Ramazanali Ahmadi

Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Vienna, Austria

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Publications (82)274.46 Total impact

  • M. Haumer, R. Ahmadi, E. Minar
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    ABSTRACT: Die perkutane transluminale Angioplastie und Stentimplantation (PTAS) stellt heute in zahlreichen Indikationen das Behandlungsverfahren der Wahl dar. Trotz der häufigen Anwendung der Methode bei der arteriellen Verschlusskrankheit der supraaortalen Gefäße und der wissenschaftlichen Anstrengungen zur Etablierung der PTAS im Bereich der A. carotis interna liegen kaum Daten im Sinne der Evidence Based Medicine zur periinterventionellen Pharmakotherapie vor. Diese Übersicht stellt die derzeit gängigen ajuvanten Therapieregimes dar und gibt eine Übersicht zum hämodynamischen Management während der Karotis-PTAS. Weiter werden Probleme der antithrombotischen Therapie mit Heparin und Thrombozytenfunktionshemmern diskutiert und eine Einführung in die medikamentöse Zerebroprotektion und die thrombolytische Therapie bei ischämischen zerebrovaskulären Ereignissen gegeben. Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty in conjunction with stent implantation (PTAS) is the treatment of choice in several indications. Despite its frequent use in supraaortic arterial disease and the scientific effort to establish PTAS of the internal carotid artery there is relatively little data in the literature to provide an evidence-based ground for periinterventional medical therapy. This article reviews the current periprocedural protocols and gives an overview of the hemodynamic management as necessary in carotid PTAS. Furthermore, problems of antithrombotic therapy with heparin and platelet inhibitors are discussed and a short introduction into medical cerebroprotection and thrombolytic therapy in ischemic cerebrovascular events is given.
    Der Radiologe 04/2012; 40(12):1172-1182. · 0.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the effect of protected carotid artery stenting on neurocognitive function with particular consideration of the angiographic filling of the ipsilateral anterior cerebral artery (ACA). An improved inflow to the supply area of the anterior cerebral artery after revascularisation of severe carotid artery stenosis may beneficially affect frontal lobe cognitive functions. We prospectively included 71 consecutive patients who underwent carotid artery stenting (CAS) due to high grade carotid artery stenosis. Intracranial angiograms and filling status of the ACA pre- and post-stenting were analyzed and a battery of 5 selected neuropsychological tests for frontal lobe function were applied prior to and 6 months after CAS. Patients with improvement in at least two tests were defined as having improved neurocognitive function. Compared to baseline, we found a significant improvement of the Trail-Making Test A (median 6% improved change-score; P = 0.01), the test of supermarket items showed a trend towards significant improvement (median 3.7% improved change-score; P = 0.09). In 32 patients (45%) an improvement of at least 2 neurocognitive tests was observed. Neuropsychological improvement was found more frequently in patients with a contrasted ipsilateral ACA after CAS (88%, 95% CI 77 to 99) compared to patients without angiographic filling of the ipsilateral ACA post CAS (13%, 95% CI 1 to 25), respectively (P < 0.01). Carotid artery stenting improves neurocognitive function in a considerable proportion of patients. A contrasted ipsilateral anterior cerebral artery after CAS is associated with improved neurocognitive function, presumably due to amelioration of frontal lobe perfusion.
    Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions 01/2008; 71(1):114-9. · 2.51 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Plaque characteristics are suggested to play a potentially important role as risk factors for poor outcome after carotid artery stenting (CAS). We therefore correlated objectively and subjectively determined carotid plaque morphology with neurological complications after CAS. We enrolled 698 consecutive patients undergoing elective CAS from a prospective single-center registry database and classified the preinterventional plaque status according to gray-scale median levels and the standardized Beletsky and Gray-Weale plaque scores. Patients were followed for 30-day neurological complications. Neurological complications including transient ischemic attack, minor and major stroke occurred in 5.9% (41/698) of the patients. Median gray-scale median, Beletsky and Gray-Weale scores were 45 (interquartile range [IQR] 25 to 70), 3.0 (IQR 2.0 to 3.0) and 2.0 (IQR 2.0 to 3.0), respectively. None of the scores was significantly associated with adverse outcome adjusting for traditional risk factors, medication, preinterventional symptoms, degree of stenosis, contralateral occlusion and use of cerebral protection, neither with respect to all neurological complications nor with respect to stroke and death (all P>0.05). Plaque echolucency measured by objective and subjective grading did not identify patients with an increased risk of peri-interventional neurological events. Evaluation of plaque echolucency therefore cannot be recommended for risk stratification in CAS patients.
    Stroke 09/2006; 37(9):2378-80. · 6.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To prospectively evaluate if high-grade (> or = 80% luminal narrowing) internal carotid artery stenosis is associated with depressive symptoms and if carotid artery stent placement (CAS) potentially improves depressive symptoms. The study was approved by the local ethics committee, and informed consent was obtained from all subjects. One hundred forty-three patients (91 men, 52 women; interquartile range, 63-76 years) undergoing CAS because of asymptomatic high-grade (> or = 80% luminal narrowing) carotid artery stenosis and 102 control subjects (64 men, 38 women; interquartile range, 63-73 years) with advanced peripheral artery disease and without carotid artery stenosis undergoing lower-limb percutaneous transluminal angioplasty were included. Substantial depressive symptoms (defined as a Beck Depression Inventory score of 10 or higher) were recorded at baseline and at 4 weeks (follow-up) after the percutaneous procedures. The chi2 test, Mann-Whitney U test, McNemar test, Wilcoxon rank sum test, and two-group t test were used to check for statistical significance. A significantly higher prevalence of depressive symptoms was found in patients with carotid artery stenosis than in control subjects with peripheral artery disease at baseline (33.6% vs 16.7%, P = .003). At follow-up, a significant reduction of depressive symptoms was found in patients who underwent CAS (33.6% vs 9.8%, P < .001). The frequency of depressive symptoms remained unaffected in control subjects (16.7% vs 13.0%, P = .1). High-grade carotid artery stenosis is associated with depressive symptoms in patients with atherosclerosis. CAS seems to exert beneficial effects on the course of depressive symptoms in these patients.
    Radiology 08/2006; 240(2):508-14. · 6.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty with stenting (PTAS) has become a treatment option for severe carotid stenosis. The goal of our study was to determine prospectively neurocognitive outcome 6 months after unilateral stent-protected carotid angioplasty. Twenty consecutive patients who underwent stent-protected angioplasty for symptomatic (n=9) or asymptomatic (n=11) high-grade carotid stenosis were investigated and compared to an age and disease matched control group. Patients were administered preprocedurally and 6 months postprocedurally a battery of neuropsychological tests. We used reliable change indices methodology in order to control for practice and statistical effects unrelated to intervention. We found no cognitive change in approximately 90% of patients and cognitive improvement in approximately 10% of patients for concentration and attention variables. We further found no cognitive change in 61% of patients, cognitive improvement in 11% of patients and cognitive deterioration in 28% of patients for psychomotor speed. No cognitive change in 94% of patients and cognitive deterioration in 6% of patients was found for sustained attention; no cognitive change in 80% of patients, cognitive improvement in 15% of patients and cognitive deterioration in 5% of patients was found for verbal fluency; no cognitive change in 100% of patients was found for interference (Stroop test): no cognitive change in 95% of patients, cognitive improvement in 5% of patients was found for interference (c.I. test), respectively. Our study showed that 6 months after PTAS cognitive functioning did not change in most patients significantly. For some patients, however, significant improvement or deterioration in single neurocognitive domains can be expected. The reasons for these changes are unclear but may depend on variable type; magnitude of microemboli production; right vs. left cerebral vasculature, respectively.
    Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology 11/2005; 27(7):859-66. · 2.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate whether the use of rapid-exchange (RX) systems adds to the safety of percutaneous renal artery procedures compared to the conventional over-the-wire (OTW) technique. The interventional registry in our department was interrogated to identify patients who underwent plain balloon angioplasty and/or stent implantation for >60% renal artery stenosis and intractable hypertension or decreasing renal function between 1998 and 2004. In this time period, 63 consecutive patients (36 men; mean age 67 years, range 57-80) underwent 78 renal artery angioplasty procedures. The first 46 procedures were done using a transfemoral OTW technique via 7-F sheaths; the following 32 procedures were performed with an RX system via a transfemoral 6-F access. Duration of fluoroscopy, amount of contrast agent, course of serum creatinine, and complications were compared between OTW and RX approaches. Duration of fluoroscopy (median 13.1 versus 11.1 minutes, p=0.099) and primary technical success (94% versus 97%, p=0.64) were not significantly different between the OTW and RX approaches, but significantly less contrast agent was needed with the RX system (median 215 versus 140 mL, p<0.001). Complications, all minor, occurred significantly more often with the OTW (11/46, 24%) compared to the RX system (2/32, 6%; p=0.040) and included misplaced stents, prolonged severe hyper/hypotension, transient renal impairment, and puncture site complications. In particular, the rates of increased serum creatinine within 24 hours were higher in the OTW patients compared to the RX group (20% versus 3%, respectively, for >25% increase [p=0.041] and 9% versus 0% for >50% increase [p=0.087]). Rapid exchange systems seem to add to the safety of percutaneous renal artery interventions. This likely may be due to a variety of causes, including lower doses of contrast medium, shorter duration of fluoroscopy, and smaller device diameters.
    Journal of Endovascular Therapy 04/2005; 12(2):233-9. · 2.70 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The German Societies of Angiology and Radiology have instituted a prospective registry of carotid angioplasty and stenting (CAS) to limit uncontrolled use of CAS and to collect data about technique and results of CAS outside clinical trials. A total of 38 centers register their patients prospectively before CAS is performed. At discharge, technical details, periprocedural medication, and the clinical course are reported on a standardized form. During the first 48 months, 3853 planned interventions were recorded, and CAS was actually attempted on 3267 patients of whom 1827 (56%) were symptomatic and 1433 (44%) were asymptomatic. In 3127 (98%) cases, stents were used, of which 2784 (89%) were of the self-expanding type. Other technical aspects such as the use of guiding catheters and protection devices varied widely among the centers. Periprocedural medication rather uniformly included aspirin and clopidogrel before and after CAS and high-dose heparin and atropin during CAS. CAS was successful in 3207 (98%) cases. There was a 0.6% (n=18) mortality rate, a 1.2% (n=38) major stroke rate, and a 1.3% (n=41) minor stroke rate. The combined stroke and death rate was 2.8% (n=90). These prospective multicenter data are likely to give a realistic picture of the possibilities and limitations of CAS in the general community. They suggest that CAS may be performed with similar results in the general community as they have been reported by highly specialized centers and in clinical studies.
    Stroke 10/2004; 35(9):2134-9. · 6.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate, in a propensity score-adjusted analysis, the intermediate-term primary patency rates associated with nitinol versus stainless steel self-expanding stent placement for treatment of atherosclerotic lesions in femoropopliteal arteries. The authors analyzed the clinical and imaging data of 175 consecutive patients with peripheral artery disease and either intermittent claudication (n = 150) or critical limb ischemia (n = 25) who underwent femoropopliteal artery implantation of nitinol (n = 104) or stainless steel (n = 123) stents in a nonrandomized setting. The stents were placed owing to either significant residual stenosis (ie, >30% lumen diameter reduction) or flow-limiting dissection after initial balloon angioplasty of the femoropopliteal artery. Patients were followed up for a median period of 9 months (mean, 13 months; range, 6-66 months) for the detection of a first in-stent restenosis, defined as a greater than 50% lumen diameter reduction that was seen at color-coded duplex ultrasonography and confirmed at angiography. Cumulative patency rates at 6, 12, and 24 months were 85%, 75%, and 69%, respectively, after nitinol stent placement versus 78%, 54%, and 34%, respectively, after stainless steel stent placement (P =.008, log-rank test). There were no statistically significant differences in associated patency among the three different nitinol stents used (P =.72, log-rank test). Multivariate Cox proportional hazard analysis, in which the effect of propensity to receive a nitinol stent was considered, revealed a significantly reduced risk of restenosis with the nitinol stents compared with the risk of restenosis with the stainless steel stents (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.44; 95% confidence interval: 0.22, 0.85; P =.014). Nitinol stents are associated with significantly improved primary patency rates in femoropopliteal arteries compared with stainless steel stents. Randomized controlled trials are needed to confirm these results.
    Radiology 09/2004; 232(2):516-21. · 6.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To compare 13 previously published sets of duplex ultrasonographic (US) criteria with the US criteria used at the authors' institution in terms of agreement with carotid artery angiographic results. The authors studied 1,006 carotid arteries in 503 patients at duplex US and angiography. The degree of stenosis was determined by using duplex flow US velocities and applying 13 previously published sets of criteria and the criteria used at the authors' institution. Two independent observers evaluated the angiograms according to North American Symptomatic Carotid Endarterectomy Trial (NASCET) criteria. kappa statistics, sensitivities, specificities, positive predictive values (PPVs), negative predictive values (NPVs), and generalized linear mixed regression models were used to assess agreement between duplex US and angiographic findings. Stenoses of 0%-29%, 30%-49%, 50%-69%, 70%-99%, and 100% could be differentiated with 73% overall agreement between duplex US and angiographic findings according to flow velocity criteria (kappa = 0.57; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.54, 0.60); however, with duplex US, the angiographic degree of stenosis tended to be overestimated. In the differentiation of stenoses of less than 70%, only 45% agreement (kappa = 0.26; 95% CI: 0.23, 0.29) was observed, whereas in the differentiation of high-grade (> or =70%) stenoses, 96% agreement was observed (kappa = 0.85; 95% CI: 0.83, 0.87). The PPV and NPV for the identification of 70%-99% angiographic stenosis were 69% and 98%, respectively, with use of the most sensitive duplex US criteria. Duplex US is an excellent examination to screen for high-grade carotid artery stenosis; however, it tends to lead to an overestimation of the degree of stenosis. Exclusion of 70%-99% angiographic stenosis can be achieved with a sensitivity of up to 98%.
    Radiology 08/2004; 232(2):431-9. · 6.34 Impact Factor
  • Schillinger M, Ahmadi R, Minar E
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    ABSTRACT: Stroke is the third most common cause of death in Western civilizations, and the single most common cause for permanent disability. Approximately 20% to 30% of ischemic strokes are caused by high grade carotid artery stenosis, and revascularization therapy has the potential to resolve this problem. Traditionally, carotid endarterectomy (CEA) is considered the Gold standard for treatment of symptomatic and asymptomatic high-grade internal carotid artery (ICA) obstructions with a degree of stenosis above 70%. Recently, carotid artery stenting (CAS) emerged as an accepted alternative method for treatment of patients with high-grade carotid artery stenosis, who are at an increased risk for surgical carotid endarterectomy (CEA). The reported rates of neurological complications of CAS substantially decreased during the past years, and the routine use of cerebral protection devices and low profile catheter systems have further increased the procedure's safety. Provided that the ongoing randomized controlled trials comparing CAS and CEA confirm equivalence between these methods, CAS like CEA may be applicable to a more general population of patients with high grade carotid artery stenosis in the near future. The present article critically reviews the evidence that endovascular treatment of high grade carotid artery stenosis by elective CAS may be beneficial in the prevention of thromboembolic stroke.
    Vascular Disease Prevention 06/2004; 1(2):109-116.
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate whether smoking has an effect on recurrent lumen narrowing after percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) or stent placement in lower-limb arteries. A total of 650 patients (median age, 70 years; 389 men) with peripheral artery disease who underwent iliac artery PTA (n = 95), iliac artery stent placement (n = 83), femoropopliteal PTA (n = 406), or femoropopliteal stent placement (n = 66) were selected from a prospective database. Patients were categorized according to their preintervention smoking habits as nonsmokers (n = 352), light smokers (one to nine cigarettes daily) (n = 54), habitual smokers (10-20 cigarettes daily) (n = 82), or heavy smokers (>20 cigarettes daily) (n = 162). Multivariate Cox proportional hazards analysis was used to determine whether there was an association between smoking habits and restenosis (> or =50%) in the treated vessel segment within 1 year after treatment. Cumulative restenosis rates at 6 and 12 months according to patients' smoking habits were 99 and 190 nonsmokers, 18 and 22 light smokers, 16 and 29 habitual smokers, and 26 and 47 heavy smokers, respectively (P <.001). Adjusted hazard ratios for restenosis in smokers compared with nonsmokers were 1.51 (95% CI: 0.92, 2.50) for light smokers, 0.49 (95% CI: 0.28, 0.87) for habitual smokers, and 0.46 (95% CI: 0.30, 0.71) for heavy smokers, indicating a reduced restenosis risk in patients who smoked 10 or more cigarettes daily. These patients had reduced restenosis rates after either iliac (P =.011) or femoropopliteal intervention (P =.009). However, endovascular treatment at a younger age, coronary artery disease, and history of myocardial or cerebrovascular infarction were more frequently found in smokers. Smoking 10 or more cigarettes daily is associated with a reduced rate of intermediate-term restenosis after lower-limb endovascular interventions.
    Radiology 06/2004; 231(3):831-8. · 6.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To examine if excessive in-stent neointimal formation causing a subcritical stenosis may indicate enhanced vascular reactivity in response to injury, thus predicting late cardiovascular events. One hundred consecutive patients (64 men; median age 71 years) with high-grade internal carotid artery stenoses (68 asymptomatic, 32 symptomatic) underwent carotid artery stenting (CAS). High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) was measured before CAS. Patients were monitored with duplex ultrasound for excessive in-stent neointimal formation (flow-compromising lumen diameter reduction >/=50%), critical restenosis (>/=70%), or the occurrence of late major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) defined as myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, and death occurring later than 30 days poststenting. Over a median 23-month follow-up, excessive neointimal formation was observed in 14 (14%) patients, restenosis in 2 (2%), and 30 late MACE in 25 [25%: 4 MIs, 2 ipsilateral strokes (in the patients with restenosis), 8 contralateral strokes, and 16 cardiovascular deaths]. Cumulative MACE-free survival rates at 6, 12, and 24 months were 92%, 84%, and 77%, respectively. Baseline hs-CRP levels were associated both with neointimal hyperplasia (p=0.024) and MACE (p=0.021). Patients with excessive neointimal formation exhibited a significantly increased adjusted risk for MACE (hazard ratio 3.56, p=0.010). Excessive in-stent neointimal formation after CAS indicates an increased risk for late MACE, potentially reflecting a state of exaggerated vascular reactivity in response to injury. Inflammation, which is associated both with neointimal hyperplasia and MACE, seems a common characteristic of different vascular pathologies.
    Journal of Endovascular Therapy 06/2004; 11(3):229-39. · 2.70 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study was undertaken to study negative and positive arterial remodeling processes within self-expanding carotid stents, their interaction, and the resulting changes in hemodynamics over 2 years, with duplex ultrasound scanning. One hundred twelve consecutive patients with 121 successfully stented carotid arteries were examined with color-coded duplex ultrasound scanning the day after the stent procedure and at 3, 6, 12, and 24 months of follow-up. The stent diameters at the proximal, middle, and distal regions, and the maximal neointimal thickness (B-mode) and hemodynamic parameters were recorded. Pre-interventional plaques were assigned to three types: soft, fibrous, and largely calcified. The diameters of the self-expanding stents steadily increased over 2 years (positive arterial remodeling), from (mean +/- SD) 5.80 +/- 0.89 mm to 6.77 +/- 0.98 mm in the proximal stent area, from 3.51 +/- 0.76 mm to 4.92 +/- 0.89 mm in the middle stent area, and from 3.7 +/- 0.5 mm to 4.68 +/- 0.61 mm in the distal stent area (P<.001). Stent expansion was most marked in the middle stent area, depending on the type of pre-interventional plaque. The extent in stent expansion was more in soft than in fibrous and calcified plaques (P<.001). Neointimal thickness increased up to 12 months, and stabilized thereafter. The mean (+/- SD) neointimal thickness at 3, 6, 12, and 24 months was 0.61 +/- 0.28 mm, 0.97 +/- 0.39 mm, 1.06 +/- 0.36 mm, and 1.12 +/- 0.38 mm, respectively. These complex interactions resulted in the dominance of negative remodeling secondary to neointimal proliferation, with an increased flow ratio during the first year, from 1.16 +/- 0.37 at day 1 to 1.23 +/- 0.46 at 3 months, 1.67 +/- 1.37 at 6 months, and 1.57 +/- 0.70 at 12 months (P<.001), followed by a tendency to decrease as a result of stent expansion thereafter (flow ratio at 24 months, 1.49 +/- 0.70). Two of 121 stents (1.6%) had recurrent stenosis that required a secondary procedure. Neointimal proliferation or negative arterial remodeling prevails up to 12 months, and may give rise to rare stent recurrent stenosis. Stent expansion reduces this effect in the first year, and dominates in the second year. This might contribute to the good mid-term outcome of carotid stenting. Poor stent expansion in heavily calcified plaques calls for primary surgical management.
    Journal of Vascular Surgery 04/2004; 39(4):728-34. · 2.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We studied the influence of initial hyperglycaemia on neointimal proliferation within carotid Wallstents. A total of 112 patients were followed by duplex sonography after carotid stenting for 24 months. Patients were assigned to three groups: non-diabetic subjects (group A) and diabetic patients, who were assigned according to their baseline HbA(1)c values, to group B1(HbA(1)c<or=6.5%) or group B2 (HbA(1)c>6.5%). At baseline the groups did not differ with respect to other vascular risk factors and residual stenosis on angiograms. The maximal thickness of the layer between the stent and the perfused lumen was measured at the duplex follow-ups. At 3 months the typical ultrasonic structure of the neointima was clearly discernible. From this point on, group B2 differed significantly ( p<0.001) compared with B1 and A with respect to the maximal thickness of neointima and the time course of its ingrowth: group A vs B1 vs B2 was 0.51+/-0.39 vs 0.52+/-0.33 vs 0.56+/-0.35 at 3 months, 0.91+/-0.27 vs 0.90+/-0.38 vs 1.14+/-0.48 at 6 months, 1.02+/-0.24 vs 0.97+/-0.34 vs 1.21+/-0.44 at 12 months and 1.09+/-0.23 vs 1.10+/-0.31 vs 1.23+/-0.37 at 24 months. Initial hyperglycaemia seems to be a predictor of more pronounced neointimal proliferation after carotid stenting independent of diabetes. As intimal hyperplasia is known to be responsible for stent restenosis, strict optimisation of the hyperglycaemic state should be aimed at before elective carotid artery stenting.
    Diabetologia 04/2004; 47(3):400-6. · 6.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Intermittent claudication due to peripheral artery disease (PAD) can be treated conservatively, or by revascularization. To assess the short-term outcome of conservatively-treated claudicants, and determine predictors for clinical improvement. Design. A retrospective cohort study. We evaluated Fontaine stage, walking distance and ankle brachial index (ABI) at baseline and after median 9 months (interquartile range (IQR) 6-24) in 181 patients with severe claudication. We found clinical improvement by at least one Fontaine stage in 38 patients (21%) with an increased walking distance from baseline median 100 m (IQR 50-150) to follow-up median 650 m (IQR 300 to unlimited; p<0.001), but without changes in ABI (median 0.57, IQR 0.48-0.73 vs. median 0.54, IQR 0.45-0.81; p=0.10). One hundred and thirty-eight patients (76%) remained clinically and hemodynamically stable. A worsening of the clinical stage but without amputation was recorded in five patients (3%). Female gender (hazard ratio (HR) 0.51, p=0.052), diabetes (HR 0.35, p=0.020), and baseline ABI below 0.44 (HR 0.31, p=0.019) were associated with a reduced probability of clinical improvement. Certain patients with intermittent claudication show substantial clinical improvement with conservative medical therapy, despite any lack of hemodynamic improvement. Given the low number of patients with clinical deterioration in the short term, primarily conservative therapy should be the preferred initial option for most claudicants.
    European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery 04/2004; 27(3):254-8. · 2.82 Impact Factor
  • Martin Schillinger, Erich Minar, Ramazanali Ahmadi
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    ABSTRACT: Renal artery stenosis (RAS) leading to hypertension or ischemic nephropathy can be treated by endovascular revascularization using balloon angioplasty or stent implantation. Although high technical success rates > 95%, relatively low frequencies of complications and good long-term patency can be achieved, the indications for interventional treatment are a matter of ongoing debate. Curing hypertension by means of angioplasty rarely occurs, although the number of antihypertensive medication usually can be reduced after successful treatment. Targeting ischemic nephropathy, revascularization can stabilize or at least slow the decline of renal function. Nevertheless, angioplasty also bears the risk of inducing renal deterioration. Careful patient selection remains the most crucial point in renal interventions, however, current data are insufficient to give final recommendations on this issue. The present review focuses on the potential beneficial effects of renal artery PTA and stenting in patients with RAS.
    Herz 03/2004; 29(1):68-75. · 0.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To compare neurologic outcome after elective internal carotid artery (ICA) stents have been placed in patients with and in patients without contralateral ICA obstructions. This study included 471 consecutive patients from a registry database who underwent elective ICA stent placement without cerebral protection for high-grade (greater than 70% stenosis of the ICA, according to the North American Symptomatic Carotid Endarterectomy Trial) symptomatic (n = 147) or asymptomatic (n = 324) ICA stenosis. Contralateral carotid arteries were investigated with angiography. Patients with and patients without contralateral high-grade stenosis (70%-99% stenosis, according to the North American Symptomatic Carotid Endarterectomy Trial) or occlusion were compared with respect to 30-day neurologic outcome by using the chi2 test and multivariate logistic regression analysis. Neurologic events were observed in 33 patients (7%) with 15 transient ischemic attacks, eight minor strokes, and 10 major strokes that led to death in two patients (combined stroke and death rate, 4%). Eighty-eight patients (19%) with contralateral high-grade ICA stenosis and 43 patients (9%) with contralateral ICA occlusion exhibited a similar rate of postintervention combined neurologic events (n = 9, 7%) compared with patients without contralateral high-grade ICA stenosis or occlusion (n = 24, 7%) (P =.94). No differences were observed between symptomatic and asymptomatic patients. Combined stroke and death rates were also comparable between symptomatic (four of 131, 3%) and asymptomatic (14 of 340, 4%) patients (P =.59). Of all variables tested, multivariate analysis did not detect any predictor for peri- or postinterventional neurologic events. Contralateral high-grade ICA stenosis or occlusion was not associated with an increased risk for neurologic events after elective ICA stent placement.
    Radiology 02/2004; 230(1):70-6. · 6.34 Impact Factor
  • Martin Schillinger, Erich Minar, Ramazanali Ahmadi
    Herz 01/2004; 29(1):68-75. · 0.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Magnesium (Mg) deficiency is thought to be a risk factor for cerebrovascular atherosclerosis and complications. We investigated the prognostic impact of Mg serum levels with respect to the occurrence of neurological events in patients with advanced atherosclerosis. We prospectively studied 323 patients with symptomatic peripheral artery disease and intermittent claudication (197 men; median age, 68 years). Serum Mg was determined, and patients were followed for a median of 20 months (interquartile range, 12 to 25 months) for the occurrence of neurological events, defined as ischemic stroke and/or carotid revascularization (carotid endarterectomy or carotid stenting). Multivariate Cox proportional hazards analysis was applied to assess the association of serum Mg (in tertiles) and neurological events. Neurological events occurred in 35 patients (11%) (15 patients with stroke, 13 with carotid revascularization, and 7 with stroke and subsequent revascularization). Compared with patients in the highest tertile of Mg serum levels (>0.84 mmol/L), patients with Mg serum values <0.76 mmol/L (lowest tertile) exhibited a 3.29-fold increased adjusted risk (95% CI, 1.34 to 7.90; P=0.009) for neurological events, but patients with Mg serum values of 0.76 mmol/L to 0.84 mmol/L (middle tertile) had no increased risk (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.10; 95% CI, 0.35 to 3.33; P=0.88). Mg serum levels were not associated with all-cause mortality (P=0.87) or coronary events (P=0.67) during follow-up. Low Mg serum levels indicate an increased risk for neurological events in patients with symptomatic peripheral artery disease, favoring Mg substitution therapy in those patients with advanced atherosclerosis.
    Stroke 01/2004; 35(1):22-7. · 6.16 Impact Factor
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    M. Schillinger, R. Ahmadi, E. Minar
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    ABSTRACT: Endovascular Therapy of Renal Artery Stenosis. Renal artery stenosis account for approxi- mately 5 % of the cases of secondary hypertension. In patients with concomitant coronary or peripheral peripheral artery
    01/2004;

Publication Stats

1k Citations
274.46 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2002–2008
    • Medical University of Vienna
      • Universitätsklinik für Radiodiagnostik
      Vienna, Vienna, Austria
  • 1990–2006
    • University of Vienna
      • • Universitätsklinik für Innere Medizin I
      • • Department of Internal Medicine III
      Vienna, Vienna, Austria
  • 1996–2004
    • Vienna General Hospital
      Wien, Vienna, Austria
  • 1997
    • IST Austria
      Klosterneuberg, Lower Austria, Austria