[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background / Purpose:
Endocannabinoids (eCBs) play a key neuromodulatory role in the central nervous system, regulating appetite, cognition, emotion, mood and pain by activation of cannabinoid (CB1) receptors. Here we report the pharmacological profile of a potent and selective serine hydrolase monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) inhibitor, SAR127303.
Selective pharmacological or genetic blockade of 2-AG hydrolysis affects memory performance and epileptogenesis process.
52nd Annual Meeting of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology (ACNP) 2013; 01/2014
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)(2A) antagonists are promising therapeutic agents for the treatment of sleep maintenance insomnias, but unlike hypnotics, they have limited effects on sleep initiation. This study evaluated the effects of several 5-HT(2A) antagonists (eplivanserin, volinanserin and AVE8488) alone and/or in combination with the short-acting hypnotic, zolpidem, on the rat sleep profile. A repeated-measures design was used in which rats were treated with eplivanserin (3 and 10 mg/kg, i.p. or p.o.), volinanserin (0.3-3 mg/kg, i.p.), AVE8488 (0.1-3 mg/kg, i.p.) and zolpidem (3 and 10 mg/kg, p.o.). In addition, animals received a combination of eplivanserin (3 mg/kg, p.o.) and zolpidem (3 mg/kg, p.o.). Electroencephalogram, was analyzed for 6 h after administration. Eplivanserin did not modify wakefulness and non-rapid eye movement sleep (NREMS), while zolpidem (10 mg/kg po) induced a marked increase in NREMS duration. Volinanserin (1 and 3 mg/kg) and AVE8488 (0.3 mg/kg) similarly increased NREMS, while reducing wakefulness. Moreover, the 5-HT(2A) antagonists and, to a lesser extent, zolpidem, increased duration of NREMS episodes, while decreasing their frequency. When eplivanserin was co-administered with zolpidem, a synergistic effect was observed as the combination produced an increase in NREMS time and bouts duration. These findings confirm further that 5-HT(2A) antagonists promote the maintenance of sleep, and suggest that combining a 5-HT(2A) antagonist with a short-acting hypnotic may be a useful strategy for the treatment of insomnia.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: On native human, rat and mouse glycine transporter-1(GlyT1), SSR130800 behaves as a selective inhibitor with IC50 values of 1.9, 5.3 and 6.8 nM, respectively. It reversibly blocked glycine uptake in mouse brain cortical homogenates, increased extracellular levels of glycine in the rat prefrontal cortex, and potentiated NMDA-mediated excitatory postsynaptic currents in rat hippocampal slices. SSR103800 (30 mg/kg, p.o.) decreased MK-801- and PCP-induced locomotor hyperactivity in rodents. SSR103800 (1 and 10 mg/kg, p.o.) attenuated social recognition deficit in adult rats induced by neonatal injections of PCP (10 mg/kg, s.c., on post-natal day 7, 9 and 11). SSR103800 (3 mg/kg, p.o.) counteracted the deficit in short-term visual episodic-like memory induced by a low challenge dose of PCP (1 mg/kg, i.p.), in PCP-sensitized rats (10 mg/kg, i.p.). SSR103800 (30 mg/kg, i.p.) increased the prepulse inhibition of the startle reflex in DBA/1J mice. SSR103800 decreased defensive- and despair-related behaviors in the tonic immobility test in gerbils (10 and 30 mg/kg, p.o.) and in the forced-swimming procedure in rats (1 and 3 mg/kg, p.o.), respectively. These findings suggest that SSR103800 may have a therapeutic potential in the management of the core symptoms of schizophrenia and comorbid depression states.
Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior 07/2008; 91(1):47-58. · 2.82 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The characterization of the first selective orally active and brain-penetrant beta3-adrenoceptor agonist, SR58611A (amibegron), has opened new possibilities for exploring the involvement of this receptor in stress-related disorders. By using a battery of tests measuring a wide range of anxiety-related behaviors in rodents, including the mouse defense test battery, the elevated plus-maze, social interaction, stress-induced hyperthermia, four-plate, and punished drinking tests, we demonstrated for the first time that the stimulation of the beta3 receptor by SR58611A resulted in robust anxiolytic-like effects, with minimal active doses ranging from 0.3 to 10 mg/kg p.o., depending on the procedure. These effects paralleled those obtained with the prototypical benzodiazepine anxiolytic diazepam or chlordiazepoxide. Moreover, when SR58611A was tested in acute or chronic models of depression in rodents, such as the forced-swimming and the chronic mild stress tests, it produced antidepressant-like effects, which were comparable in terms of the magnitude of the effects to those of the antidepressant fluoxetine or imipramine. Supporting these behavioral data, SR58611A modified spontaneous sleep parameters in a manner comparable to that observed with fluoxetine. Importantly, SR58611A was devoid of side effects related to cognition (as shown in the Morris water maze and object recognition tasks), motor activity (in the rotarod), alcohol interaction, or physical dependence. Antagonism studies using pharmacological tools targeting a variety of neurotransmitters involved in anxiety and depression and the use of mice lacking the beta3 adrenoceptor suggested that these effects of SR58611A are mediated by beta3 adrenoceptors. Taken as a whole, these findings indicate that the pharmacological stimulation of beta3 adrenoceptors may represent an innovative approach for the treatment of anxiety and depressive disorders.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The characterization of the first selective orally active and brain-penetrant β3-adrenoceptor agonist, SR58611A (amibegron), has opened new possibilities for exploring the involvement of this receptor in stress-related disorders. By using a battery of tests measuring a wide range of anxiety-related behaviors in rodents, including the mouse defense test battery, the elevated plus-maze, social interaction, stress-induced hyperthermia, four-plate, and punished drinking tests, we demonstrated for the first time that the stimulation of the β3 receptor by SR58611A resulted in robust anxiolytic-like effects, with minimal active doses ranging from 0.3 to 10 mg/kg p.o., depending on the procedure. These effects paralleled those obtained with the prototypical benzodiazepine anxiolytic diazepam or chlordiazepoxide. Moreover, when SR58611A was tested in acute or chronic models of depression in rodents, such as the forced-swimming and the chronic mild stress tests, it produced antidepressant-like effects, which were comparable in terms of the magnitude of the effects to those of the antidepressant fluoxetine or imipramine. Supporting these behavioral data, SR58611A modified spontaneous sleep parameters in a manner comparable to that observed with fluoxetine. Importantly, SR58611A was devoid of side effects related to cognition (as shown in the Morris water maze and object recognition tasks), motor activity (in the rotarod), alcohol interaction, or physical dependence. Antagonism studies using pharmacological tools targeting a variety of neurotransmitters involved in anxiety and depression and the use of mice lacking the β3 adrenoceptor suggested that these effects of SR58611A are mediated by β3 adrenoceptors. Taken as a whole, these findings indicate that the pharmacological stimulation of β3 adrenoceptors may represent an innovative approach for the treatment of anxiety and depressive disorders.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Noncompetitive N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) blockers induce schizophrenic-like symptoms in humans, presumably by impairing glutamatergic transmission. Therefore, a compound potentiating this neurotransmission, by increasing extracellular levels of glycine (a requisite co-agonist of glutamate), could possess antipsychotic activity. Blocking the glycine transporter-1 (GlyT1) should, by increasing extracellular glycine levels, potentiate glutamatergic neurotransmission. SSR504734, a selective and reversible inhibitor of human, rat, and mouse GlyT1 (IC50=18, 15, and 38 nM, respectively), blocked reversibly the ex vivo uptake of glycine (mouse cortical homogenates: ID50: 5 mg/kg i.p.), rapidly and for a long duration. In vivo, it increased (minimal efficacious dose (MED): 3 mg/kg i.p.) extracellular levels of glycine in the rat prefrontal cortex (PFC). This resulted in an enhanced glutamatergic neurotransmission, as SSR504734 potentiated NMDA-mediated excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) in rat hippocampal slices (minimal efficacious concentration (MEC): 0.5 microM) and intrastriatal glycine-induced rotations in mice (MED: 1 mg/kg i.p.). It normalized activity in rat models of hippocampal and PFC hypofunctioning (through activation of presynaptic CB1 receptors): it reversed the decrease in electrically evoked [3H]acetylcholine release in hippocampal slices (MEC: 10 nM) and the reduction of PFC neurons firing (MED: 0.3 mg/kg i.v.). SSR504734 prevented ketamine-induced metabolic activation in mice limbic areas and reversed MK-801-induced hyperactivity and increase in EEG spectral energy in mice and rats, respectively (MED: 10-30 mg/kg i.p.). In schizophrenia models, it normalized a spontaneous prepulse inhibition deficit in DBA/2 mice (MED: 15 mg/kg i.p.), and reversed hypersensitivity to locomotor effects of d-amphetamine and selective attention deficits (MED: 1-3 mg/kg i.p.) in adult rats treated neonatally with phencyclidine. Finally, it increased extracellular dopamine in rat PFC (MED: 10 mg/kg i.p.). The compound showed additional activity in depression/anxiety models, such as the chronic mild stress in mice (10 mg/kg i.p.), ultrasonic distress calls in rat pups separated from their mother (MED: 1 mg/kg s.c.), and the increased latency of paradoxical sleep in rats (MED: 30 mg/kg i.p.). In conclusion, SSR504734 is a potent and selective GlyT1 inhibitor, exhibiting activity in schizophrenia, anxiety and depression models. By targeting one of the primary causes of schizophrenia (hypoglutamatergy), it is expected to be efficacious not only against positive but also negative symptoms, cognitive deficits, and comorbid depression/anxiety states.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It has been shown previously that the selective cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist, rimonabant (SR141716), reduced the intake of palatable food as well as the self-administration of several drugs of abuse, suggesting that endocannabinoid systems play a role in brain reward function. The present study investigated whether a cannabinoid step was involved in food-seeking behavior induced by explicit stimuli, using an operant reinstatement procedure in rats. Experimental sessions consisted of a 15-min food rewarded period, followed by a 45-min extinction period. Rimonabant did not affect the response reinstatement induced by noncontingent delivery of food pellets, but prevented (0.03-0.3 mg/kg) the potentiation by quinelorane, a dopamine D3 receptor-preferring agonist, of food-seeking behavior. A possible link between cannabinoid processes and D3- and/or D2-mediated dopaminergic transmission was further investigated by studying Fos protein expression in cortico-limbic structures in D3 (D3-/-) and D2 (D2-/-) knockout mice. Rimonabant (10 mg/kg) increased Fos immunoreactivity in the prefrontal cortex (pFCortex) and in the shell but not the core of the nucleus accumbens (NAcc). Fos induction by this dose of rimonabant was not seen in mice lacking CB1 receptors, providing clear evidence for the involvement of CB1 receptors. In the NAcc shell, the effect of rimonabant was suppressed in D3-/-, but remained unchanged in D2-/- mice. In contrast, Fos expression by rimonabant in the pFCortex was impervious to D2 or D3 receptor deletion. In conclusion, these data indicate first that rimonabant prevented the enhancement by quinelorane of the appetitive value of food pellets unexpectedly delivered during extinction and second that rimonabant effects might involve D3 receptor-mediated processes. Overall, these results are consistent with the notion that endocannabinoid functions control brain reward processes and in particular the capacity of explicit stimuli to precipitate food-seeking behavior.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The biochemical and pharmacological properties of a novel non-peptide antagonist of the bradykinin (BK) B(1) receptor, SSR240612 [(2R)-2-[((3R)-3-(1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)-3-[[(6-methoxy-2-naphthyl)sulfonyl]amino]propanoyl)amino]-3-(4-[[2R,6S)-2,6-dimethylpiperidinyl]methyl]phenyl)-N-isopropyl-N-methylpropanamide hydrochloride] were evaluated. SSR240612 inhibited the binding of [(3)H]Lys(0)-des-Arg(9)-BK to the B(1) receptor in human fibroblast MRC5 and to recombinant human B(1) receptor expressed in human embryonic kidney cells with inhibition constants (K(i)) of 0.48 and 0.73 nM, respectively. The compound selectivity for B(1) versus B(2) receptors was in the range of 500- to 1000-fold. SSR240612 inhibited Lys(0)-desAr(9)-BK (10 nM)-induced inositol monophosphate formation in human fibroblast MRC5, with an IC(50) of 1.9 nM. It also antagonized des-Arg(9)-BK-induced contractions of isolated rabbit aorta and mesenteric plexus of rat ileum with a pA(2) of 8.9 and 9.4, respectively. Antagonistic properties of SSR240612 were also demonstrated in vivo. SSR240612 inhibited des-Arg(9)-BK-induced paw edema in mice (3 and 10 mg/kg p.o. and 0.3 and 1 mg/kg i.p.). Moreover, SSR240612 reduced capsaicin-induced ear edema in mice (0.3, 3 and 30 mg/kg p.o.) and tissue destruction and neutrophil accumulation in the rat intestine following splanchnic artery occlusion/reperfusion (0.3 mg/kg i.v.). The compound also inhibited thermal hyperalgesia induced by UV irradiation (1 and 3 mg/kg p.o.) and the late phase of nociceptive response to formalin in rats (10 and 30 mg/kg p.o.). Finally, SSR240612 (20 and 30 mg/kg p.o.) prevented neuropathic thermal pain induced by sciatic nerve constriction in the rat. In conclusion, SSR240612 is a new, potent, and orally active specific non-peptide bradykinin B(1) receptor antagonist.
Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 06/2004; 309(2):661-9. · 3.86 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Repeated exposure to stress is known to induce structural remodelling and reduction of neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus. Corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF) and vasopressin (AVP) are key regulators of the stress response via activation of CRF(1) and V(1b) receptors, respectively. The blockade of these receptors has been proposed as an innovative approach for the treatment of affective disorders. The present study aimed at determining whether the CRF(1) receptor antagonist SSR125543A, the V(1b) receptor antagonist SSR149415, and the clinically effective antidepressant fluoxetine may influence newborn cell proliferation and differentiation in the dentate gyrus of mice subjected to the chronic mild stress (CMS) procedure, a model of depression with predictive validity. Repeated administration of SSR125543A (30 mg/kg i.p.), SSR149415 (30 mg/kg i.p.), and fluoxetine (10 mg/kg i.p.) for 28 days, starting 3 weeks after the beginning of the stress procedure, significantly reversed the reduction of cell proliferation produced by CMS, an effect which was paralleled by a marked improvement of the physical state of the coat of stressed mice. Moreover, mice subjected to stress exhibited a 53% reduction of granule cell neurogenesis 30 days after the end of the 7-week stress period, an effect which was prevented by all drug treatments. Collectively, these results point to an important role of CRF and AVP in the regulation of dentate neurogenesis, and suggest that CRF(1) and V(1b) receptor antagonists may affect plasticity changes in the hippocampal formation, as do clinically effective antidepressants.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: SSR181507 ((3-exo)-8-benzoyl-N-[[(2S)7-chloro-2,3-dihydro-1,4-benzodioxin-1-yl]methyl]-8-azabicyclo[3.2.1]octane-3-methanamine monohydrochloride) is a novel tropanemethanamine benzodioxane derivative that possesses high and selective affinities for D2-like and 5-HT(1A) receptors (K(I)=0.8, 0.2, and 0.2 nM for human D(2), D(3), and 5-HT(1A), respectively). In vivo, SSR181507 inhibited [(3)H]raclopride binding to D(2) receptors in the rat (ID(50)=0.9 and 1 mg/kg, i.p. in limbic system and striatum, respectively). It displayed D(2) antagonist and 5-HT(1A) agonist properties in the same concentration range in vitro (IC(50)=5.3 nM and EC(50)=2.3 nM, respectively, in the GTPgammaS model) and in the same dose range in vivo (ED(50)=1.6 and 0.7 mg/kg, i.p. on striatal DA and 5-HT synthesis, respectively, and 0.03-0.3 mg/kg, i.v. on dorsal raphe nucleus firing rate). It selectively enhanced Fos immunoreactivity in mesocorticolimbic areas as compared to the striatum. This regional selectivity was confirmed in electrophysiological studies where SSR181507, given acutely (0.1-3 mg/kg, i.p.) or chronically (3 mg/kg, i.p., o.d., 22 days), increased or decreased, respectively, the number of spontaneous active DA cells in the ventral tegmental area, but not in the substantia nigra. Moreover, SSR181507 increased both basal and phasic DA efflux (as assessed by microdialysis and electrochemistry) in the medial prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens, but not in the striatum. This study shows that the combination of D(2) receptor antagonism and 5-HT(1A) agonism, in the same dose range, confers on SSR181507 a unique neurochemical and electrophysiological profile and suggests the potential of this compound for the treatment of the main dimensions of schizophrenia.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: SSR240600 [(R)-2-(1-[2-[4-[2-[3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]acetyl]-2-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-2-morpholinyl]ethyl]-4-piperidinyl)-2-methylpropanamide], a new nonpeptide tachykinin neurokinin 1 (NK1) receptor antagonist, was evaluated against the neurochemical, electrophysiological, and behavioral effects provoked by direct activation of brain tachykinin NK1 receptors or by stress in guinea pigs. SSR240600 (0.1-10 mg/kg i.p. or p.o.) antagonized the excitatory effect of i.c.v. infusion of [Sar(9),Met(O2)(11)]substance P (SP) on the release of acetylcholine in the striatum of anesthetized and awake guinea pigs. This antagonistic action was still observed after repeated administration of SSR240600 (5 days, 10 mg/kg p.o., once a day). SSR240600 (10 mg/kg i.p.) inhibited the phosphorylation of the cAMP response element-binding protein in various brain regions induced by i.c.v. administration of [Sar9,Met(O2)(11)]SP. In slice preparations, neuronal firing of the locus coeruleus (LC) neurons elicited by the application of [Sar9,Met(O2)(11)]SP was suppressed by SSR240600 at 100 nM. Norepinephrine release in the prefrontal cortex, elicited either by an intra-LC application of [Sar9,Met(O2)(11)]SP or by an i.c.v administration of corticotropin-releasing factor, was reduced by SSR240600 (0.3-1 mg/kg and 1-10 mg/kg i.p., respectively). SSR240600 (1-10 mg/kg i.p.) inhibited vocalizations induced in adult guinea pigs by an i.c.v. administration of the NK1 receptor agonist, GR73632 [D-Ala-[L-Pro9,Me-Leu8]substance P(7-11)]. Furthermore, SSR240600 (1-10 mg/kg i.p.) inhibited distress vocalizations produced in guinea pig pups by maternal separation. SSR240600 also reduced maternal separation-induced increase in the number of neurons displaying NK1 receptor internalization in the amygdala. Finally, SSR240600 counteracted the increase in body temperature induced by isolation stress. In conclusion, SSR240600 is able to antagonize various NK1 receptor-mediated as well as stress-mediated effects in the guinea pig.
Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 01/2003; 303(3):1180-8. · 3.86 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present study investigated the effects of the selective neurokinin-2 (NK2) receptor antagonist SR48968 in behavioral, electrophysiological, and biochemical tests sensitive to the action of prototypical antidepressants (fluoxetine, imipramine) or to corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) receptor antagonists, which have been proposed recently as potential antidepressants. Results showed that SR48968 (0.3-10 mg/kg i.p.) produced antidepressant-like activity because it reduced immobility in the forced swimming test in both mice and rats, and decreased the amount of maternal separation-induced vocalizations in guinea pig pups. This latter effect appears to involve a reduction of stress-induced substance P release because SR48968 reduced the separation-induced increase in the number of neurons displaying neurokinin-1 receptor internalization in the amygdala. Furthermore, SR48968 increased the expression of the cAMP response-element binding protein mRNA in the rat hippocampus after repeated (1 mg/kg i.p., 21 days), but not acute administration. Finally, neuronal firing of the locus coeruleus (LC) and noradrenergic (NE) release in the prefrontal cortex both elicited by an uncontrollable stressor or an intraventricular administration of CRF were reduced by SR48968 (0.3-1 mg/kg i.p.). The finding that SR48968 (1 mg/kg i.p.) blocked the cortical release of NE induced by an intra-LC infusion of the preferential NK2 receptor agonist neurokinin A suggested the presence of NK2 receptors in this latter region. Importantly, SR48965 (1-10 mg/kg i.p.), the optical antipode of SR48968, which is devoid of affinity for the NK2 receptor, was inactive in all the models used. These data suggest that NK2 receptor blockade may constitute a novel mechanism in the treatment of depression and CRF-related disorders.
Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 12/2001; 299(2):449-58. · 3.86 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: SR146131 is a potent and selective agonist at cholecystokinin subtype 1 (CCK1) receptors in vitro. The present study evaluates the activity of the compound in vivo. SR146131 completely inhibited gastric and gallbladder emptying in mice (ED50 of 66 and 2.7 micrograms/kg p.o., respectively). SR146131 dose dependently reduced food intake in fasted rats (from 0.1 mg/kg p.o.), in nonfasted rats in which food intake had been highly stimulated by the administration of neuropeptide Y (1-36) (from 0.3 mg/kg p.o.), in fasted gerbils (from 0.1 mg/kg p.o.), and in marmosets maintained on a restricted diet (from 3 mg/kg p.o.). SR146131 (10 mg/kg p.o.) also increased the number of Fos-positive cells in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus of rats. Locomotor activity of mice was reduced by orally administered SR146131 (from 0.3 mg/kg p.o.). When administered intrastriatally, SR146131 elicited contralateral turning behavior in mice. Furthermore, orally administered SR146131 (0.3-10 mg/kg), also reduced the levels of cerebellar cyclic GMP. Finally, SR146131 (0.1 microgram/kg to 1 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly and dose dependently antagonized fluphenazine-induced mouth movements in rats. The CCK1 antagonist SR27897B prevented all the effects of SR146131. Conversely, SR146131 was unable to elicit any agonist or antagonist effects in a model of CCK2 receptor stimulation in vivo. SR146131 is a very potent and selective nonpeptide CCK1 agonist in vivo. SR146131 is more potent than any other CCK1 agonists reported to date. Because pharmacodynamic studies suggest that SR146131 should have a high absolute bioavailability, it may be a promising drug for the treatment of eating and motor disorders in humans.
Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 06/1999; 289(2):752-61. · 3.86 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A remarkable feature of dopamine functioning is that the concomitant activation of D1-like and D2-like receptors acts to intensify the expression of various dopamine-dependent effects, in particular the expression of the immediate-early genes, c-fos and zif268. Using non-peptide neurotensin receptor antagonists, including SR48692, we have determined that blockade of neurotensin receptors reduced the cooperative responses of direct acting D2-like (quinpirole) and partial D1-like (SKF38393) dopamine agonists on the expression of Fos-like antigens and zif268 mRNA. Pretreatment with SR48692 (3 and 10 mg/kg) reduced the number of Fos-like immunoreactive cells produced by the combined administration of SKF38393 (20 mg/kg) and quinpirole (1 mg/kg) in the caudate-putamen, nucleus accumbens, globus pallidus and ventral pallidum. High-affinity neurotensin receptors are likely to be involved in these D1-like/D2-like cooperative responses, as compounds structurally related to SR48692, SR48527 (3 mg/kg) and its (-)antipode, SR49711 (3 mg/kg), exerted a stereospecific antagonism in all selected brain regions. Pretreatment with SR48692 (10 mg/kg) also diminished Fos induction by the indirect dopamine agonist, cocaine (25 mg/kg), particularly at the rostral level of the caudate-putamen. In situ hybridization experiments in the caudate-putamen indicated that SR48692 (10 mg/kg) markedly reduced zif268 mRNA labelling produced by SKF38393 plus quinpirole in cells not expressing enkephalin mRNA, but was unable to affect the concomitant decrease of zif268 mRNA labelling in enkephalin-positive cells. Taken together, the results of the present study indicate that neurotensin is a key element for the occurrence of cooperative responses of D2-like and partial D1-like agonists on immediate-early gene expression.
European Journal of Neuroscience 04/1999; 11(3):967-74. · 3.67 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present study investigated, in rats, whether blockade of cannabinoid CB1 receptors may alter Fos protein expression in a manner comparable to that observed with antipsychotic drugs. Intraperitoneal administration of the selective CB1 receptor antagonist, SR141716, dose-dependently (1.0, 3.0 and 10 mg/kg) increased Fos-like immunoreactivity in mesocorticolimbic areas (prefrontal cortex, ventrolateral septum, shell of the nucleus accumbens and dorsomedial caudate-putamen), while motor-related structures such as the core of the nucleus accumbens and the dorsolateral caudate-putamen were unaffected. In the ventrolateral septum, taken as a representative structure, the Fos-inducing effect of SR141716 (10 mg/kg) was maximal 2 h after injection and returned to near control levels by 4 h. Within the prefrontal cortex, SR141716 increased the number of Fos-positive cells predominantly in the infralimbic and prelimbic cortices, presumptive pyramidal cells being the major cell types in which Fos was induced. The D1-like receptor antagonist, SCH23390 (0.1 mg/kg), did not prevent the Fos-inducing effect of SR141716 in any brain region examined (prefrontal cortex, nucleus accumbens, ventrolateral septum and dorsomedial caudate-putamen), although SCH23390 significantly reduced Fos expression induced by cocaine (20 mg/kg) in all these regions. By contrast, the dopamine D2-like agonist, quinpirole (0.25 mg/ kg), counteracted SR141716-induced Fos-like immunoreactivity in the ventrolateral septum, the nucleus accumbens and the dorsomedial caudate-putamen, while no antagonism was observed in the prefrontal cortex. Microdialysis experiments in awake rats indicated that SR141716, at doses which increased Fos expression (3 and 10 mg/kg), did not alter dopamine release in the shell of the nucleus accumbens. Finally, SR141716 increased the levels of neurotensin-like immunoreactivity in the nucleus accumbens, but not in the caudate-putamen. Collectively, the present results show that blockade of cannabinoid receptors increases Fos- and neurotensin-like immunoreactivity with characteristics comparable to those reported for atypical neuroleptic drugs.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We examined the expression and presence of NK2 receptors in the septal area of rat brain, and investigated their functional role in the regulation of the septohippocampal cholinergic system. Using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis, we showed the presence of NK2 receptor mRNA expression in the septal area, and detected septal NK2 binding sites by using a fluorescent-tagged neurokinin A (NKA) derivative. In vivo microdialysis was employed to explore the functional role of NK2 receptors in the release of hippocampal acetylcholine evoked by tactile stimulation in freely moving rats. Two sessions of stroking of the neck and back of the rat for 30 min, at 90 min intervals, produced a marked and reproducible increase in hippocampal acetylcholine release. This effect was dose-dependently prevented by intraperitoneal administration of the two selective non-peptide tachykinin NK2 receptor antagonists SR144190 (0.03-0.3 mg/kg, i.p.) and SR48968 (0.3 and 1 mg/kg, i.p.), but not by the inactive enantiomer of SR48968 (SR48965, 1 mg/kg) nor by the two non-peptide NK1 receptor antagonists SR140333 (3 mg/kg, i.p.) and GR205171 (1 mg/kg, i.p.). Furthermore, the intraseptal application of SR144190 (10(-8) M) reduced the sensory response. Finally, intraseptal perfusion of neurokinin A (0.01-10 microM) in anaesthetized rats produced a concentration-dependent increase in hippocampal acetylcholine release. The response to neurokinin A (0.1 microM) was prevented by SR144190 (0.03-0.3 mg/kg, i.p.) and SR48968 (0.3-1 mg/kg, i.p.). In conclusion, this study provides direct evidence for the role of endogenous NKA/substance P, through the activation of NK2 receptors, in regulating the septohippocampal cholinergic function.
European Journal of Neuroscience 08/1998; 10(7):2337-45. · 3.67 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The regulation of striatal cholinergic function by dopamine D1 receptor activation was examined in vivo in urethane-anaesthetized rats with microdialysis probes. Extracellular acetylcholine levels were enhanced by activation of D1 receptors either directly by a striatal application of the D1 receptor agonist (+)-SKF-38393 (3 microM) or indirectly by the release of dopamine evoked by striatal application of neurotensin (0.1 microM) under D2 receptor blockade. SR 144190, a new potent and selective non-peptide neurokinin-2 receptor antagonist (0.03-1 mg/kg, i.p.), dose-dependently reduced the acetylcholine release induced by (+)-SKF-38393 or neurotensin. Furthermore, intrastriatal application of SR 144190 (1 nM) blocked the increase in acetylcholine release induced by the local application of (+)-SKF-38393 (3 microM), neurokinin A (1 microM) or substance P (1 microM). Finally, a role for nitric oxide in mediating the effects of D1 neurokinin-2 receptor activation on acetylcholine release is proposed since local infusion of the competitive inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase, N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine (0.01-10 microM), blocked the increase in acetylcholine release induced by (+)-SKF-38393 (3 microM), neurotensin (0.1 microM) or neurokinin A (1 microM) without affecting the enhancing effect of the neurokinin-1 agonist septide (0.1 microM).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Trigeminal stimulation of C-fibers increased c-fos expression within the trigeminal nucleus caudalis (NtV) and thalamic neuronal activity which both reflect the transmission of a nociceptive message. We examined the effects on both these phenomena of the selective NK1 and NK2 receptor antagonists, SR140333 and SR48968. SR140333 (0.3, 1 and 3 micrograms/kg intravenously [i.v.]) dose-dependently, reversibly and stereoselectively antagonized the increase of contralateral thalamic activity. This compound, when given i.v. (30 micrograms/kg) or orally (10 mg/kg), also reduced the number of Fos-like immunoreactive cells particularly at the medial and caudal level of the NtV. In contrast, SR48968 did not exert any antagonistic effect either on thalamic activity or on Fos-like immunoreactivity. The data strongly suggest a preferential involvement of NK1 vs NK2 receptors in nociceptive transmission following trigeminal ganglion stimulation. Taken together, our results indicate that SR140333 could provide a potent drug for the relief of pain occurring under excessive activity of sensory trigeminal fibers.
Fundamental and Clinical Pharmacology 01/1998; 12(1):88-94. · 2.08 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Primary cultures of gerbil mesencephalon were used for studying the modulation exerted by tachykinin NK(3) receptor activation on the activity of dopamine (DA) neurons. Dopamine neurons were identified by their ability to take up [(3)H]DA in a nomifensine-dependent manner. Moreover, tyrosine hydroxylase immunohistochemistry revealed that these neurons accounted for 5-7% of the total cell population. The NK(3) receptor agonists, senktide (EC(50) = 0.58 nM) and [MePhe(7)]neurokinin B (EC(50) = 3 nM), increased spontaneous [(3)H]DA release in a concentration-dependent manner. In contrast, tested at a supramaximal concentration (IC(50) = 0.89 nM), neither septide nor substance P were found to affect [(3)H]DA release. The senktide-evoked [(3)H]DA release was not observed when extracellular Ca(2+) was chelated, but was unaffected by nomifensine. This indicates that this increase in [(3)H]DA outflow resulted more from an exocytotic process than from reversal of carrier-mediated DA uptake. Moreover, the senktide effect was unaffected by the Na+ channel blocker tetrodotoxin, a result suggesting a direct action of senktide on DA neurons. The non-peptide NK(3) receptor antagonist, SR 142801, shifted or blocked (IC(50) = 0.89 nM) the senktide-evoked [(3)H]DA release, while its (-)-antipode, SR 142806, was 80-fold less potent, in agreement with binding data. Selective antagonists for Nk1 (SR 140333) or Nk2 (SR 48968) receptors failed to reduce the senktide effect. Light scanning microscopic analysis of mesencephalic cells loaded with the Ca(2+) sensitive dye, fluo-3, showed that senktide induced a rise in cytosolic Ca(2+) in 8-10% of the cell population. The senktide-induced elevation in intracellular Ca(2+) was rapid in onset and transient (at 10-8 M) or more sustained with no further increase in fluorescence intensity (at 10(-7) M). The proportion of senktide-responsive cells was not significantly modified when extracellular Ca(2+) was chelated, but was reduced by 87% in the presence of SR 142801 and by 75% in cultures that were pre-treated with the DA neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium. The present study shows that enhancement of spontaneous [(3)H]DA release and intracellular Ca(2+) mobilization may be observed after NK(3) receptor stimulation and that both biochemical events are likely to occur in DA neurons.
European Journal of Neuroscience 05/1996; 8(4):801-8. · 3.67 Impact Factor