[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have revised a part of the diagnostic criteria for fulminant type 1 diabetes. The new criteria were set both to express the essence of this disease of rapid increase of patients’ blood glucose and to be highly sensitive to reduce the misdiagnosis. After analyzing the data of 382 patients with newly-diagnosed fulminant type 1 diabetes, we adopted the HbA1c level of 8.7 % (NGSP value). The new criterion indicates 100 % of sensitivity and best value by ROC (receiver operation curve) analysis. In addition, we added a comment that “This value (HbA1c < 8.7 % in NGSP) is not applicable for patients with previously diagnosed glucose intolerance” on the new criteria and also a comment that “Association with HLA DRB1*04:05-DQB1*04:01 is reported” as a related finding. We did not revise the screening criteria and the other part of the diagnostic criteria, because they are still reliable.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: AIM: Several studies using experimental non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) models have shown that ezetimibe, an inhibitor of cholesterol absorption mainly in the intestine, not only protects against diet-induced hyperlipidemia, but also attenuates liver steatosis. The aim of this study was to clarify whether ezetimibe inhibits the development of NAFLD and to elaborate the mechanism of ezetimibe to inhibit the development of NAFLD using Fatty Liver Shionogi (FLS) mice, a spontaneous model of NAFLD/non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. METHODS: Male FLS mice at 20 weeks of age were divided into two groups (n = 7 in each group). Mice fed a normal laboratory chow, CRF-1 or CRF-1 containing 0.005% w/w ezetimibe (7 mg/kg per day) for 4 weeks. After 4-week treatment with ezetimibe, the livers of each group of mice were subjected to histological as well as molecular evaluation. RESULTS: Ezetimibe administration for 4 weeks was associated with improvement of steatosis and fibrosis of the liver in normal diet-fed FLS mice. Ezetimibe reduced hepatic reactive oxygen species generation and prevented ubiquitination and protein degradation of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP), a key molecule for very low-density lipoprotein assembly and export, via downregulation of the protein expression of Skp2 and CDC20. CONCLUSION: Ezetimibe not only reduced lipid synthesis in the liver, but also promoted lipid discharge from the liver by preventing post-translational degradation of MTP via a reduction of hepatic reactive oxygen species generation, leading to inhibition of the development of NAFLD.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping in segregating crosses of NSY (Nagoya-Shibata-Yasuda) mice, an animal model of type 2 diabetes, with nondiabetic strain C3H/He mice has identified diabetogenic QTLs on multiple chromosomes. The QTL on chromosome 11 (Chr11) (Nidd1n) showing the largest effect on hyperglycemia was confirmed by our previous studies with homozygous consomic mice, C3H-11(NSY), in which the NSY-derived whole Chr11 was introgressed onto control C3H background genes. C3H-11(NSY) mice also showed a streptozotocin (STZ) sensitivity. In the present study, we constructed heterozygous C3H-11(NSY) mice and the phenotypes were analyzed in detail in comparison with those of homozygous C3H-11(NSY) and C3H mice. Heterozygous C3H-11(NSY) mice had significantly higher blood glucose levels and STZ sensitivity than those in C3H mice. Hyperglycemia and STZ sensitivity in heterozygous C3H-11(NSY) mice, however, were not as severe as in homozygous C3H-11(NSY) mice. The body weight and fat pad weight in heterozygous C3H-11(NSY) mice were similar to those in C3H and homozygous C3H-11(NSY) mice. These data indicated that the introgression of Chr11 of the diabetes-susceptible NSY strain onto diabetes-resistant C3H caused marked changes in the glucose tolerance and STZ susceptibility even in a heterozygous state, and suggested that the mode of inheritance of a gene or genes on Chr11 for hyperglycemia and STZ sensitivity is additive.
Journal of Diabetes Research 01/2013; 2013:608923. · 1.89 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Both genetic factors and diabetogenic environmental factors, such as a high-sucrose diet (HSD), are involved in the development of type 2 diabetes. In this study, NSY mice, an animal model of type 2 diabetes and C3H mice used as controls, were fed a HSD, a high-fat diet (HFD) or a regular diet (RD) from weaning. In C3H mice, HFD significantly increased body weight gain, but maintained glucose tolerance. In contrast, in NSY mice, HSD resulted in increased body weight gain and liver steatosis and increased glucose intolerance to a greater extent than HFD. Furthermore, we performed DNA microarray analysis to detect differences in hepatic gene expression levels in both strains under HSD. We then performed RT-PCR analysis on selected genes to evaluate basal expression level under RD and changes under HSD conditions. HSD-fed NSY, but not C3H mice, exhibited increased hepatic expression levels of Pparg2, an isoform of Pparg as well as G0s2, a target of Pparg, which are known to be adipocyte-specific genes. Compared to RD-fed C3H mice, hepatic expression levels of Kat2b (transcriptional regulation), Hsd3b5 (steroid hormone metabolism) and Cyp7b1 (bile acid metabolism) were initially lower in RD-fed NSY mice, and were further decreased in HSD-fed NSY mice. Expression of Metallothionein (Mt1) and Metallothionein 2 (Mt2) was significantly lower in NSY mice compared to C3H mice, irrespective of dietary condition. These data suggest that elucidation of this heterogeneity in response to HSD might contribute to further understanding of the gene-environment interactions leading to diabetes in humans.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We conducted a three-stage genetic study to identify susceptibility loci for type 2 diabetes (T2D) in east Asian populations. We followed our stage 1 meta-analysis of eight T2D genome-wide association studies (6,952 cases with T2D and 11,865 controls) with a stage 2 in silico replication analysis (5,843 cases and 4,574 controls) and a stage 3 de novo replication analysis (12,284 cases and 13,172 controls). The combined analysis identified eight new T2D loci reaching genome-wide significance, which mapped in or near GLIS3, PEPD, FITM2-R3HDML-HNF4A, KCNK16, MAEA, GCC1-PAX4, PSMD6 and ZFAND3. GLIS3, which is involved in pancreatic beta cell development and insulin gene expression, is known for its association with fasting glucose levels. The evidence of an association with T2D for PEPD and HNF4A has been shown in previous studies. KCNK16 may regulate glucose-dependent insulin secretion in the pancreas. These findings, derived from an east Asian population, provide new perspectives on the etiology of T2D.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: FTO harbours the strongest known obesity-susceptibility locus in Europeans. While there is growing evidence for a role for FTO in obesity risk in Asians, its association with type 2 diabetes, independently of BMI, remains inconsistent. To test whether there is an association of the FTO locus with obesity and type 2 diabetes, we conducted a meta-analysis of 32 populations including 96,551 East and South Asians.
All studies published on the association between FTO-rs9939609 (or proxy [r (2) > 0.98]) and BMI, obesity or type 2 diabetes in East or South Asians were invited. Each study group analysed their data according to a standardised analysis plan. Association with type 2 diabetes was also adjusted for BMI. Random-effects meta-analyses were performed to pool all effect sizes.
The FTO-rs9939609 minor allele increased risk of obesity by 1.25-fold/allele (p = 9.0 × 10(-19)), overweight by 1.13-fold/allele (p = 1.0 × 10(-11)) and type 2 diabetes by 1.15-fold/allele (p = 5.5 × 10(-8)). The association with type 2 diabetes was attenuated after adjustment for BMI (OR 1.10-fold/allele, p = 6.6 × 10(-5)). The FTO-rs9939609 minor allele increased BMI by 0.26 kg/m(2) per allele (p = 2.8 × 10(-17)), WHR by 0.003/allele (p = 1.2 × 10(-6)), and body fat percentage by 0.31%/allele (p = 0.0005). Associations were similar using dominant models. While the minor allele is less common in East Asians (12-20%) than South Asians (30-33%), the effect of FTO variation on obesity-related traits and type 2 diabetes was similar in the two populations.
FTO is associated with increased risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes, with effect sizes similar in East and South Asians and similar to those observed in Europeans. Furthermore, FTO is also associated with type 2 diabetes independently of BMI.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We previously reported the associations of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) (DRB1 and DQB1), INS, CTLA4, IL2RA, ERBB3 and CLEC16A with Japanese type 1 diabetes (T1D). In this study, we jointly analysed these loci in addition to IFIH1 and IL7R.
A maximum of 790 T1D patients and 953 control subjects were analysed. HLA was determined by sequencing-based typing. Seven non-HLA single nucleotide polymorphisms were genotyped using TaqMan assay.
HLA DRB1*0405, DRB1*0901 and DRB1*0802-DQB1*0302 haplotypes were positively associated with T1D, while the DRB1*15 haplotypes were negatively associated. Non-HLA single nucleotide polymorphisms, INS, IL2RA, ERBB3, CLEC16A and IL7R were associated with T1D. By a prediction model using the HLA loci alone (HLA model) or the non-HLA loci alone (non-HLA model), it was revealed that the cumulative effect of the non-HLA model was much weaker than that of the HLA model (average increase in odds ratio: 1.17 versus 3.14). Furthermore, the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of the non-HLA model was also much smaller than that of the HLA model (0.65 versus 0.81, p<10(-11)). Finally, a patient-only analysis revealed the susceptible HLA haplotypes and the risk allele of INS to be negatively associated with slower onset of the disease. In addition, the DRB1*0901 haplotype and the risk alleles of ERBB3, CLEC16A and CTLA4 were positively associated with the co-occurrence of thyroid autoimmunity.
Although several non-HLA susceptibility genes in Japanese were confirmed trans-racially and appear to contribute to the heterogeneity of the clinical phenotypes, the cumulative effect on the ability to predict the development of T1D was weak.
Diabetes/Metabolism Research and Reviews 11/2011; 27(8):844-8. · 2.97 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Interferon therapy can trigger induction of several autoimmune diseases, including type 1 diabetes. To assess the clinical, immunologic, and genetic characteristics of type 1 diabetes induced by interferon therapy, we conducted a nationwide cross-sectional survey.
Clinical characteristics, anti-islet autoantibodies, and HLA-DR typing were examined in 91 patients for whom type 1 diabetes developed during or shortly after interferon therapy.
Median age at the onset of type 1 diabetes was 56 (interquartile range 48-63) years and mean ± SD BMI was 20.8 ± 2.7 kg/m(2). The time period from the initiation of interferon therapy to type 1 diabetes onset in patients receiving pegylated interferon and ribavirin was significantly shorter than that in patients with nonpegylated interferon single therapy (P < 0.05). Anti-islet autoantibodies were detected in 94.5% of patients at diabetes onset. Type 1 diabetes susceptibility HLA-DRs in the Japanese population, DR4 and DR9, were also associated with interferon treatment-related type 1 diabetes. Furthermore, the prevalence of HLA-DR13 was significantly higher in interferon treatment-related type 1 diabetes than in healthy control subjects (odds ratio 3.80 [95% CI 2.20-7.55]; P < 0.0001) and classical type 1 diabetes (2.15 [1.17-3.93]; P < 0.05).
Anti-islet autoantibodies should be investigated before and during interferon therapy to identify subjects at high risk of type 1 diabetes. Stronger antiviral treatment may induce earlier development of type 1 diabetes. Furthermore, patients who develop interferon-induced type 1 diabetes are genetically susceptible.
Diabetes care 07/2011; 34(9):2084-9. · 8.09 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In contrast to the large number of studies on autoimmunity against the thyroid gland in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus, little is known about the anti-islet autoimmune status in patients with autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITDs). We therefore studied the anti-islet autoimmune status in patients with AITD and the clinical and genetic characteristics of AITD patients with anti-islet autoimmunity. The positivity and titer of glutamic acid decarboxylase antibody (GAD Ab) were studied in 866 Japanese patients with AITD (546 with Graves disease and 320 with Hashimoto thyroiditis), 221 patients with thyroid disease of nonautoimmune origin, and 282 control subjects. The clinical characteristics and genotypes of HLA-DRB1, DQB1, and CTLA4 were compared between AITD patients with and without GAD Ab. The prevalence of GAD Ab was significantly higher in AITD patients than in control subjects (5.8% vs 2.1%, P = .01), particularly in Graves disease (7.1% vs 2.1%, P = .0019). The prevalence of diabetes mellitus was significantly higher in AITD patients with GAD Ab than in those without (40.0% vs 10.1%, P < .0001), particularly in those with a high titer of GAD Ab (high vs low titer: 64% vs 16%, P = .001) and also in those positive for insulinoma-associated antigen 2 (IA-2) Ab (IA-2 positive vs negative: 75.0% vs 31.3%, P = .016). The AITD patients with GAD Ab were characterized by younger age at onset of diabetes, lower body mass index, higher hemoglobin A(1c) level, and higher frequency of insulin therapy than those without GAD Ab. The frequency of the DRB1*0405-DQB1*0401 haplotype was significantly higher in AITD patients with GAD Ab than in those without GAD Ab and control subjects. A single nucleotide polymorphism (rs3087243) of CTLA4 was significantly associated with AITD, but not with positivity of GAD Ab. These results indicate that patients with AITD, and in particular Graves disease, are prone to develop β-cell autoimmunity and insulin-requiring diabetes, particularly those with a high titer of GAD Ab and/or positive for both GAD and IA-2 Ab. Glutamic acid decarboxylase Ab positivity in AITD patients was associated with HLA, conferring susceptibility to type 1 diabetes mellitus.
Metabolism: clinical and experimental 06/2011; 60(6):761-6. · 2.59 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In populations of East Asian descent, we performed a replication study of loci previously identified in populations of European descent as being associated with obesity measures such as BMI and type 2 diabetes.
We genotyped 14 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from 13 candidate loci that had previously been identified by genome-wide association meta-analyses for obesity measures in Europeans. Genotyping was done in 18,264 participants from two general Japanese populations. For SNPs showing an obesity association in Japanese individuals, we further examined diabetes associations in up to 6,781 cases and 7,307 controls from a subset of the original, as well as from additional populations.
Significant obesity associations (p < 0.1 two-tailed, concordant direction with previous reports) were replicated for 11 SNPs from the following ten loci in Japanese participants: SEC16B, TMEM18, GNPDA2, BDNF, MTCH2, BCDIN3D-FAIM2, SH2B1-ATP2A1, FTO, MC4R and KCTD15. The strongest effect was observed at TMEM18 rs4854344 (p = 7.1 × 10(-7) for BMI). Among the 11 SNPs showing significant obesity association, six were also associated with diabetes (OR 1.05-1.17; p = 0.04-2.4 × 10(-7)) after adjustment for BMI in the Japanese. When meta-analysed with data from the previous reports, the BMI-adjusted diabetes association was found to be highly significant for the FTO locus in East Asians (OR 1.13; 95% CI 1.09-1.18; p = 7.8 × 10(-10)) with substantial inter-ethnic heterogeneity (p = 0.003).
We confirmed that ten candidate loci are associated with obesity measures in the general Japanese populations. Six (of ten) loci exert diabetogenic effects in the Japanese, although relatively modest in size, and independently of increased adiposity.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The maximum dosage of metformin allowed for clinical use in Japan is much less than half that in Western countries, making it difficult to apply the results of clinical trials in Western countries to Japanese patients. In particular, the efficacy and safety of metformin in elderly patients are largely unknown.
Among 1508 patients who were newly prescribed metformin at our hospital from 2000-2006, patients with sufficient clinical data were retrospectively studied for the safety (n=1132) and efficacy (n=568) of the drug. Of 568 patients in whom the efficacy of metformin was analyzed, 180 patients (31.7%) were elderly, aged 65 years or over.
Metformin was effective for the treatment of type 2 diabetes in Japanese patients, with significant improvement in HbA1c level at all time-points after 1 month, with the largest decrease by approximately 0.9% in patients treated with 750 mg/day and approximately 0.7% in those treated with 500 mg/day, at 4 months. Metformin improved glycemic control in elderly patients as well as non-elderly patients. The efficacy was independent of age, sex, degree of obesity and concomitant use of other drugs. No significant difference was observed in elevated lactic acid levels between elderly and non-elderly patients. No case of lactic acidosis was observed.
These results suggest that the efficacy of metformin in Japanese elderly patients with type 2 diabetes is not different from that in non-elderly patients, and that its safety might be linked to specific and well-documented contraindications rather than age itself.
Geriatrics & Gerontology International 01/2011; 11(1):55-62.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The incidence of type 2 diabetes and metabolic diseases increases with age. Clarification of the underlying mechanisms in age-dependent worsening of such metabolic disorders is crucial for developing more effective strategies for prevention and treatment. However, due to limitations in studying aging-related changes, especially at the tissue level in humans, investigations with adequate animal models are important. Therefore, we investigated 2 inbred lines of mouse, the Nagoya-Shibata-Yasuda (NSY) mouse and the Fatty Liver Shionogi (FLS) mouse. By analyzing NSY mice, which spontaneously develop type 2 diabetes mellitus through impaired insulin secretion and insulin resistance in an age dependent manner, we demonstrated that environmental factors, including infant nutritional condition, modified aging-related metabolic changes, and the effect of genetic components on glucose metabolism, vary according to age. In FLS mice which developed non-alcoholic steatohepatitis with normal feed, accumulation of hepatic lipids caused by reduced VLDL secretion progressed to hepatic inflammation and fibrosis, which was ameliorated by vector-induced hepatic expression of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein, a key molecule for VLDL secretion. In addition, the glucose intolerance of this mouse exhibited 2 different phases: age-related deterioration due to worsening of insulin sensitivity up to 6 months, followed by time-dependent amelioration owing to increased capacity of insulin secretion and β-cell mass thereafter, suggesting slow adaptive β-cell expansion in this model. These results indicate that age-related metabolic changes are an integral part of multiple organ dysfunctions, each of which has a different period of worsening, and which collectively leads to disease.
Nippon Ronen Igakkai Zasshi Japanese Journal of Geriatrics 01/2011; 48(2):127-9.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Retinoid X receptors (RXRs) are members of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily and are thought to be key regulators in differentiation, cellular growth, and gene expression. Although several experiments using pancreatic β-cell lines have shown that the ligands of nuclear hormone receptors modulate insulin secretion, it is not clear whether RXRs have any role in insulin secretion.
To elucidate the function of RXRs in pancreatic β-cells, we generated a double-transgenic mouse in which a dominant-negative form of RXRβ was inducibly expressed in pancreatic β-cells using the Tet-On system. We also established a pancreatic β-cell line from an insulinoma caused by the β-cell-specific expression of simian virus 40 T antigen in the above transgenic mouse.
In the transgenic mouse, expression of the dominant-negative RXR enhanced the insulin secretion with high glucose stimulation. In the pancreatic β-cell line, the suppression of RXRs also enhanced glucose-stimulated insulin secretion at a high glucose concentration, while 9-cis-retinoic acid, an RXR agonist, repressed it. High-density oligonucleotide microarray analysis showed that expression of the dominant-negative RXR affected the expression levels of a number of genes, some of which have been implicated in the function and/or differentiation of β-cells.
These results suggest that endogenous RXR negatively regulates the glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Given these findings, we propose that the modulation of endogenous RXR in β-cells may be a new therapeutic approach for improving impaired insulin secretion in type 2 diabetes.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tissue-specific self-antigens are ectopically expressed within the thymus and play an important role in the induction of central tolerance. Insulin is expressed in both pancreatic islets and the thymus and is considered to be the primary antigen for type 1 diabetes. Here, we report the role of the insulin transactivator MafA in the expression of insulin in the thymus and susceptibility to type 1 diabetes.
The expression profiles of transcriptional factors (Pdx1, NeuroD, Mafa, and Aire) in pancreatic islets and the thymus were examined in nonobese diabetic (NOD) and control mice. Thymic Ins2 expression and serum autoantibodies were examined in Mafa knockout mice. Luciferase reporter assay was performed for newly identified polymorphisms of mouse Mafa and human MAFA. A case-control study was applied for human MAFA polymorphisms.
Mafa, Ins2, and Aire expression was detected in the thymus. Mafa expression was lower in NOD thymus than in the control and was correlated with Ins2 expression. Targeted disruption of MafA reduced thymic Ins2 expression and induced autoantibodies against pancreatic islets. Functional polymorphisms of MafA were newly identified in NOD mice and humans, and polymorphisms of human MAFA were associated with susceptibility to type 1 diabetes but not to autoimmune thyroid disease.
These data indicate that functional polymorphisms of MafA are associated with reduced expression of insulin in the thymus and susceptibility to type 1 diabetes in the NOD mouse as well as human type 1 diabetes.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Diabetogenic loci for type 2 diabetes have been mapped to mouse chromosome (Chr) 11 and 14 in the Nagoya-Shibata-Yasuda (NSY) mouse, an animal model of type 2 diabetes. We aimed to obtain direct evidence of these genes on each chromosome and to clarify their function and interaction in conferring susceptibility to type 2 diabetes.
We established three consomic strains homozygous for diabetogenic NSY-Chr11, NSY-Chr14 or both on the control C3H background (C3H-11(NSY), C3H-14(NSY) and C3H-11(NSY)14(NSY), respectively), and monitored diabetes-related phenotypes longitudinally. The glucokinase gene was sequenced as a positional candidate gene on Chr11.
C3H-11(NSY) mice showed hyperglycaemia associated with impaired insulin secretion and age-dependent insulin resistance without obesity. C3H-14(NSY) mice exhibited hyperglycaemia mainly due to insulin resistance, with a slight increase in percentage body fat. C3H-11(NSY)14(NSY) double consomic mice showed marked hyperglycaemia and obesity, which was not observed in single consomic strains. Sequences of the glucokinase gene were allelically variant between NSY and C3H mice.
These data provide direct evidence that Chr11 and Chr14 harbour major susceptibility genes for type 2 diabetes. These two chromosomes interact to cause more severe hyperglycaemia and obesity, which was not observed with the presence of either single chromosome, indicating different modes of gene-gene interaction depending on the phenotype. Marked changes in the phenotypes retained in the consomic strains will facilitate fine mapping and the identification of the responsible genes and their interaction with each other, other genes and environmental factors.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is currently recognized as a global health issue and encompasses a wide spectrum of entities, ranging from simple hepatic steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). The lack of a spontaneous animal model of NASH, however, has hampered basic research in this field.
We examined the hepatic lesions in the inbred Fatty Liver Shionogi (FLS) mouse, which exhibits type 2 diabetes, and investigated the molecular mechanism leading to NAFLD/NASH. Using vector-mediated hepatic expression of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP), a key molecule for very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) assembly and export, its contribution to the hepatic lesions as well as to glucose intolerance was examined.
The FLS mouse, maintained on normal chow, exhibited excessive hepatic triglyceride (TG) accumulation due to impaired VLDL secretion, and subsequently hepatic lesions comparable to NASH, with increased expression of inflammatory molecules as well as insulin resistance. Gene expression and Western blot analyses demonstrated reduced hepatic expression of MTP in the FLS mouse. Hepatic induction of MTP resulted in a reduction in hepatic TG accumulation, improvement of VLDL export, and amelioration of NASH-like lesions, as well as glucose intolerance.
These data suggest that the FLS mouse could serve as a spontaneous model of NASH with insulin resistance, and that reduced MTP is involved in the development of NASH, pointing towards MTP as a critical target for the prevention and treatment of NASH.
Journal of Hepatology 03/2010; 52(6):903-12. · 9.86 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To test fasting glucose association at four loci recently identified or verified by genome-wide association (GWA) studies of European populations, we performed a replication study in two Asian populations.
We genotyped five common variants previously reported in Europeans: rs1799884 (GCK), rs780094 (GCKR), rs560887 (G6PC2-ABCB11) and both rs1387153 and rs10830963 (MTNR1B) in the general Japanese (n = 4,813) and Sri Lankan (n = 2,319) populations. To identify novel variants, we further examined genetic associations near each locus by using GWA scan data on 776 non-diabetic Japanese samples.
Fasting glucose association was replicated for the five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at p < 0.05 (one-tailed test) in South Asians (Sri Lankan) as well as in East Asians (Japanese). In fine-mapping by GWA scan data, we identified in the G6PC2-ABCB11 region a novel SNP, rs3755157, with significant association in Japanese (p = 2.6 x 10(-8)) and Sri Lankan (p = 0.001) populations. The strength of association was more prominent at rs3755157 than that of the original SNP rs560887, with allelic heterogeneity detected between the SNPs. On analysing the cumulative effect of associated SNPs, we found the per-allele gradients (beta = 0.055 and 0.069 mmol/l in Japanese and Sri Lankans, respectively) to be almost equivalent to those reported in Europeans.
Fasting glucose association at four tested loci was proven to be replicable across ethnic groups. Despite this overall consistency, ethnic diversity in the pattern and strength of linkage disequilibrium certainly exists and can help to appreciably reduce potential causal variants after GWA studies.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We sought to clarify similarities and differences in the contribution of HLA to genetic susceptibility to three subtypes of type 1 diabetes: acute-onset, fulminant and slowly progressive.
We genotyped 545 Japanese patients with type 1 diabetes (338 acute-onset, 80 fulminant, 127 slowly progressive) and 396 control participants at HLA-DRB1, -DQB1, -A, -B and -C, and at 101 candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in an 8.5 Mb region of the extended HLA.
DRB1*0405-DQB1*0401, DRB1*0802-DQB1*0302 and DRB1*0901-DQB1*0303 were associated with acute-onset type 1 diabetes, with the DRB1*0405-DQB1*0401/DRB1*0802-DQB1*0302 genotype achieving the highest odds ratio of 42.7. DRB1*1501-DQB1*0602 and DRB1*1502-DQB1*0601 were negatively associated with acute-onset type 1 diabetes. A similar tendency was observed for slowly progressive type 1 diabetes. In contrast, only DRB1*0405-DQB1*0401 was associated with fulminant type 1 diabetes, with the DRB1*0405-DQB1*0401/DRB1*0405-DQB1*0401 genotype showing the highest odds ratio of 11.2. DRB1*0802-DQB1*0302, DRB1*0405-DQB1*0401/DRB1*0802-DQB1*0302 and DRB1*1501-DQB1*0602 were not associated with fulminant type 1 diabetes. The association of class I alleles and a panel of SNPs in an extended HLA region with fulminant type 1 diabetes was also different from that seen for the acute-onset and slowly progressive forms. The presence of both one and two susceptible haplotypes conferred susceptibility to slowly progressive type 1 diabetes, whereas the presence of two susceptible haplotypes was required to confer susceptibility to acute-onset and fulminant type 1 diabetes.
These data suggest that HLA associations with fulminant type 1 diabetes are qualitatively different from those with other subtypes of type 1 diabetes, whereas the HLA contribution to slowly progressive type 1 diabetes is qualitatively similar to, but quantitatively different from, that in acute-onset type 1 diabetes.