Gaku Kusaba

Juntendo University, Edo, Tōkyō, Japan

Are you Gaku Kusaba?

Claim your profile

Publications (10)16.8 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN) is characterized by mesangial cell proliferation and mesangial expansion with mesangial depositions of IgA. We have found that electron-dense deposits (EDD) are often observed in areas other than paramesangial areas in glomeruli. To compare electron microscopic findings with light microscopic findings and clinical data, we examined the biopsies from 178 patients with IgAN. Patients were divided into two groups: group A had only paramesangial deposits and group B had deposits not only in paramesangial areas but also in other areas. All patients examined in this study had EDD in glomerular paramesangial areas. Thirty-six patients were included in group B. Cellular crescent formation in glomeruli and urinary protein in group B were significantly higher than those in group A (P < 0.01). Serum albumin and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in group B were significantly lower than those in group A (P < 0.05). Group B showed a significant positive correlation with histological severity, which is defined in the Japanese Clinical Guidelines on IgAN. In patients with broad distribution of EDD, urinary protein was significantly increased (P < 0.05). Detailed observation of EDD distribution has an impact on evaluation of the disease activity of IgAN.
    Medical Molecular Morphology 12/2012; 45(1):29-34. · 1.17 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background The aim of the present study was to explore the significance of extraglomerular (Bowman's capsule and/or arteriole) C3 (ex-C3) deposits in IgA nephropathy (IgAN).Methods One hundred and seventy patients with IgAN were divided into two groups: Group A (n = 79), patients who did not have ex-C3 deposits, and Group B (n = 91), patients who had ex-C3 deposits.ResultsAt the time of renal biopsy, Group B was characterized by a marked increase in diastolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, triglyceride and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol compared with those of Group A. After 4 years, the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in Group B was significantly worse than that of Group A. Upon examination by electron microscopy, the arteriolar dense deposits in Group B were found to occur in significantly higher amounts than in Group A. One hundred and thirty-four patients underwent a 3-year follow-up study after intervention and were re-divided by therapeutic factors as follows: 'conventional therapy', treatment with anti-hypertensive drugs and/or anti-platelet drugs, and 'aggressive therapy', additional treatment with either tonsillectomy or corticosteroid. Patients treated with conventional therapy in Group B had significantly higher body mass index and levels of C3 and CH50 compared with other Groups. Aggressive therapy was significantly effective in urinary protein reduction in both Group A and Group B. Except for the patients who received aggressive therapy in Group A, the levels of the eGFR gradually declined.Conclusions It appears that IgAN patients who have ex-C3 deposits have worse clinical outcomes.
    Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation 07/2012; · 3.37 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Accurate estimation of the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is very important in clinical practice. Although renal inulin clearance (Cin) is the gold standard for measuring GFR, the procedure for Cin measurement is complicated. Use of GFR-estimating equations has been increasing recently due to their simplicity. The objectives of the present study are to analyze the correlation between Cin and other GFR-estimating parameters and to investigate their clinical usefulness and limitation. Seventy-two Japanese patients were enrolled in this study. Cin was measured by the continuous infusion method. Serum creatinine (s-Cr), cystatin C, uric acid (UA), and hemoglobin (Hb) were measured. The Japanese formula of estimated GFR (eGFR) was as follows: eGFR (ml/min/1.73m(2) ) = 194 × s-Cr(-1.094) × Age(-0.287) × 0.739 (if female). The endogenous creatinine clearance test was also performed. Levels of Cin were highly correlated with those of endogenous creatinine clearance (Ccr) (R(2) = 0.7585) and eGFR (R(2) = 0.5659). However, patients with lower Cin showed unexpectedly elevated levels of endogenous Ccr and eGFR. Moreover, the levels of eGFR tended to be unexpectedly increased in patients with low body surface area. Although GFR-estimating equations are useful for estimating GFR accurately, they pose a risk of overestimation of kidney function in patients with decreased GFRor a poor physique.
    Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis 07/2012; 26(4):248-53. · 1.36 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Mannose-binding lectin (MBL), L-ficolin and MBL associated serine protease-2 (MASP-2) are molecules involved in initiation of the lectin pathway (LP) in the complement system. Although MBL deficiency is observed in almost 10% of healthy people, studies of associations between MBL deficiency and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) remain rare. The objective of the present study is to clarify the significance of the LP in maintenance hemodialysis (HD) patients, especially in terms of MBL levels. Two hundred and forty-four HD patients who had been followed up for 74±84months and 199 healthy controls were included in this study. Measurements of serum concentrations of MBL, L-ficolin, and MASP-2 were performed. Low serum MBL levels (<0.1µg/mL) in the patients were confirmed by examination of a point mutation in the Mbl-2 gene. Seventeen HD patients (7%) and 20 healthy controls (10%) had MBL deficiency. During the follow-up period, 99 patients died. There was no significant difference in the frequency of deaths by infectious diseases between MBL deficient and non-deficient patients. In both patients and healthy controls with MBL deficiency, the serum concentration of L-ficolin tended to be high, and that of MASP-2 was significantly high (P<0.05). MBL deficiency is not a risk factor for HD induction or life-threatening infections. It is postulated that the elevation of concentration of the two components of the LP, L-ficolin and MASP-2, may compensate for the insufficient activity of the LP in MBL deficiency.
    Therapeutic apheresis and dialysis: official peer-reviewed journal of the International Society for Apheresis, the Japanese Society for Apheresis, the Japanese Society for Dialysis Therapy 10/2011; 15(5):441-7. · 1.53 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The objective of the present study was to elucidate the association between glomerular complement depositions belonging to the alternative (AP) and lectin (LP) pathways, and clinical findings of lupus nephritis (LN). Immunofluorescence (IF) was performed on 17 LN patients using antibodies against factor B, factor H, properdin, mannose-binding lectin (MBL) and L-ficolin. Compared with factor B/factor H negative patients (n = 9), positive patients (n = 8) showed longer duration of LN (p < 0.05) and more severe interstitial fibrosis (p < 0.05). Eleven patients had properdin deposition in glomeruli, and in three of them, with a duration of LN of less than 1 month, factor B was undetectable. Compared with properdin negative patients (n = 6), positive patients (n = 11) showed significantly higher urinary protein excretion (p < 0.01). MBL/L-ficolin positive patients (n = 11) also had significantly higher urinary protein excretion (p < 0.05) compared with negative patients (n = 6). An independent association was found between glomerular deposition of properdin and that of MBL/L-ficolin (p < 0.01) in addition to factor B/factor H. Traces of glomerular activation of AP and LP reflected the clinical status of LN. It appears that glomerular deposition of each complement component, especially properdin, may be an index of the histological activity of LN.
    Lupus 09/2011; 20(13):1378-86. · 2.78 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The objective of the present study was to elucidate the association between glomerular complement depositions belonging to the alternative (AP) and lectin (LP) pathways, and clinical findings of lupus nephritis (LN). Immunofluorescence (IF) was performed on 17 LN patients using antibodies against factor B, factor H, properdin, mannose-binding lectin (MBL) and L-ficolin. Compared with factor B/factor H negative patients (n = 9), positive patients (n = 8) showed longer duration of LN (p < 0.05) and more severe interstitial fibrosis (p < 0.05). Eleven patients had properdin deposition in glomeruli, and in three of them, with a duration of LN of less than 1 month, factor B was undetectable. Compared with properdin negative patients (n = 6), positive patients (n = 11) showed significantly higher urinary protein excretion (p < 0.01). MBL/L-ficolin positive patients (n = 11) also had significantly higher urinary protein excretion (p < 0.05) compared with negative patients (n = 6). An independent association was found between glomerular deposition of properdin and that of MBL/L-ficolin (p < 0.01) in addition to factor B/factor H. Traces of glomerular activation of AP and LP reflected the clinical status of LN. It appears that glomerular deposition of each complement component, especially properdin, may be an index of the histological activity of LN.
    Lupus 09/2011; 20(13):1378-86. · 2.78 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A 59-year-old man was diagnosed with IgG4-related tubulointerstitial nephritis. His symptoms as well as laboratory and imaging findings were improved after initiation of steroid therapy. Serologically, he showed hypocomplementemia (C3 23 mg/dl, C4 <2 mg/dl, CH50 <7 U/ml) with high levels of IgG (IgG4 1,970 mg/dl) and immune complexes (C1q assay 8.1 μg/ml) and a low level of C1q (<2.0 mg/dl). Histologically, he also showed linear depositions of IgG, IgM, C3, C4d, C1q, membrane attack complex and all IgG subclasses (IgG1, IgG2, IgG3 and IgG4) along the tubular basement membrane, as well as granular depositions of these components in the renal interstitium. However, mannose-binding lectin and L-ficolin were not detected in these tissues. Homogeneous electron-dense deposits were observed by electron microscopy in the tubular basement membrane. It appears that the immune complexes might activate the classical pathway of the complement in both blood and local tissues in a patient with IgG4-related tubulointerstitial nephritis.
    Case reports in nephrology and urology. 07/2011; 1(1):7-14.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A 77-year-old diabetic man newly contracted pulmonary mucormycosis. A rapidly progressing clinical course including severe worsening of pneumonia and renal failure culminated in death. This patient presented with hypocomplementemia and dermal vasculitis. Autopsied organs were examined by histological technique. Lung tissues showed pulmonary artery thrombosis and extensive alveolar invasion by Mucor hyphae with depositions of immunoglobulins, mannose-binding lectin (MBL) and C1q. The right internal jugular vein was occluded by thrombi containing numerous hyphae. The glomerular change was a hallmark of extra-capillary proliferative glomerulonephritis, which was overlying diabetic nephropathy. Depositions of IgM, C3 and C4 on glomeruli were also detected. Electron microscopy showed electron-dense deposits in the mesangial area and the wall of the afferent arteriole. This report shows evidence of complement opsonization of Mucor hyphae and refers to mucormycosis that developed small-sized vasculitis with complement activation.
    Clinical and Experimental Nephrology 05/2010; 14(4):396-400. · 1.25 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to explore the association between the serum concentration of complement component 3 (C3) and a variety of metabolic parameters. The study involved 125 patients in our outpatient clinic. Anthropometric and clinical laboratory data were collected and statistical associations between the serum concentration of C3 and other parameters were evaluated in a cross-sectional as well as a prospective manner. A group of male patients with metabolic syndrome (Mets, n=35) were characterized by marked increase in serum concentrations of C3, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, hemoglobin (Hb) A1c, insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), triglyceride, uric acid, urinary protein, and Hb. In a one-way analysis of variance of all subjects, the serum concentration of C3 was significantly elevated as the number of items of complying with the Mets diagnostic criteria increased. In 60 of 125 patients who did not have diabetes and were given anti-lipogenetic medication, the serum concentration of C3 showed significant positive associations with serum levels of CH50, insulin, HOMA-IR, total cholesterol, hematocrit, LDL-c, C4, Hb, triglyceride, BMI, and albumin. In a prospective follow-up evaluation (n=35), there was a significant positive association between DeltaC3 (the second concentration of serum C3 minus the first concentration of serum C3)and DeltaHOMA-IR (the second concentration of HOMA-IR minus the first concentration of HOMA-IR). In conclusion, in Japanese patients, there is evidence implicating C3 concentration as a marker of Mets coinciding with insulin resistance.
    Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis 03/2010; 24(2):113-8. · 1.36 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The complement system is vital for innate immunity and is implicated in the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases and the mechanism of host defense. Complement deficiencies occasionally cause life-threatening diseases. In hemodialysis (HD) patients, profiles on complement functional activity and deficiency are still obscure. The objectives of the present study were to measure the functional complement activities of the classical pathway (CP), lectin pathway (LP) and alternative pathway (AP) using a novel method and consequently to elucidate the rates of deficiencies among HD patients. In the present study, 244 HD patients at one dialysis center and 204 healthy controls were enrolled. Functional complement activities were measured simultaneously using the Wielisa®-kit. The combination of the results of these three pathway activities allows us to speculate which candidate complement is deficient; subsequently, the deficient complement was determined. All three functional complement activities were significantly higher in the HD patients than in the control group (P < 0.01 for all cases). After identifying candidates in both groups with complement deficiencies using the Wielisa®-kit, 16 sera (8.8%) with mannose-binding lectin (MBL) deficiency, 1 serum (0.4%) with C4 deficiency, 1 serum (0.4%) with C9 deficiency, and 1 serum (0.4%) with B deficiency were observed in the HD group, and 18 sera (8.8%) with MBL deficiency and 1 serum (0.5%) with B deficiency were observed in the control group. There were no significant differences in the 5-year mortality rate between each complement-deficient group and the complement-sufficient group among the HD patients. This is the first report that profiles complement deficiencies by simultaneous measurement of functional activities of the three complement pathways in HD patients. Hemodialysis patients frequently suffer from infections or malignancies, but functional complement deficiencies do not confer additional risk of mortality.
    BMC Nephrology 01/2010; 11:34. · 1.64 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Mannose-binding lectin (MBL), L-ficolin and H-ficolin are human serum lectins, all of which form complexes with MBL-associated serine proteases (MASP). The lectin-MASP complexes bind to the surface of microbes, leading to activation of the lectin pathway of complement. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) of the lectin pathway activity reported so far determined the activity via either MBL or L-ficolin, but an assay of activity via plural host defense lectins has not been established. To measure the lectin pathway activation mediated by plural lectins simultaneously, we developed an ELISA system in which N-acetylglucosamine-pentamer conjugated to dipalmitoylphosphatidylethanolamine (GN5-DPPE) was employed as a ligand for the lectins. In our ELISA system, both purified MBL and L-ficolin isolated from serum diluted in a buffer containing high ionic NaCl bound to GN5-DPPE and activated C4. Purified H-ficolin was not capable of binding to GN5-DPPE. MBL and L-ficolin in MBL-sufficient serum also bound to GN5-DPPE and activated C4. Mannose and N-acetylgalactosamine inhibited binding of MBL and L-ficolin to GN5-DPPE, respectively. MBL-deficient serum that had been depleted of L-ficolin did not exhibit C4 activation, but addition of both or either purified MBL and/or L-ficolin to the serum restored the activation in a dose-dependent manner. Thus, C4 cleaving activity could be evaluated with the co-existence of MBL and L-ficolin in vitro. In conclusion, we propose a novel method using GN5-DPPE for investigating the MBL- and L-ficolin-dependent lectin pathway and anticipate that this method will be useful in innate immunity and clinical research.
    Journal of immunological methods 09/2009; 349(1-2):9-17. · 2.35 Impact Factor