C Pozzilli

Sapienza University of Rome, Roma, Latium, Italy

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Publications (308)1243.19 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to perform a third cognitive assessment in our pediatric-onset multiple sclerosis (MS) patient cohort and determine predictors of the individual cognitive outcome. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25217060
    Neurology 09/2014; · 8.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose To determine if high-intensity, task-oriented, visual feedback training with a video game balance board (Nintendo Wii) induces significant changes in diffusion-tensor imaging (DTI) parameters of cerebellar connections and other supratentorial associative bundles and if these changes are related to clinical improvement in patients with multiple sclerosis. Materials and Methods The protocol was approved by local ethical committee; each participant provided written informed consent. In this 24-week, randomized, two-period crossover pilot study, 27 patients underwent static posturography and brain magnetic resonance (MR) imaging at study entry, after the first 12-week period, and at study termination. Thirteen patients started a 12-week training program followed by a 12-week period without any intervention, while 14 patients received the intervention in reverse order. Fifteen healthy subjects also underwent MR imaging once and underwent static posturography. Virtual dissection of white matter tracts was performed with streamline tractography; values of DTI parameters were then obtained for each dissected tract. Repeated measures analyses of variance were performed to evaluate whether DTI parameters significantly changed after intervention, with false discovery rate correction for multiple hypothesis testing. Results There were relevant differences between patients and healthy control subjects in postural sway and DTI parameters (P < .05). Significant main effects of time by group interaction for fractional anisotropy and radial diffusivity of the left and right superior cerebellar peduncles were found (F2,23 range, 5.555-3.450; P = .036-.088 after false discovery rate correction). These changes correlated with objective measures of balance improvement detected at static posturography (r = -0.381 to 0.401, P < .05). However, both clinical and DTI changes did not persist beyond 12 weeks after training. Conclusion Despite the low statistical power (35%) due to the small sample size, the results showed that training with the balance board system modified the microstructure of superior cerebellar peduncles. The clinical improvement observed after training might be mediated by enhanced myelination-related processes, suggesting that high-intensity, task-oriented exercises could induce favorable microstructural changes in the brains of patients with multiple sclerosis. © RSNA, 2014 Online supplemental material is available for this article.
    Radiology 08/2014; · 6.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Accurate clinical course descriptions (phenotypes) of multiple sclerosis (MS) are important for communication, prognostication, design and recruitment of clinical trials, and treatment decision-making. Standardized descriptions published in 1996 based on a survey of international MS experts provided purely clinical phenotypes based on data and consensus at that time, but imaging and biological correlates were lacking. Increased understanding of MS and its pathology, coupled with general concern that the original descriptors may not adequately reflect more recently identified clinical aspects of the disease, prompted a re-examination of MS disease phenotypes by the International Advisory Committee on Clinical Trials of MS. While imaging and biological markers that might provide objective criteria for separating clinical phenotypes are lacking, we propose refined descriptors that include consideration of disease activity (based on clinical relapse rate and imaging findings) and disease progression. Strategies for future research to better define phenotypes are also outlined. Open access full paper at //www.neurology.org/content/83/3/278.abstract
    Neurology 05/2014; · 8.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Most of Multiple Sclerosis (MS) patients undergo disease modifying drug (DMD) therapy at childbearing age. The objective of this prospective, collaborative study, was to assess outcomes of pregnancies fathered by MS patients undergoing DMD.
    BMC Neurology 05/2014; 14(1):114. · 2.56 Impact Factor
  • Journal of neurology, neurosurgery, and psychiatry 04/2014; · 4.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In patients with relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) fingolimod prevents disease relapses and delays disability progression. First dose administration of fingolimod is associated with a transient, dose-dependent decrease in heart rate (HR) in the 6 hours after drug intake.The aim of the study is to to assess safety and tolerability of the first dose of fingolimod in a cohort of Italian patients with RRMS without alternative therapeutic options. Open-label, single arm, multicentre study. After the first dose of fingolimod, patients were observed for 6 hours and had their vital signs monitored hourly. Extended on-site monitoring was provided when required. Of the 906 patients enrolled in the study, most (95.2%) did not experience any adverse event (AE) following fingolimod administration. Cardiovascular AEs occurred in 18 patients and included bradycardia (1.3%), first-and second-degree atrioventricular block (0.1% and 0.2%), palpitations (0.1%), sinus arrhythmia (0.1%) and ventricular premature beats (0.1%). All events were self-limiting and did not require any intervention. Extended monitoring was required in 34 patients. These results, in a population who better resembled real-world clinical practice in terms of concomitant diseases and medications, are consistent with previous clinical trials and confirmed that the first dose administration of fingolimod is generally safe and well tolerated.Trial registration: EudraCT 2011-000770-60.
    BMC Neurology 04/2014; 14(1):65. · 2.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-finding phase IIb study evaluated the efficacy and safety of ponesimod, an oral selective S1P1 receptor modulator, for the treatment of patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). 464 patients were randomised to receive once-daily oral ponesimod 10, 20 or 40 mg, or placebo for 24 weeks. The primary endpoint was the cumulative number of new T1 gadolinium-enhanced (T1 Gd+) lesions per patient recorded every 4 weeks from weeks 12 to 24 after study drug initiation. Secondary endpoints were the annualised confirmed relapse rate (ARR) and time to first confirmed relapse. Safety and tolerability were also evaluated. The mean cumulative number of new T1 Gd+ lesions at weeks 12-24 was significantly lower in the ponesimod 10 mg (3.5; rate ratio (RR) 0.57; p=0.0318), 20 mg (1.1; RR 0.17; p<0.0001) and 40 mg (1.4; RR 0.23; p<0.0001) groups compared with placebo (6.2). The mean ARR was lower with 40 mg ponesimod versus placebo, with a maximum reduction of 52% (0.25 vs 0.53; p=0.0363). The time to first confirmed relapse was increased with ponesimod compared with placebo. The proportion of patients with ≥1 treatment-emergent adverse events (AEs) was similar across ponesimod groups and the placebo group. Frequently reported AEs with higher incidence in the three ponesimod groups compared with placebo were anxiety, dizziness, dyspnoea, increased alanine aminotransferase, influenza, insomnia and peripheral oedema. Once-daily treatment with ponesimod 10, 20 or 40 mg significantly reduced the number of new T1 Gd+ lesions and showed a beneficial effect on clinical endpoints. Ponesimod was generally well tolerated, and further investigation of ponesimod for the treatment of RMMS is under consideration. NCT01006265.
    Journal of neurology, neurosurgery, and psychiatry 03/2014; · 4.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: To investigate whether clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) outcomes of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) who required a reduction of administration frequency of interferon-beta (IFNB) were similar to those of patients who did not. Methods: We identified three subgroups of patients under treatment for 24 months with subcutaneous (sc) high-frequency IFNB-1a or -1b: those continuing to receive IFNB according to the drug label (recommended frequency group), those reducing the administration frequency of sc IFNB-1a or -1b (reduced frequency group), and those switched to once weekly intramuscular (im) IFNB (switched group). All patients were followed for further 24 months. The occurrence of relapse, MRI activity and disability worsening were considered as outcome measures. Results: We identified 308 patients, 201 in the recommended frequency group, 70 in the reduced frequency group, and 37 in the switched group. Patients in the reduced frequency group had increased risk for relapses (HR = 1.95, p < 0.001) and MRI activity (HR = 1.41, p < 0.001), while patients in the switched group had increased risk for relapses (HR = 1.67, p = 0.012), but not for MRI activity (HR = 1.26, p = 0.08) than those in the recommended frequency group. Predictors for disease activity re-start after the reduction of IFNB administration frequency were younger age, higher pre-IFNB relapse rate, and reducing sc IFNB frequency to twice weekly rather than switching to im IFNB-1a once weekly. Conclusion: Our findings discourage the reduction of sc IFNB administration frequency, especially in younger patients with a higher pre-IFNB relapse rate. However, switching to im IFNB-1a may be considered in some selected cases. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    European Neurology 01/2014; 71(5-6):135-143. · 1.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose To investigate, by using resting-state (RS) functional magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, thalamocortical functional connectivity (FC) and its correlations with cognitive impairment in multiple sclerosis (MS). Materials and Methods All subjects provided written informed consent; the study protocol was approved by the university institutional review board for this HIPAA-compliant study. Forty-eight patients with relapsing-remitting MS and 24 control subjects underwent multimodal MR imaging, including diffusion-tensor imaging, three-dimensional (3D) T1-weighted imaging, and functional MR imaging at rest and a neuropsychological examination with the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT). Functional MR imaging data were analyzed with tools from FMRIB Software Library, by using the seed-based method to identify the thalamic RS network (RSN). Results When compared with control subjects, patients showed gray matter and white matter atrophy, as well as diffusion-tensor imaging abnormalities (P < .01). Patients displayed significantly greater synchronization than control subjects in the cerebellum; basal ganglia; hippocampus; cingulum; and temporo-occipital, insular, frontal, and parietal cortices. They also exhibited significantly lower synchronization in the thalamus; cerebellum; cingulum; and insular, prefrontal, and parieto-occipital cortices (cluster level, P < .05, corrected for familywise error [FWE]). In patients, the PASAT score at 3 seconds significantly inversely correlated with the thalamus, cerebellum, and some cortical areas in all cerebral lobes; the PASAT score at 2 seconds significantly correlated, even more strongly, with all the aforementioned regions and, in addition, with the cingulum and the left hippocampus (cluster level, P < .05, corrected for FWE). Conclusion Thalamic RSN is disrupted in MS, and decreased performance in cognitive testing is associated with increased thalamocortical FC, thus suggesting that neuroplasticity changes are unable to compensate for tissue damage and to prevent cognitive dysfunction. © RSNA, 2014.
    Radiology 01/2014; · 6.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to identify the main factors that impact mobility impairment in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients in Italy. Clinicians from a large number of Italian MS centers took part in a Delphi process aimed at obtaining consensus statements among the participants. Large consensus was obtained for statements grouped under the following main MS themes: identification of the most useful scales to evaluate mobility, integration of objective evaluation with patient perceptions, impact of walking impairment on daily life, management of the disabled patient using a rehabilitative and pharmacological approach. The consensus statements developed by a large number of experts may be used as a practical reference tool to help physicians treat MS patients with motor impairment.
    Journal of Neurology 01/2014; · 3.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report a 14-week post-marketing experience on 20 patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) who started prolonged-release (PR) oral dalfampridine 10 mg twice daily according to European Medicine Agency criteria. They underwent serial static posturography assessments and the dizziness handicap inventory (DHI) to investigate whether PR dalfampridine could impact standing balance and self-reported perception of balance. The incidence of accidental falls per person per month was also recorded throughout the study. Eight (40%) patients, who had a relevant improvement in walking speed, were defined as treatment responders. They showed a significant improvement of standing balance (with respect to pretreatment assessment) when contrasted with 12 (60%) nonresponders (F [4,15] = 3.959, P = 0.027). No significant changes in DHI score, as well as in its functional, physical, and emotional subscales, were found in both responders and nonresponders at the end of study (all P values are ≥0.2). Treatment response did not affect the incidence of accidental falls. Future studies based on larger sample sizes, and with longer followup, are required to confirm the beneficial effect of PR dalfampridine on standing balance.
    Multiple sclerosis international. 01/2014; 2014:802307.
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    ABSTRACT: Interferon beta (IFNβ) was the first specific disease-modifying treatment licensed for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, and is still one of the most commonly prescribed treatments. A strong body of evidence supports the effectiveness of IFNβ preparations in reducing the annual relapse rate, magnetic resonance (MRI) disease activity and disease progression. However, the development of binding/neutralizing antibodies (BAbs/NAbs) during treatment negatively affects clinical and MRI outcomes. Therefore, guidelines for the clinical use for the detection of NAbs in MS may result in better treatment of these patients. In October 2012, a panel of Italian neurologists from 17 MS clinics convened in Milan to review and discuss data on NAbs and their clinical relevance in the treatment of MS. In this paper, we report the panel's recommendations for the use of IFNβ Nabs detection in the early identification of IFNβ non-responsiveness and the management of patients on IFNβ treatment in Italy, according to a model of therapeutically appropriate care.
    Neurological Sciences 12/2013; · 1.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) effects after clinically isolated syndromes (CIS). In a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, participants were randomly assigned to receive BCG or placebo and monitored monthly with brain MRI (6 scans). Both groups then entered a preplanned phase with IM interferon-β-1a for 12 months. From month 18 onward, the patients took the disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) that their neurologist considered indicated in an open-label extension phase lasting up to 60 months. Of 82 randomized subjects, 73 completed the study (33 vaccinated and 40 placebo). During the initial 6 months, the number of cumulative lesions was significantly lower in vaccinated people. The relative risks were 0.541 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.308-0.956; p = 0.03) for gadolinium-enhancing lesions (the primary endpoint), 0.364 (95% CI 0.207-0.639; p = 0.001) for new and enlarging T2-hyperintense lesions, and 0.149 (95% CI 0.046-0.416; p = 0.001) for new T1-hypointense lesions. The number of total T1-hypointense lesions was lower in the BCG group at months 6, 12, and 18: mean changes from baseline were -0.09 ± 0.72 vs 0.75 ± 1.81 (p = 0.01), 0.0 ± 0.83 vs 0.88 ± 2.21 (p = 0.08), and -0.21 ± 1.03 vs 1.00 ± 2.49 (p = 0.02). After 60 months, the cumulative probability of clinically definite multiple sclerosis was lower in the BCG + DMT arm (hazard ratio = 0.52, 95% CI 0.27-0.99; p < 0.05), and more vaccinated people remained DMT-free (odds ratio = 0.20, 95% CI 0.04-0.93; p = 0.04). Early BCG may benefit CIS and affect its long-term course. BCG, as compared to placebo, was associated with significantly reduced development of gadolinium-enhancing lesions in people with CIS for a 6-month period before starting immunomodulating therapy (Class I evidence).
    Neurology 12/2013; · 8.25 Impact Factor
  • Carlo Pozzilli
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    ABSTRACT: Although spasticity of varying severity affects up to 80% of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) during the course of their disease, the symptom is often overlooked and undertreated. Despite the availability of oral antispasticity treatments (baclofen, tizanidine and others), approximately one-third of MS patients in Europe and the USA experience moderate or severe nonfocalized spasticity. At present, a thorough clinical evaluation of MS-related spasticity that takes into account the patient's own perception of spasms, spasticity-related pain and other associated symptoms is not common in daily neurological practice. Some of the usual spasticity scales, such as the Ashworth and modified Ashworth scales, reflect the observer's measurement of spasticity at a particular point in time. Herbal (smoked) cannabis has long been recognized as a possible option for relief of spasticity and neuropathic pain, but pertinent concerns about psychoactive effects and addiction risk have prevented its common use. An innovative method of benefiting from the mode of action of cannabinoids while limiting their drawbacks is to reduce peak plasma levels of 9-delta-tetrahydrocannabinol and counteract psychoactivity with higher than naturally occurring proportions of a second cannabinoid, cannabidiol. Sativex® oromucosal spray (1:1 ratio of 9-delta-tetrahydrocannabinol/cannabidiol) has recently been approved in a number of EU countries and elsewhere for use in patients with MS-related spasticity who are resistant to treatment with other antispasticity medications. In clinical trials, Sativex provided initial relief of spasticity symptoms within the first 4 weeks of treatment (trial period) in up to about half of patients resistant to other available oral antispasticity medications and demonstrated clinically significant improvement in spasticity (30% or higher reduction from baseline) in three-quarters of the initial responders. Adverse events were limited mainly to mild or moderate cases of somnolence and dizziness. Under everyday clinical practice conditions, Sativex at a mean daily dose of <7 sprays/day, was shown to relieve spasticity in about 70% of patients previously resistant to treatment. Clear improvements were also noted in associated symptoms such as sleep disturbances, bladder problems, loss of mobility and cramps. In large observational studies, >80% of patients reported no adverse events with the use of Sativex and interim data from safety registries in the UK and Spain indicate a low risk for serious adverse drug reactions. Follow-up studies in Sativex responders support continued benefit without the need to increase doses for at least 1 year. Sativex appears to be a promising solution for a meaningful proportion of patients with MS-related spasticity who have inadequate response to current antispasticity medications.
    Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics 12/2013; 13(12 Suppl):49-54. · 2.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Few studies have examined behavioural changes in the early phase of multiple sclerosis (MS). The aim of the study is to investigate mood alterations and to explore coping strategies regarding patients with clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) and relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS). The communication of diagnosis was made by one neurologist using a standardized approach. Depression, anxiety and coping questionnaires were filled in within 1 month from the diagnosis and at 3, 6, 12, 18 and 24 months subsequently. Thirty-nine patients were examined (11 CIS, 28 RRMS), also 39 healthy controls. At entry, patients showed a lower degree of hostile behaviour and a higher level of depression than the controls. At follow-up, a reduction in depression, anxiety and a better coping adjustment was observed. A higher reliance on 'Accepting responsibilities' coping score was seen in patients with higher levels of depression and anxiety. No significant differences were revealed by group comparisons between CIS and RRMS. This study highlights transient mood alterations and an improving of adaptive coping over a period of time in patients with CIS and RRMS. Similar emotional reactions and coping in clinical subgroups suggest that these factors are independent from the type of information provided during the communication of the diagnosis.
    Acta Neurologica Scandinavica 10/2013; · 2.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this paper is to investigate four-year outcomes of interferon beta (IFNB)-treated patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) according to their clinical or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) activity status at first year of treatment. A total of 370 patients with MS duration ≤5 years before IFNB start were followed-up for four years. The optimal threshold for one-year MRI activity that more accurately predicted subsequent relapses or disability worsening was identified. The risk of relapses and disability worsening after the first year was then estimated by propensity score (PS)-adjusted analyses in patients fulfilling European Medicines Agency (EMA) criteria for second-line escalation and in those with isolated MRI activity. A total of 192 (51.9%) patients relapsed, and 66 (17.8%) worsened in disability from year 1 to 4 of follow-up. The more accurate threshold for one-year MRI activity was the occurrence of ≥1 enhancing or ≥2 new T2-lesions. An increased risk of relapses and disability worsening was found in either patients fulfilling EMA criteria (hazard ratio (HR) = 3.69, and HR = 6.02) and in those experiencing isolated MRI activity (HR = 3.15, and HR = 5.31) at first year of treatment, when compared with stable patients (all p values <0.001). The four-year outcomes of patients with isolated MRI activity did not differ from those fulfilling EMA criteria at first year of IFNB treatment.
    Multiple Sclerosis 09/2013; · 4.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: MRI is highly sensitive in detecting focal white matter lesions in multiple sclerosis (MS). For this reason, it has been formally included in the diagnostic workup of patients with clinically isolated syndromes suggestive of MS, through the definition of ad hoc sets of criteria to show disease dissemination in space and time. MRI is used in virtually all clinical trials of the disease as a surrogate measure of treatment response. Several guidelines have been published to help characterizing the imaging features on conventional MR sequences of "typical" MS lesions and work has also been performed to identify "red flags" which should alert the clinicians to exclude possible alternative conditions. Despite this, the application of the available guidelines and criteria in daily life clinical practice is still limited and varies among and within countries (including Italy) due to regulatory issues and heterogeneity of MRI facilities. It is crucial for neurologists and neuroradiologists to become familiar with these criteria to improve the quality of their diagnostic assessment. In patients with established MS, the main problem is to define standard procedures for monitoring the course of the disease and treatment response. This review aims at providing daily life guidelines to clinicians for a correct application of MRI in the workup of patients suspected of having MS as well as in the monitoring of disease evolution in those with established MS. It also offers clues for the standardization of MRI studies and relative reporting to be applied at a national level.
    Neurological Sciences 07/2013; · 1.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether balance deficit in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), as assessed with eyes opened (EO) and closed (EC), is associated with damage of different structures of the central nervous system (CNS). METHODS: Fifty patients with MS and 20 healthy controls (HCs) underwent static posturography to calculate the body's center of pressure displacement (COP path) with EO and EC. They were scanned using a 3.0T magnet to obtain PD/T2 and 3D-T1-weighted images of the brain and spinal cord. We determined the mid-sagittal cerebellum area (MSCA) and upper cervical cord cross-sectional area (UCCA). We also measured the patients' lesion volumes (T2-LVs) on the whole brain and at different infratentorial levels. RESULTS: MS patients had wider COP paths with both EO and EC (p < 0.001), and lower values in both MSCA (p = 0.01) and UCCA (p = 0.008) than HCs. The COP path with EO was associated with MSCA (Beta = - 0.58; p = 0.004) and T2-LV on middle cerebellar peduncles (Beta = 0.59; p = 0.002). The COP path with EC was associated with UCCA (Beta= - 22.74; p = 0.003) and brainstem T2-LV (Beta = 0.52; p = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Balance deficit in MS was related to atrophy of both the cerebellum and spinal cord, but the extent of COP path under the two different conditions (EO or EC) implied different patterns of damage in the CNS.
    Multiple Sclerosis 06/2013; · 4.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective:To determine if segmental muscle vibration and botulinum toxin-A injection, either alone or in combination, reduces spasticity in a sample of patients with multiple sclerosis.Design:Single-blind, randomized controlled trial.Setting:Physical medicine and rehabilitation outpatients service.Subjects:Forty-two patients affected by the secondary progressive form of multiple sclerosis randomized to group A (30 minutes of 120 Hz segmental muscle vibration over the rectus femoris and gastrocnemius medial and lateral, three per week, over a period of four weeks), group B (botulinum toxin in the rectus femoris, gastrocnemius medial and lateral and soleus, and segmental muscle vibration) and group C (botulinum toxin).Main measures:Modified Ashworth Scale at knee and ankle, and Fatigue Severity Scale. All the measurements were performed at baseline (T0), 10 weeks (T1) and 22 weeks (T2) postallocation.Results:Modified Ashworth Scale at knee and ankle significantly decreased over time (p < 0.001) in all groups. Patients in group C displayed a significant increase of knee and ankle spasticity at T2 when compared with T1 (p < 0.05). Fatigue Severity Scale values in groups A and C were significantly higher at T0 [A: 53.6 (2.31); C: 48.5 (2.77)] than at either T1 [A: 48.6 (2.21); p = 0.03; C: 43.5 (3.22); p = 0.03] or T2 [A: 46.7 (2.75); p = 0.02; 42.5 (2.17); p = 0.02], while no differences were detected in group B [T0: 43.4 (3.10); T1: 37.3 (3.15); T2: 39.7 (2.97)].Conclusion:Segmental muscle vibration and botulinum toxin-A reduces spasticity and improves fatigue in the medium-term follow-up in patients with multiple sclerosis.
    Clinical Rehabilitation 03/2013; · 2.19 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

5k Citations
1,243.19 Total Impact Points


  • 1987–2013
    • Sapienza University of Rome
      • • Department of Neurology and Psychiatry
      • • Department of Anatomical, Histological, Forensic Medicine and Orthopedic Science
      Roma, Latium, Italy
  • 2012
    • Sant´Andrea Hospital
      Roma, Latium, Italy
    • Fondazione Istituto San Raffaele G. Giglio di Cefalu
      Cefalù, Sicily, Italy
  • 2008–2012
    • University of Florence
      • Dipartimento di Neuroscienze, Psicologia, Area del Farmaco e Salute del Bambino
      Florens, Tuscany, Italy
    • London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine
      • Department of Medical Statistics
      London, ENG, United Kingdom
  • 1985–2012
    • The American University of Rome
      Roma, Latium, Italy
  • 2011
    • Università degli Studi del Sannio
      • Department of Biological Sciences
      Benevento, Campania, Italy
  • 1999–2011
    • San Raffaele Scientific Institute
      Milano, Lombardy, Italy
  • 2009
    • Università degli Studi di Bari Aldo Moro
      • Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche ed Oncologia Umana (DIMO)
      Bari, Apulia, Italy
    • University of Oxford
      • Oxford Centre for Functional MRI of the Brain (FMRIB Centre)
      Oxford, ENG, United Kingdom
    • University of Rome Tor Vergata
      Roma, Latium, Italy
  • 2006
    • Massachusetts General Hospital
      • Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging
      Boston, MA, United States
  • 2005
    • Università degli studi di Foggia
      Foggia, Apulia, Italy
  • 2004
    • Fondazione I.R.C.C.S. Istituto Neurologico Carlo Besta
      Milano, Lombardy, Italy
  • 2003
    • National Institutes of Health
      • Branch of Neuroimmunology and Virology
      Bethesda, MD, United States
  • 2002
    • Universitätsspital Basel
      • Neurobiology Unit
      Basel, BS, Switzerland
  • 2001–2002
    • University College London
      • Institute of Neurology
      London, ENG, United Kingdom
  • 1988–2002
    • University of Milan
      • Department of Neurological Sciences
      Milano, Lombardy, Italy
    • Tohoku University
      • Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center (CYRIC)
      Sendai, Kagoshima, Japan
    • National Institute of Radiological Sciences
      Tiba, Chiba, Japan
    • Istituto Nazionale Tumori "Fondazione Pascale"
      Napoli, Campania, Italy
  • 1998–1999
    • Università di Pisa
      Pisa, Tuscany, Italy