[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Autologous hematopoietic SCT (AHSCT) has been investigated in the past as a therapeutic alternative for multiple sclerosis (MS). Despite advances in clinical management, knowledge about mechanisms involved with clinical remission post transplantation is still limited. Abnormal microRNA and gene expression patterns were described in MS and have been suggested as disease biomarkers and potential therapeutic targets. Here we assessed T- and B-cell reconstitution, microRNAs and immunoregulatory gene expression after AHSCT. Early immune reconstitution was mainly driven by peripheral homeostatic proliferation. AHSCT increased CD4(+)CD25(hi)FoxP3(+) regulatory T-cell counts and expression of CTLA-4 and GITR (glucocorticoid-induced TNFR) on CD4(+)CD25(hi) T cells. We found transient increase in exhausted PD-1(+) T cells and of suppressive CD8(+)CD28(-)CD57(+) T cells. At baseline, CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells from MS patients presented upregulated miR-16, miR-155 and miR-142-3p and downregulated FOXP3, FOXO1, PDCD1 and IRF2BP2. After transplantation, the expression of FOXP3, FOXO1, PDCD1 and IRF2BP2 increased, reaching control levels at 2 years. Expression of miR-16, miR-155 and miR-142-3p decreased towards normal levels at 6 months post therapy, remaining downregulated until the end of follow-up. These data strongly suggest that AHSCT normalizes microRNA and gene expression, thereby improving the immunoregulatory network. These mechanisms may be important for disease control in the early periods after AHSCT.Bone Marrow Transplantation advance online publication, 8 December 2014; doi:10.1038/bmt.2014.277.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the present study, we searched for genes highly expressed in placenta and that could contribute to the establishment and maintenance of a malignant phenotype in different types of tumours, and in astrocytomas in particular. We employed a strategy based on the integration of in silico data from previously generated massively parallel signature sequencing and public serial analysis of gene expression databases. Among 12 selected genes, CD99 exhibited the highest relative mRNA expression in GBM compared to non-neoplastic brain tissues. In a larger cohort of astrocytic tumours, we further demonstrated increased CD99 expression in all malignant grades, with GBMs showing the highest values. These findings were confirmed at the protein level by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Additionally, we demonstrated the CD99 localisation profile in astrocytic tumours. Interestingly, CD99 expression was confined to the cytoplasm or membrane in more malignant astrocytomas, in contrast to non-neoplastic brain tissue or non-infiltrative pilocytic astrocytoma, which showed no obvious staining in these structures. Comparison of three GBM cell lines revealed higher CD99 expression at the membrane and higher migratory capacity in the A172 and U87MG lines, but lower CD99 expression and no migratory ability in the T98 line. Knocking down CD99 expression by siRNA decreased significantly the migration of both cell lines. These integrated CD99 gene and protein expression results suggest that CD99 expression in astrocytomas of different malignant grades might contribute to the infiltrative ability and support the importance of CD99 as a potential target to reduce infiltrative astrocytoma capacity in migration and invasion.
Journal of Neuro-Oncology 05/2014; · 3.12 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The majority of Osteogenesis Imperfecta (OI) cases are caused by mutations in one of the two genes, COL1A1 and COL1A2 encoding for the two chains that trimerize to form the procollagen 1 molecule. However, alterations in gene expression and microRNAs (miRNAs) are responsible for the regulation of cell fate determination and may be evolved in OI phenotype.
In this work, we analyzed the coding region and intron/exon boundaries of COL1A1 and COL1A2 genes by sequence analysis using an ABI PRISM 3130 automated sequencer and Big Dye Terminator Sequencing protocol. COL1A1 and miR-29b expression were also evaluated during the osteoblastic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) by qRT-PCR using an ABI7500 Sequence Detection System.
We have identified eight novel mutations, where of four may be responsible for OI phenotype. COL1A1 and miR-29b showed lower expression values in OI type I and type III samples. Interestingly, one type III OI sample from a patient with Bruck Syndrome showed COL1A1 and miR-29b expressions alike those from normal samples.
Results suggest that the miR-29b mechanism directed to regulate collagen protein accumulation during mineralization is dependent upon the amount of COL1A1 mRNA. Taken together, results indicate that the lower levels observed in OI samples were not sufficient for the induction of miR-29b.
BMC Medical Genetics 04/2014; 15(1):45. · 2.54 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The rubber tree, Hevea brasiliensis, is a species native to the Brazilian Amazon region and it supplies almost all the world's natural rubber, a strategic raw material for a variety of products. One of the major challenges for developing rubber tree plantations is adapting the plant to biotic and abiotic stress. Transcriptome analysis is one of the main approaches for identifying the complete set of active genes in a cell or tissue for a specific developmental stage or physiological condition.
Here, we report on the sequencing, assembling, annotation and screening for molecular markers from a pool of H. brasiliensis tissues. A total of 17,166 contigs were successfully annotated. Then, 2,191 Single Nucleotide Variation (SNV) and 1.397 Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) loci were discriminated from the sequences. From 306 putative, mainly non-synonymous SNVs located in CDS sequences, 191 were checked for their ability to characterize 23 Hevea genotypes by an allele-specific amplification technology. For 172 (90%), the nucleotide variation at the predicted genomic location was confirmed, thus validating the different steps from sequencing to the in silico detection of the SNVs.
This is the first study of the H. brasiliensis transcriptome, covering a wide range of tissues and organs, leading to the production of the first developed SNP markers. This process could be amplified to a larger set of in silico detected SNVs in expressed genes in order to increase the marker density in available and future genetic maps. The results obtained in this study will contribute to the H. brasiliensis genetic breeding program focused on improving of disease resistance and latex yield.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective : The Brazilian population has heterogeneous ethnicity. No previous study evaluated NR3C1 polymorphisms in a Brazilian healthy population. Materials and methods : We assessed NR3C1 polymorphisms in Brazilians of Caucasian, African and Asian ancestry (n = 380). In a subgroup (n = 40), we compared the genotypes to glucocorticoid (GC) sensitivity, which was previously evaluated by plasma (PF) and salivary (SF) cortisol after dexamethasone (DEX) suppression tests, GC receptor binding affinity (K d ), and DEX-50% inhibition (IC 50 ) of concanavalin-A-stimulated mononuclear cell proliferation. p.N363S (rs6195), p.ER22/23EK (rs6189-6190), and BclI (rs41423247) allelic discrimination was performed by Real-Time PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction). Exons 3 to 9 and exon/intron boundaries were amplified by PCR and sequenced. Results : Genotypic frequencies (%) were: rs6195 (n = 380; AA:96.6/AG:3.14/GG:0.26), rs6189-6190 (n = 264; GG:99.6/GA:0.4), rs41423247 (n = 264; CC:57.9/CG:34.1/GG:8.0), rs6188 (n = 155; GG:69.6/GT:25.7/TT:4.7), rs258751 (n = 150; CC:88.0/CT:10.7/TT:1.3), rs6196 (n = 176; TT:77.2/TC:20.4/CC:2.4), rs67300719 (n = 137; CC:99.3/CT:0.7), and rs72542757 (n = 137; CC:99.3/CG:0.7). The rs67300719 and rs72542757 were found only in Asian descendants, in whom p.N363S and p.ER22/23EK were absent. The p.ER22/23EK was observed exclusively in Caucasian descendants. Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was observed, except in the Asian for rs6188 and rs258751, and in the African for p.N363S. The K d , IC 50 , baseline and after DEX PF or SF did not differ between genotype groups. However, the mean DEX dose that suppressed PF or SF differed among the BclI genotypes (P = 0.03). DEX dose was higher in GG- (0.7 ± 0.2 mg) compared to GC- (0.47 ± 0.2 mg) and CC-carriers (0.47 ± 0.1 mg). Conclusion : The genotypic frequencies of NR3C1 polymorphisms in Brazilians are similar to worldwide populations. Additionally, the BclI polymorphism was associated with altered pituitary-adrenal axis GC sensitivity.
Arquivos brasileiros de endocrinologia e metabologia 02/2014; 58(1):53-61. · 0.68 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hotair is a member of the recently described class of non-coding RNAs called lincRNA (large intergenic noncoding RNA). Various studies suggest that Hotair acts regulating epigenetic states by recruiting chromatin-modifying complexes to specific target sequences that ultimately leads to suppression of several genes. Although Hotair has been associated with metastasis and poor prognosis in different tumor types, a deep characterization of its functions in cancer is still needed. Here we investigated the role of Hotair in the scenario of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and in the arising and maintenance of cancer stem cells (CSC). We found that treatment with TGF-β1 resulted in increased Hotair expression and triggered the EMT program. Interestingly, ablation of Hotair expression by siRNA prevented the EMT program stimulated by TGF- β1, and also the colony forming capacity of colon and breast cancer cells. Further, we observed that the colon CSC subpopulation (CD133(+) /CD44(+) ) presents much higher levels of Hotair when compared to the non-stem cell subpopulation. These results indicate that Hotair acts as a key regulator that controls the multiple signaling mechanisms involved in EMT. Altogether, our data suggest that the role of Hotair in tumorigenesis occurs through EMT triggering and stemness acquisition. Stem Cells 2013.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The use of the knowledge produced by sciences to promote human health is the main goal of translational medicine. To make it feasible we need computational methods to handle the large amount of information that arises from bench to bedside and to deal with its heterogeneity. A computational challenge that must be faced is to promote the integration of clinical, socio-demographic and biological data. In this effort, ontologies play an essential role as a powerful artifact for knowledge representation. Chado is a modular ontology-oriented database model that gained popularity due to its robustness and flexibility as a generic platform to store biological data; however it lacks supporting representation of clinical and socio-demographic information. RESULTS: We have implemented an extension of Chado -- the Clinical Module - to allow the representation of this kind of information. Our approach consists of a framework for data integration through the use of a common reference ontology. The design of this framework has four levels: data level, to store the data; semantic level, to integrate and standardize the data by the use of ontologies; application level, to manage clinical databases, ontologies and data integration process; and web interface level, to allow interaction between the user and the system. The clinical module was built based on the Entity-Attribute-Value (EAV) model. We also proposed a methodology to migrate data from legacy clinical databases to the integrative framework.A Chado instance was initialized using a relational database management system. The Clinical Module was implemented and the framework was loaded using data from a factual clinical research database. Clinical and demographic data as well as biomaterial data were obtained from patients with tumors of head and neck. We implemented the IPTrans tool that is a complete environment for data migration, which comprises: the construction of a model to describe the legacy clinical data, based on an ontology; the Extraction, Transformation and Load (ETL) process to extract the data from the source clinical database and load it in the Clinical Module of Chado; the development of a web tool and a Bridge Layer to adapt the web tool to Chado, as well as other applications. CONCLUSIONS: Open-source computational solutions currently available for translational science does not have a model to represent biomolecular information and also are not integrated with the existing bioinformatics tools. On the other hand, existing genomic data models do not represent clinical patient data. A framework was developed to support translational research by integrating biomolecular information coming from different "omics" technologies with patient's clinical and socio-demographic data. This framework should present some features: flexibility, compression and robustness. The experiments accomplished from a use case demonstrated that the proposed system meets requirements of flexibility and robustness, leading to the desired integration. The Clinical Module can be accessed in http://dcm.ffclrp.usp.br/caib/pg=iptrans.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We examined the expression of anti-apoptotic genes (XIAP and Bcl-2) and apoptotic genes (cytochrome c, caspase-9, Apaf-1) in tissue samples of patients with superficial bladder cancer. Thirty-two bladder cancer tissue samples (8 papillary urothelial neoplasm of low malignant potential, 10 low-grade, and 14 high-grade) and 8 normal bladder tissue samples from necropsy were used for the study of gene expression by real-time PCR analysis. Analysis of the expression of apoptotic gene constituents of an apoptosome demonstrated an increase in Apaf-1 expression in the three tumor grades when compared with the control (P < 0.01, P < 0.05, and P < 0.01), low expression of caspase-9 in all groups (P < 0.05), and an increase in cytochrome c expression in all tumor grades in relation to the control, although without statistically significant difference. The expression of anti-apoptotic genes revealed an increase in XIAP expression in all tumor grades in relation to the control, although without statistically significant difference, and low expression of Bcl-2 in all tumor grades and the control (P < 0.05). The results proved that there is low evidence of apoptotic activity by the intrinsic pathway, demonstrated by the low expression of caspase-9 and considerable increase in XIAP expression, which may render these genes potential therapeutic targets in bladder cancer treatment.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The emergence of next-generation sequencing technologies allowed access to the vast amounts of information that are contained in the human genome. This information has contributed to the understanding of individual and population-based variability and improved the understanding of the evolutionary history of different human groups. However, the genome of a representative of the Amerindian populations had not been previously sequenced. Thus, the genome of an individual from a South American tribe was completely sequenced to further the understanding of the genetic variability of Amerindians. A total of 36.8 giga base pairs (Gbp) were sequenced and aligned with the human genome. These Gbp corresponded to 95.92% of the human genome with an estimated miscall rate of 0.0035 per sequenced bp. The data obtained from the alignment were used for SNP (single-nucleotide) and INDEL (insertion-deletion) calling, which resulted in the identification of 502,017 polymorphisms, of which 32,275 were potentially new high-confidence SNPs and 33,795 new INDELs, specific of South Native American populations. The authenticity of the sample as a member of the South Native American populations was confirmed through the analysis of the uniparental (maternal and paternal) lineages. The autosomal comparison distinguished the investigated sample from others continental populations and revealed a close relation to the Eastern Asian populations and Aboriginal Australian. Although, the findings did not discard the classical model of America settlement; it brought new insides to the understanding of the human population history. The present study indicates a remarkable genetic variability in human populations that must still be identified and contributes to the understanding of the genetic variability of South Native American populations and of the human populations history.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(12):e83340. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: More than 50 mutations in the UBE3A gene (E6-AP ubiquitin protein ligase gene) have been found in Angelman syndrome patients with no deletion, no uniparental disomy, and no imprinting defect.Case Presentation: We here describe a novel UBE3A frameshift mutation in two siblings who have inherited it from their asymptomatic mother. Despite carrying the same UBE3A mutation, the proband shows a more severe phenotype whereas his sister shows a milder phenotype presenting the typical AS features. CONCLUSIONS: We hypothesized that the mutation Leu125Stop causes both severe and milder phenotypes. Potential mechanisms include: i) maybe the proband has an additional problem (genetic or environmental) besides the UBE3A mutation; ii) since the two siblings have different fathers, the UBE3A mutation is interacting with a different genetic variant in the proband that, by itself, does not cause problems but in combination with the UBE3A mutation causes the severe phenotype; iii) this UBE3A mutation alone can cause either typical AS or the severe clinical picture seen in the proband.
BMC Medical Genetics 12/2012; 13(1):124. · 2.54 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Several studies have suggested that changes in hippocampal, prefrontal cortex and amygdaloid complex function are associated with the main symptoms of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Predator exposure can mimic some aspects of PSTD such as hyperarousal and chronic anxiety. However, little is known about the neural substrate involved in this model. Synaptophysin (SYP) expression has been used to evaluate synaptic plastic changes while cannabinoids have emerged as a therapeutic target for the treatment of stress- and anxiety-related disorders. The present work evaluated whether the long lasting behavioral effects evoked by predator exposure are associated to long-term changes in the expression of the Cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) and the synaptic protein SYP in brain areas related to the genesis of PTSD symptoms (frontal cortex, hippocampus and amygdaloid complex). Male Wistar rats were exposed to a live or a dummy cat and seven days later submitted to the elevated plus maze test. To explore possible neurobiological mechanisms involved in these effects, CB1 receptor and SYP mRNA expression were measured in the hippocampus, frontal cortex and amygdaloid complex. Single predator exposure promoted long-lasting anxiogenic effects. Seven days after predator threat CB1 mRNA expression was down regulated in the frontal cortex and amygdaloid complex while SYP gene was up regulated in the amygdaloid complex. Our results suggested that predator exposure causes long-lasting anxiogenic effects associated with hyperactivation of amygdaloid complex and modulation of CB1 receptor in brain areas related to PTSD symptoms.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) is one of the most popular spices in the world. It is used in cooking and the preservation of food and even has medicinal properties. Losses in production from disease are a major limitation in the culture of this crop. The major diseases are root rot and foot rot, which are results of root infection by Fusarium solani and Phytophtora capsici, respectively. Understanding the molecular interaction between the pathogens and the host's root region is important for obtaining resistant cultivars by biotechnological breeding. Genetic and molecular data for this species, though, are limited. In this paper, RNA-Seq technology has been employed, for the first time, to describe the root transcriptome of black pepper. RESULTS: The root transcriptome of black pepper was sequenced by the NGS SOLiD platform and assembled using the multiple-k method. Blast2Go and orthoMCL methods were used to annotate 10338 unigenes. The 4472 predicted proteins showed about 52% homology with the Arabidopsis proteome. Two root proteomes identified 615 proteins, which seem to define the plant's root pattern. Simple-sequence repeats were identified that may be useful in studies of genetic diversity and may have applications in biotechnology and ecology. CONCLUSIONS: This dataset of 10338 unigenes is crucially important for the biotechnological breeding of black pepper and the ecogenomics of the Magnoliids, a major group of basal angiosperms.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A high-fat (HF) diet, the serotonergic system and stromal elements have all been implicated in colon carcinogenesis. We investigated whether the colonic serotonergic system could play a main role in the development of colonic dysplasia and stromal reactivity in carcinogen-treated rats under HF diet. For this, dimethylhydrazine-treated rats were fed with standard diet and a HF diet. Fat distribution was quantified by computerized tomography exam, serotonergic activity was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography, gene expression, and immunohistochemistry, which along with histopathological technique enabled us to enumerate dysplasia, microvessels density, cell proliferation and COX-2 expression. We found that the HF diet induced an increase in the amount of visceral adipose tissue, even without expressive changes in the average body weight. This was correlated with a loss of serotonergic balance in colon tissue. Moreover, the HF diet promoted dysplasia and microvessel density in association with increased proliferation and COX-2 expression within pericryptal colonic stroma. Our current findings suggest that a HF diet promotes the enlargement of adipose tissue via loss of control in colon serotonergic activity, which enhances colonic dysplasia by supporting microvessel development.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The pathology of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RR-MS) is largely attributed to activated autoreactive effector T lymphocytes. The influence of microRNAs on the immune response has been shown to occur in different pathways of lymphocyte differentiation and function. Here, the expression of the miRNAs miR-15a/16-1 in PBMC, CD4(+), and CD8(+) from RR-MS patients has been investigated. BCL2, a known miR-15a/16-1 target, has also been analyzed. The results have shown that miR-15a/16-1 is downregulated in CD4(+) T cells, whereas BCL2 is highly expressed in RR-MS patients only. Our data suggest that miR-15a/16-1 can also modulate the BCL2 gene expression in CD4(+) T cells from RR-MS patients, thereby affecting apoptosis processes.
The International journal of neuroscience 04/2012; 122(8):466-71. · 0.86 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Genes involved in host-pathogen interactions are often strongly affected by positive natural selection. The Duffy antigen, coded by the Duffy antigen receptor for chemokines (DARC) gene, serves as a receptor for Plasmodium vivax in humans and for Plasmodium knowlesi in some nonhuman primates. In the majority of sub-Saharan Africans, a nucleic acid variant in GATA-1 of the gene promoter is responsible for the nonexpression of the Duffy antigen on red blood cells and consequently resistance to invasion by P. vivax. The Duffy antigen also acts as a receptor for chemokines and is expressed in red blood cells and many other tissues of the body. Because of this dual role, we sequenced a ~3,000-bp region encompassing the entire DARC gene as well as part of its 5' and 3' flanking regions in a phylogenetic sample of primates and used statistical methods to evaluate the nature of selection pressures acting on the gene during its evolution. We analyzed both coding and regulatory regions of the DARC gene. The regulatory analysis showed accelerated rates of substitution at several sites near known motifs. Our tests of positive selection in the coding region using maximum likelihood by branch sites and maximum likelihood by codon sites did not yield statistically significant evidence for the action of positive selection. However, the maximum likelihood test in which the gene was subdivided into different structural regions showed that the known binding region for P. vivax/P. knowlesi is under very different selective pressures than the remainder of the gene. In fact, most of the gene appears to be under strong purifying selection, but this is not evident in the binding region. We suggest that the binding region is under the influence of two opposing selective pressures, positive selection possibly exerted by the parasite and purifying selection exerted by chemokines.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The antidepressant fluoxetine has been under discussion because of its potential influence on cancer risk. It was found to inhibit the development of carcinogen-induced preneoplastic lesions in colon tissue, but the mechanisms of action are not well understood. Therefore, we investigated anti-proliferative effects, and used HT29 colon tumor cells in vitro, as well as C57BL/6 mice exposed to intra-rectal treatment with the carcinogen N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) as models. Fluoxetine increased the percentage of HT29 cells in the G(0)/G(1) phase of cell-cycle, and the expression of p27 protein. This was not related to an induction of apoptosis, reactive oxygen species or DNA damage. In vivo, fluoxetine reduced the development of MNNG-induced dysplasia and vascularization-related dysplasia in colon tissue, which was analyzed by histopathological techniques. An anti-proliferative potential of fluoxetine was observed in epithelial and stromal areas. It was accompanied by a reduction of VEGF expression and of the number of cells with angiogenic potential, such as CD133, CD34, and CD31-positive cell clusters. Taken together, our findings suggest that fluoxetine treatment targets steps of early colon carcinogenesis. This confirms its protective potential, explaining at least partially the lower colon cancer risk under antidepressant therapy.
PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(11):e50043. · 3.53 Impact Factor