in exposure were observed with P-glycoprotein inhibitors. Aliskiren does not inhibit or induce CYP isoenzyme or P-glycoprotein activity, although aliskiren is a substrate for P-glycoprotein, which contributes to its relatively low bioavailability. Aliskiren is approved for the treatment of hypertension at once-daily doses of 150 mg and 300 mg. Phase II and III clinical studies involving over 12,000 patients with hypertension have demonstrated that aliskiren provides effective long-term blood pressure (BP) lowering with a good safety and tolerability profile at these doses. Aliskiren inhibits plasma renin activity (PRA) by up to 80% following both single and multiple oral-dose administration. Similar reductions in PRA are observed when aliskiren is administered in combination with agents that alone increase PRA, including diuretics (hydrochlorothiazide, furosemide [frusemide]), ACE inhibitors (ramipril) and angiotensin receptor blockers (valsartan), despite greater increases in the plasma renin concentration. Moreover, PRA inhibition and BP reductions persist for 2-4 weeks after stopping treatment, which is likely to be of benefit in patients with hypertension who occasionally miss a dose of medication. Preliminary data on the antiproteinuric effects of aliskiren in type 2 diabetes mellitus suggest that renoprotective effects beyond BP lowering may be possible. Further studies to evaluate the effects of aliskiren on cardiovascular outcomes and target organ protection are ongoing and will provide important new data on the role of direct renin inhibition in the management of hypertension and other cardiovascular disease.
    Clinical Pharmacokinetics 02/2008; 47(8):515-31. · 5.49 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We conducted 3 open-label, multiple-dose, 3-period, randomized, crossover studies in healthy subjects to assess the potential pharmacokinetic interaction between vildagliptin, a novel dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitor for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, and representatives of 3 commonly prescribed antihypertensive drug classes: (1) the calcium channel blocker, amlodipine; (2) the angiotensin receptor blocker, valsartan; and (3) the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, ramipril. Coadministration of vildagliptin 100 mg with amlodipine 5 mg, valsartan 320 mg, or ramipril 5 mg had no clinically significant effect on the pharmacokinetics of these drugs. The 90% confidence intervals of the geometric mean ratios for area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time zero to 24 hours (AUC0-24h) and maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) for vildagliptin, amlodipine, and ramipril (and its active metabolite, ramiprilat) were contained within the acceptance range for bioequivalence (0.80-1.25). Valsartan AUC0-24h and Cmax increased by 24% and 14%, respectively, following coadministration of vildagliptin, but this was not considered clinically significant. Vildagliptin was generally well tolerated when given alone or in combination with amlodipine, valsartan, or ramipril in healthy subjects at steady state. No adjustment in dosage based on pharmacokinetic considerations is required should vildagliptin be coadministered with amlodipine, valsartan, or ramipril in patients with type 2 diabetes and hypertension.
    The Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 02/2008; 48(1):85-95. · 2.84 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Vildagliptin is a potent and selective dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitor in development for the treatment of type 2 diabetes that improves glycemic control by enhancing alpha- and beta-cell responsiveness to glucose. Two open-label, single-dose, randomized, crossover studies in healthy subjects (ages 18-45 years) investigated the dose proportionality of vildagliptin pharmacokinetics (n = 20) and the effect of food (n = 24) on vildagliptin pharmacokinetics. There was a linear relationship (r(2) = 0.999) between vildagliptin doses of 25, 50, 100, and 200 mg and area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time zero to infinity (AUC(0-infinity)) and maximum plasma concentration (C(max)). Dose proportionality was assessed using a statistical power model [X = alpha x (dose)(beta)]. The 90% confidence intervals of the proportionality coefficient, beta, for AUC(0-infinity) (1.15-1.19) and C(max) (1.04-1.14) indicated that deviations from dose proportionality were small (<7.7%). Doubling of dose led to 2.1- to 2.3-fold increases in AUC(0-infinity) and C(max) but no dose-dependent changes in time to reach C(max) or terminal elimination half-life. Administration of vildagliptin 100 mg following a high-fat meal decreased C(max) by 19% and AUC(0-infinity) by 10%. Vildagliptin displays approximately dose-proportional pharmacokinetics over the 25- to 200-mg dose range, and administration with food has no clinically relevant effect on vildagliptin pharmacokinetics.
    The Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 09/2007; 47(9):1152-8. · 2.84 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Vildagliptin is a novel antidiabetic agent that is an orally active, potent, and selective inhibitor of dipeptidyl peptidase IV, the enzyme responsible for degradation of the incretin hormones. This open-label, randomized, 3-period crossover study investigated the potential for pharmacokinetic interactions in 18 healthy subjects during coadministration of vildagliptin and digoxin. Subjects were randomized to receive each of 3 treatments: vildagliptin 100 mg qd, digoxin (0.5 mg, then 0.25 mg qd on days 2-7), and the combination vildagliptin/digoxin for 7 days. Coadministration of digoxin with vildagliptin had no effect on exposure to vildagliptin (geometric mean ratios [90% confidence interval]: AUC(0-24h), 0.99 [0.95-1.03]; C(max), 0.95 [0.85-1.06]) or to digoxin (AUC(0-24h), 1.02 [0.94-1.12]; C(max), 1.08 [0.97-1.20]). In addition, no changes in t(max), t((1/2)), and CL/F were observed for either drug. These results indicate that no dose adjustment is necessary when vildagliptin and digoxin are coadministered.
    The Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 09/2007; 47(8):998-1004. · 2.84 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Vildagliptin is a potent and selective dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-4) inhibitor that improves glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus by increasing alpha- and beta-cell responsiveness to glucose. This study investigated the pharmacokinetics of vildagliptin in patients with hepatic impairment compared with healthy subjects. This was an open-label, parallel-group study in patients with mild (n = 6), moderate (n = 6) or severe (n = 4) hepatic impairment and healthy subjects (n = 6). All subjects received a single 100-mg oral dose of vildagliptin, and plasma concentrations of vildagliptin and its main pharmacologically inactive metabolite LAY151 were measured up to 36 h post-dose. Exposure to vildagliptin (AUC(0-infinity) and C(max)) decreased non-significantly by 20 and 30%, respectively, in patients with mild hepatic impairment [geometric mean ratio (90% CI): AUC(0-infinity), 0.80 (0.60, 1.06), p = 0.192; C(max), 0.70 (0.46, 1.05), p = 0.149]. Exposure to vildagliptin was also decreased non-significantly in patients with moderate hepatic impairment [-8% for AUC(0-infinity), geometric mean ratio (90% CI): 0.92 (0.69, 1.23), p = 0.630; -23% for C(max), geometric mean ratio (90% CI): 0.77 (0.51, 1.17), p = 0.293]. In patients with severe hepatic impairment, C(max) was 6% lower than that in healthy subjects [geometric mean ratio (90% CI): 0.94 (0.59, 1.49), p = 0.285], whereas AUC(0-infinity) was increased by 22% [geometric mean ratio (90% CI): 1.22 (0.89, 1.68), p = 0.816). Across the hepatic impairment groups, LAY151 AUC(0-infinity) and C(max) were increased by 29-84% and 24-63%, respectively, compared with healthy subjects. The single 100-mg oral dose of vildagliptin was well tolerated by patients with hepatic impairment. There was no significant difference in exposure to vildagliptin in patients with mild, moderate or severe hepatic impairment; therefore, no dose adjustment of vildagliptin is necessary in patients with hepatic impairment.
    European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 08/2007; 63(7):677-86. · 2.74 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Vildagliptin is a potent and selective dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-4) inhibitor that improves glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes by increasing alpha and beta-cell responsiveness to glucose. This study assessed the effect of multiple doses of vildagliptin 100 mg once daily on warfarin pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics following a single 25 mg oral dose of warfarin sodium. Open-label, randomized, two-period, two-treatment crossover study in 16 healthy subjects. The geometric mean ratios (co-administration vs. administration alone) and 90% confidence intervals (CIs) for the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) of vildagliptin, R- and S-warfarin were 1.04 (0.98, 1.11), 1.00 (0.95, 1.04) and 0.97 (0.93, 1.01), respectively. The 90% CI of the ratios for vildagliptin, R- and S-warfarin maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) were also within the equivalence range 0.80-1.25. Geometric mean ratios (co-administration vs. warfarin alone) of the maximum value and AUC for prothrombin time (PT(max), 1.00 [90% CI 0.97, 1.04]; AUC(PT), 0.99 [0.97, 1.01]) and international normalized ratios (INRmax, 1.01 [0.98, 1.05]; AUC(INR), 0.99 [0.97, 1.01]) were near unity with the 90% CI within the range 0.80-1.25. Vildagliptin was well tolerated alone or co-administered with warfarin; only one adverse event (upper respiratory tract infection in a subject receiving warfarin alone) was reported, which was judged not to be related to study medication. Co-administration of warfarin with vildagliptin did not alter the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of R- or S-warfarin. The pharmacokinetics of vildagliptin were not affected by warfarin. No dosage adjustment of either warfarin or vildagliptin is necessary when these drugs are co-medicated.
    Current Medical Research and Opinion 06/2007; 23(5):1131-8. · 2.37 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This open-label, multicenter study compared the pharmacokinetics and safety of the oral direct renin inhibitor aliskiren in 29 elderly (>or=65 years) and 28 young (18-45 years) healthy subjects. Plasma drug concentrations were determined for up to 168 hours following a single 300-mg oral dose of aliskiren. In elderly compared with young subjects, AUC(0-infinity) was 57% higher (ratio of geometric means 1.57, 90% confidence interval: 1.19, 2.06; P = .008) and C(max) was 28% higher (1.28, 90% confidence interval: 0.91, 1.79; P=.233). Other parameters, including t(max) and Vd/F, were similar between age groups. No differences in aliskiren exposure were observed between subjects ages 65 to 74 years (n=16) and >or=75 years (n=13). Aliskiren was well tolerated by all age groups, including the very elderly. In conclusion, aliskiren exposure is modestly increased in elderly subjects. Based on its wide therapeutic index and shallow dose response for blood pressure lowering, no initial dose adjustment should be needed for elderly patients.
    The Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 04/2007; 47(4):453-60. · 2.84 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Vildagliptin is a potent, selective, orally active inhibitor of dipeptidylpeptidase-IV being developed for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The objective of this study was to assess the absolute oral bioavailability of vildagliptin by comparing the systemic exposure after oral and intravenous administration in healthy volunteers. This was an open-label, randomised, two-period, two-treatment, crossover study in 11 healthy volunteers. Subjects received vildagliptin 50mg orally or 25mg as a 30-minute intravenous infusion on two occasions separated by a 72-hour washout period. Vildagliptin concentrations were determined by a specific assay in urine (lower limit of quantification [LLQ] = 5 ng/mL) and serial plasma samples (LLQ = 2 ng/mL) obtained up to 24 hours after dosing. Noncompartmental analysis and population pharmacokinetic modelling were performed. Both noncompartmental analysis and population pharmacokinetic modelling estimated the absolute oral bioavailability of vildagliptin to be 85%. Renal elimination of unchanged vildagliptin accounted for 33% and 21% of the administered dose 24 hours after intravenous and oral administration, respectively. Renal clearance (13 L/h) was approximately one-third of the total systemic clearance (41 L/h). Two peaks were observed in plasma concentrations at 1 and 3 hours after oral administration in nine of 11 subjects. Modelling based on the population approach identified two absorption sites with lag-times of 0.225 and 2.46 hours. Both absorption rate constants were slower than the elimination rate constant, indicating 'flip-flop' kinetics after oral administration. Bodyweight was identified as a factor with an impact on the volume of distribution of the peripheral compartment. Clearance was 24% greater in males (44.6 L/h) than in females (36.1 L/h). Vildagliptin is rapidly and well absorbed with an estimated absolute bioavailability of 85%. Two possible sites of absorption were identified, and the absorption rates were slower than the elimination rate, indicating a flip-flop phenomenon after oral dosing.
    Clinical Pharmacokinetics 02/2007; 46(9):787-802. · 5.49 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Aliskiren is an orally active direct renin inhibitor approved for the treatment of hypertension. This study assessed the effects of renal impairment on the pharmacokinetics and safety of aliskiren alone and in combination with the angiotensin receptor antagonist irbesartan. This open-label study enrolled 17 males with mild, moderate or severe renal impairment (creatinine clearance [CL(CR)] 50-80, 30-49 and <30 mL/minute, respectively) and 17 healthy males matched for age and bodyweight. Subjects received oral aliskiren 300 mg once daily on days 1-7 and aliskiren coadministered with irbesartan 300 mg on days 8-14. Plasma aliskiren concentrations were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry at frequent intervals up to 24 hours after dosing on days 1, 7 and 14. Renal clearance of aliskiren averaged 1280 +/- 500 mL/hour (mean +/- SD) in healthy subjects and 559 +/- 220, 312 +/- 75 and 243 +/- 186 mL/hour in patients with mild, moderate and severe renal impairment, respectively. At steady state (day 7), the geometric mean ratios (renal impairment : matched healthy volunteers) ranged from 1.21 to 2.05 for the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) over the dosage interval tau (24h) [AUC(tau)]) and from 0.83 to 2.25 for the maximum observed plasma concentration of aliskiren at steady state. Changes in exposure did not correlate with CL(CR), consistent with an effect of renal impairment on non-renal drug disposition. The observed large intersubject variability in aliskiren pharmacokinetic parameters was unrelated to the degree of renal impairment. Accumulation of aliskiren at steady state (indicated by the AUC from 0 and 24 hours [AUC(24)] on day 7 vs day 1) was similar in healthy subjects (1.79 [95% CI 1.24, 2.60]) and those with renal impairment (range 1.39-1.99). Coadministration with irbesartan did not alter the pharmacokinetics of aliskiren. Aliskiren was well tolerated when administered alone or with irbesartan. Exposure to aliskiren is increased by renal impairment but does not correlate with the severity of renal impairment (CL(CR)). This is consistent with previous data indicating that renal clearance of aliskiren represents only a small fraction of total clearance. Initial dose adjustment of aliskiren is unlikely to be required in patients with renal impairment.
    Clinical Pharmacokinetics 01/2007; 46(8):661-75. · 5.49 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

436 Citations
57.91 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2010
    • Peking Union Medical College Hospital
      Peping, Beijing, China
  • 2008
    • Novartis
      Bâle, Basel-City, Switzerland
    • Idenix Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2007–2008
    • Novartis Institutes for BioMedical Research
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States