[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Isotope labeling of biologically interesting proteins is a prerequisite for structural and dynamics studies by NMR spectroscopy. Many of these proteins require mammalian cofactors, chaperons, or posttranslational modifications such as myristoylation, glypiation, disulfide bond formation, or N- or O-linked glycosylation; and mammalian cells have the necessary machinery to produce them in their functional forms. Here, we describe recent advances in mammalian expression, including an efficient adenoviral vector-based system, for the production of isotopically labeled proteins. This system enables expression of mammalian proteins and their complexes, including proteins that require posttranslational modifications. We describe a roadmap to produce isotopically labeled (15)N and (13)C posttranslationally modified proteins, such as the outer domain of HIV-1 gp120, which has four disulfide bonds and 15 potential sites of N-linked glycosylation. These methods should allow NMR spectroscopic analysis of the structure and function of posttranslationally modified and secreted, cytoplasmic, or membrane-bound proteins.
Methods in enzymology 11/2015; 565:289-307. DOI:10.1016/bs.mie.2015.09.021 · 2.09 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The treatment of AIDS with combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) remains lifelong largely because the virus persists in latent reservoirs. Elimination of latently infected cells could therefore reduce treatment duration and facilitate immune reconstitution. Here we report an approach to reduce the viral reservoir by activating dormant viral gene expression and directing T lymphocytes to lyse previously latent, HIV-1-infected cells. An immunomodulatory protein was created that combines the specificity of a HIV-1 broadly neutralizing antibody with that of an antibody to the CD3 component of the T-cell receptor. CD3 engagement by the protein can stimulate T-cell activation that induces proviral gene expression in latently infected T cells. It further stimulates CD8 T-cell effector function and redirects T cells to lyse these previously latent-infected cells through recognition of newly expressed Env. This immunomodulatory protein could potentially help to eliminate latently infected cells and deplete the viral reservoir in HIV-1-infected individuals.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Importance:
Studies of HIV-1 broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) provide valuable information for vaccine design, and the most potent and broadly reactive of these bNAbs have potential for clinical use. We previously described a family of V1V2-directed neutralizing antibodies from an HIV-1 clade C infected donor. Here, we report the isolation and characterization of new members of the family, mostly from time points of peak serum breadth and potency. One of the new antibodies, CAP256-VRC26.25, displayed 10-fold greater neutralization potency than previous described lineage members. It neutralized 57% of diverse clade viral isolates and 70% of clade C isolates with remarkable potency: a median IC50 of 0.001 micrograms per ml. Our results highlight the ongoing evolution within a single antibody lineage, and describe more potent and broadly neutralizing members with potential clinical utility, particularly in clade C-prevalent areas.
Journal of Virology 10/2015; DOI:10.1128/JVI.01791-15 · 4.44 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is estimated to claim more lives among infants <1 year old than any other single pathogen, except malaria, and poses a substantial global health burden. Viral entry is mediated by a type I fusion glycoprotein (F) that transitions from a metastable prefusion (pre-F) to a stable postfusion (post-F) trimer. A highly neutralization-sensitive epitope, antigenic site O, is found only on pre-F. We determined what fraction of neutralizing (NT) activity in human sera is dependent on antibodies specific for antigenic site O or other antigenic sites on F in healthy subjects from ages 7 to 93 years. Adsorption of individual sera with stabilized pre-F protein removed >90% of NT activity and depleted binding antibodies to both F conformations. In contrast, adsorption with post-F removed ~30% of NT activity, and binding antibodies to pre-F were retained. These findings were consistent across all age groups. Protein competition neutralization assays with pre-F mutants in which sites O or II were altered to knock out binding of antibodies to the corresponding sites showed that these sites accounted for ~35 and <10% of NT activity, respectively. Binding competition assays with monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) indicated that the amount of site O-specific antibodies correlated with NT activity, whereas the magnitude of binding competed by site II mAbs did not correlate with neutralization. Our results indicate that RSV NT activity in human sera is primarily derived from pre-F-specific antibodies, and therefore, inducing or boosting NT activity by vaccination will be facilitated by using pre-F antigens that preserve site O.
Science translational medicine 10/2015; 7(309-309):309ra162. DOI:10.1126/scitranslmed.aac4241 · 15.84 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The elicitation of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) is likely to be essential for a preventative HIV-1 vaccine, but this has not yet been achieved by immunization. In contrast, some HIV-1-infected individuals naturally mount bNAb responses during chronic infection, suggesting that years of maturation may be required for neutralization breadth. Recent studies have shown that viral diversification precedes the emergence of bNAbs, but the significance of this observation is unknown. Here we delineate the key viral events that drove neutralization breadth within the CAP256-VRC26 family of 33 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) isolated from a superinfected individual. First, we identified minority viral variants, termed bNAb-initiating envelopes, that were distinct from both of the transmitted/founder (T/F) viruses and that efficiently engaged the bNAb precursor. Second, deep sequencing revealed a pool of diverse epitope variants (immunotypes) that were preferentially neutralized by broader members of the antibody lineage. In contrast, a 'dead-end' antibody sublineage unable to neutralize these immunotypes showed limited evolution and failed to develop breadth. Thus, early viral escape at key antibody-virus contact sites selects for antibody sublineages that can tolerate these changes, thereby providing a mechanism for the generation of neutralization breadth within a developing antibody lineage.
Nature medicine 10/2015; 21(11). DOI:10.1038/nm.3963 · 27.36 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Importance:
To prevent or treat HIV-1 infection, antibodies must potently neutralize nearly all strains of HIV-1. Thus, the physical combination of two or more antibodies may be needed to broaden neutralization coverage and diminish the possibility of viral resistance. A bispecific antibody that has two different antibody binding arms could potentially display neutralization characteristics better than any single parental antibody. Here we show that bispecific antibodies contain the binding specificities of the two parental antibodies and that a single bispecific antibody can neutralize 97% of viral strains with a high overall potency. These findings support the use of bispecific antibodies for the prevention or treatment of HIV-1 infection.
Journal of Virology 10/2015; 89(24). DOI:10.1128/JVI.02097-15 · 4.44 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Highly potent broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (bNabs) have been obtained from individuals infected by HIV-1 group M variants. We analyzed the cross-group neutralization potency of these bNabs towards non-M primary isolates (PI).
Material & methods:
The sensitivity to neutralization was analyzed in a neutralization assay using TZM-bl cells. Twenty three bNabs were used, including reagents targeting the CD4 binding site (CD4bs), the N160 glycan-V1V2 site, the N332 glycan-V3 site, the membrane proximal external region of gp41, and complex epitopes spanning both Env subunits. Two bispecific antibodies that combine the inhibitory activity of an anti-CD4 with that of PG9 or PG16 (BibNabs) were included in the study (PG9-iMab and PG16-iMab).
Cross-group neutralization was observed only with the bNabs targeting the N160 glycan-V1V2 site. Four group O PIs, one group N PI and the group P PI were neutralized by PG9 and/or PG16 or PGT145 at low concentrations (0.04-9.39 µg/mL). None of the non-M PIs was neutralized by the bNabs targeting other regions at the highest concentration tested, except 10E8 that neutralized weakly two group N PIs and 35O22 that neutralized one group O PI. The BibNabs neutralized very efficiently all the non-M PIs with IC50 below 1 µg/mL, except two group O strains.
The N160 glycan-V1V2 site is the most conserved neutralizing site within the four groups of HIV-1. This makes it an interesting target for the development of HIV vaccine immunogens. The corresponding bNabs may be useful for immunotherapeutic strategies in patients infected by non-M variants.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Earlier we reported the discovery and design of NBD-556 and their analogs which demonstrated their potential as HIV-1 entry inhibitors. However, progress in developing these inhibitors has been stymied by their CD4-agonist properties, an unfavorable trait for use as drug. Here, we demonstrate the successful conversion of a full CD4-agonist (NBD-556) through a partial CD4-agonist (NBD-09027), to a full CD4-antagonist (NBD-11021) by structure-based modification of the critical oxalamide mid-region, previously thought to be intolerant of modification. NBD-11021 showed unprecedented neutralization breath for this class of inhibitors, with pan-neutralization against a panel of 56 Env-pseudotyped HIV-1 representing diverse subtypes of clinical isolates (IC50 as low as 270 nM). The co-crystal structure of NBD-11021 complexed to a monomeric HIV-1 gp120 core revealed its detail binding characteristics. The study is expected to provide a framework for further development of NBD series as HIV-1 entry inhibitors for clinical application against AIDS.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The antibody response to influenza is primarily focused on the head region of the hemagglutinin (HA) glycoprotein, which in turn undergoes antigenic drift, thus necessitating annual updates of influenza vaccines. In contrast, the immunogenically subdominant stem region of HA is highly conserved and recognized by antibodies capable of binding multiple HA subtypes. Here we report the structure-based development of an H1 HA stem-only immunogen that confers heterosubtypic protection in mice and ferrets. Six iterative cycles of structure-based design (Gen1-Gen6) yielded successive H1 HA stabilized-stem (HA-SS) immunogens that lack the immunodominant head domain. Antigenic characterization, determination of two HA-SS crystal structures in complex with stem-specific monoclonal antibodies and cryo-electron microscopy analysis of HA-SS on ferritin nanoparticles (H1-SS-np) confirmed the preservation of key structural elements. Vaccination of mice and ferrets with H1-SS-np elicited broadly cross-reactive antibodies that completely protected mice and partially protected ferrets against lethal heterosubtypic H5N1 influenza virus challenge despite the absence of detectable H5N1 neutralizing activity in vitro. Passive transfer of immunoglobulin from H1-SS-np-immunized mice to naive mice conferred protection against H5N1 challenge, indicating that vaccine-elicited HA stem-specific antibodies can protect against diverse group 1 influenza strains.
Nature medicine 08/2015; 21(9). DOI:10.1038/nm.3927 · 27.36 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The emergence of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) as a cause of severe respiratory disease highlights the need for effective approaches to CoV vaccine development. Efforts focused solely on the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the viral Spike (S) glycoprotein may not optimize neutralizing antibody (NAb) responses. Here we show that immunogens based on full-length S DNA and S1 subunit protein elicit robust serum-neutralizing activity against several MERS-CoV strains in mice and non-human primates. Serological analysis and isolation of murine monoclonal antibodies revealed that immunization elicits NAbs to RBD and, non-RBD portions of S1 and S2 subunit. Multiple neutralization mechanisms were demonstrated by solving the atomic structure of a NAb-RBD complex, through sequencing of neutralization escape viruses and by constructing MERS-CoV S variants for serological assays. Immunization of rhesus macaques confers protection against MERS-CoV-induced radiographic pneumonia, as assessed using computerized tomography, supporting this strategy as a promising approach for MERS-CoV vaccine development.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and human parainfluenza virus type 3 (HPIV3) are the first and second leading viral agents of severe respiratory tract disease in infants and young children worldwide. Vaccines are not available, and an RSV vaccine is particularly needed. A live attenuated chimeric recombinant bovine/human PIV3 (rB/HPIV3) vector expressing the RSV fusion (F) glycoprotein from an added gene has been under development as a bivalent vaccine against RSV and HPIV3. Previous clinical evaluation of this vaccine candidate suggested that increased genetic stability and immunogenicity of the RSV F insert were needed. This was investigated in the present study. RSV F expression was enhanced 5-fold by codon optimization and by modifying the amino acid sequence to be identical to that of an early passage of the original clinical isolate. This conferred a hypofusogenic phenotype that presumably reflects the original isolate. We then compared vectors expressing stabilized prefusion and postfusion versions of RSV F. In a hamster model, prefusion F induced increased quantity and quality of RSV-neutralizing serum antibodies and increased protection against wild-type (wt) RSV challenge. In contrast, a vector expressing the postfusion F was less immunogenic and protective. The genetic stability of the RSV F insert was high and was not affected by enhanced expression or the prefusion or postfusion conformation of RSV F. These studies provide an improved version of the previously well-tolerated rB/HPIV3-RSV F vaccine candidate that induces a superior RSV-neutralizing serum antibody response.
Journal of Virology 07/2015; 89(18). DOI:10.1128/JVI.01373-15 · 4.44 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: As the sole viral antigen on the HIV-1-virion surface, trimeric Env is a focus of vaccine efforts. Here we present the structure of the ligand-free HIV-1-Env trimer, fix its conformation and determine its receptor interactions. Epitope analyses revealed trimeric ligand-free Env to be structurally compatible with broadly neutralizing antibodies but not poorly neutralizing ones. We coupled these compatibility considerations with binding antigenicity to engineer conformationally fixed Envs, including a 201C 433C (DS) variant specifically recognized by broadly neutralizing antibodies. DS-Env retained nanomolar affinity for the CD4 receptor, with which it formed an asymmetric intermediate: a closed trimer bound by a single CD4 without the typical antigenic hallmarks of CD4 induction. Antigenicity-guided structural design can thus be used both to delineate mechanism and to fix conformation, with DS-Env trimers in virus-like-particle and soluble formats providing a new generation of vaccine antigens.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recombinant subunit vaccines should contain minimal non-pathogen motifs to reduce potential off-target reactivity. We recently developed a vaccine antigen against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), which comprised the fusion (F) glycoprotein stabilized in its pre-fusion trimeric conformation by "DS-Cav1" mutations and by an appended C-terminal trimerization motif or "foldon" from T4-bacteriophage fibritin. Here we investigate the creation of a cysteine zipper to allow for the removal of the phage foldon, while maintaining the immunogenicity of the parent DS-Cav1+foldon antigen. Constructs without foldon yielded RSV F monomers, and enzymatic removal of the phage foldon from pre-fusion F trimers resulted in their dissociation into monomers. Because the native C terminus of the pre-fusion RSV F ectodomain encompasses a viral trimeric coiled-coil, we explored whether introduction of cysteine residues capable of forming inter-protomer disulfides might allow for stable trimers. Structural modeling indicated the introduced cysteines to form disulfide "rings", with each ring comprising a different set of inward facing residues of the coiled-coil. Three sets of rings could be placed within the native RSV F coiled-coil, and additional rings could be added by duplicating portions of the coiled-coil. High levels of neutralizing activity in mice, equivalent to that of the parent DS-Cav1+foldon antigen, were elicited by a 4-ring stabilized RSV F trimer with no foldon. Structure-based alteration of a viral coiled-coil to create a cysteine zipper thus allows a phage trimerization motif to be removed from a candidate vaccine antigen.
PLoS ONE 06/2015; 10(6):e0128779. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0128779 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Unlabelled:
Accumulating evidence indicates a role for Fc receptor (FcR)-mediated effector functions of antibodies, including antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC), in prevention of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) acquisition and in postinfection control of viremia. Consequently, an understanding of the molecular basis for Env epitopes that constitute effective ADCC targets is of fundamental interest for humoral anti-HIV-1 immunity and for HIV-1 vaccine design. A substantial portion of FcR effector function of potentially protective anti-HIV-1 antibodies is directed toward nonneutralizing, transitional, CD4-inducible (CD4i) epitopes associated with the gp41-reactive region of gp120 (cluster A epitopes). Our previous studies defined the A32-like epitope within the cluster A region and mapped it to the highly conserved and mobile layers 1 and 2 of the gp120 inner domain within the C1-C2 regions of gp120. Here, we elucidate additional cluster A epitope structures, including an A32-like epitope, recognized by human monoclonal antibody (MAb) N60-i3, and a hybrid A32-C11-like epitope, recognized by rhesus macaque MAb JR4. These studies define for the first time a hybrid A32-C11-like epitope and map it to elements of both the A32-like subregion and the seven-layered β-sheet of the gp41-interactive region of gp120. These studies provide additional evidence that effective antibody-dependent effector function in the cluster A region depends on precise epitope targeting-a combination of epitope footprint and mode of antibody attachment. All together these findings help further an understanding of how cluster A epitopes are targeted by humoral responses.
HIV/AIDS has claimed the lives of over 30 million people. Although antiretroviral drugs can control viral replication, no vaccine has yet been developed to prevent the spread of the disease. Studies of natural HIV-1 infection, simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)- or simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV)-infected nonhuman primates (NHPs), and HIV-1-infected humanized mouse models, passive transfer studies in infants born to HIV-infected mothers, and the RV144 clinical trial have linked FcR-mediated effector functions of anti-HIV-1 antibodies with postinfection control of viremia and/or blocking viral acquisition. With this report we provide additional definition of the molecular determinants for Env antigen engagement which lead to effective antibody-dependent effector function directed to the nonneutralizing CD4-dependent epitopes in the gp41-reactive region of gp120. These findings have important implications for the development of an effective HIV-1 vaccine.
Journal of Virology 06/2015; 89(17). DOI:10.1128/JVI.01232-15 · 4.44 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) can prevent lentiviral infection in nonhuman primates and may slow the spread of human
immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Although protection by passive transfer of human bnAbs has been demonstrated in monkeys,
durable expression is essential for its broader use in humans. Gene-based expression of bnAbs provides a potential solution
to this problem, although immune responses to the viral vector or to the antibody may limit its durability and efficacy. Here,
we delivered an adeno-associated viral vector encoding a simianized form of a CD4bs bnAb, VRC07, and evaluated its immunogenicity
and protective efficacy. The expressed antibody circulated in macaques for 16 weeks at levels up to 66 μg/ml, although immune
suppression with cyclosporine (CsA) was needed to sustain expression. Gene-delivered simian VRC07 protected against simian-human
immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) infection in monkeys 5.5 weeks after treatment. Gene transfer of an anti-HIV antibody can therefore
protect against infection by viruses that cause AIDS in primates when the host immune responses are controlled.
IMPORTANCE Sustained interventions that can prevent HIV-1 infection are needed to halt the spread of the HIV-1 pandemic. The protective
capacity of anti-HIV antibody gene therapy has been established in mouse models of HIV-1 infection but has not been established
for primates. We show here a proof-of-concept that gene transfer of anti-HIV antibody genes can protect against infection
by viruses that cause AIDS in primates when host immune responses are controlled.
Journal of Virology 06/2015; 89(16):JVI.00908-15. DOI:10.1128/JVI.00908-15 · 4.44 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Broadly cross-reactive neutralizing antibodies (bNabs) represent powerful tools to combat human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection. Here, we examined whether HIV-1-specific bNabs are capable of cross-neutralizing distantly related simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIVs) infecting central (Pan troglodytes troglodytes) (SIVcpzPtt) and eastern (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) (SIVcpzPts) chimpanzees (n=11) as well as western gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) (SIVgor) (n=1). We found that bNabs directed against the CD4 binding site (n_10), peptidoglycans at the base of variable loop 3 (V3) (n=5), and epitopes at the interface of surface (gp120) and membrane-bound (gp41) envelope glycoproteins (n=5) failed to neutralize SIVcpz and SIVgor strains. In addition, apex V2-directed bNabs (n=3) as well as llama-derived (heavy chain only) antibodies (n=6) recognizing both the CD4 binding site and gp41 epitopes were either completely inactive or neutralized only a fraction of SIVcpzPtt strains. In contrast, one antibody targeting the membrane-proximal external region (MPER) of gp41 (10E8), functional CD4 and CCR5 receptor mimetics (eCD4-Ig, eCD4-Igmim2, CD4-218.3-E51, and CD4-218.3-E51-mim2), as well as mono- and bispecific anti-human CD4 (iMab and LM52) and CCR5 (PRO140, PRO140-10E8) receptor antibodies neutralized>90% of SIVcpz and SIVgor strains with low-nanomolar (0.13 to 8.4 nM) potency. Importantly, the latter antibodies blocked virus entry not only in TZM-bl cells but also in Cf2Th cells expressing chimpanzee CD4 and CCR5 and neutralized SIVcpz in chimpanzee CD4_ T cells, with 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50s) ranging from 3.6 to 40.5 nM. These findings provide new insight into the protective capacity of anti-HIV-1 bNabs and identify candidates for further development to combat SIVcpz infection.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Eliciting broad tier 2 neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) is a major goal of HIV-1 vaccine research. Here we investigated the ability of native, membrane-expressed JR-FL Env trimers to elicit nAbs. Unusually potent nAb titers developed in 2 of 8 rabbits immunized with virus-like particles (VLPs) expressing trimers (trimer VLP sera) and in 1 of 20 rabbits immunized with DNA expressing native Env trimer, followed by a protein boost (DNA trimer sera). All 3 sera neutralized via quaternary epitopes and exploited natural gaps in the glycan defenses of the second conserved region of JR-FL gp120. Specifically, trimer VLP sera took advantage of the unusual absence of a glycan at residue 197 (present in 98.7% of Envs). Intriguingly, removing the N197 glycan (with no loss of tier 2 phenotype) rendered 50% or 16.7% (n = 18) of clade B tier 2 isolates sensitive to the two trimer VLP sera, showing broad neutralization via the surface masked by the N197 glycan. Neutralizing sera targeted epitopes that overlap with the CD4 binding site, consistent with the role of the N197 glycan in a putative "glycan fence" that limits access to this region. A bioinformatics analysis suggested shared features of one of the trimer VLP sera and monoclonal antibody PG9, consistent with its trimer-dependency. The neutralizing DNA trimer serum took advantage of the absence of a glycan at residue 230, also proximal to the CD4 binding site and suggesting an epitope similar to that of monoclonal antibody 8ANC195, albeit lacking tier 2 breadth. Taken together, our data show for the first time that strain-specific holes in the glycan fence can allow the development of tier 2 neutralizing antibodies to native spikes. Moreover, cross-neutralization can occur in the absence of protecting glycan. Overall, our observations provide new insights that may inform the future development of a neutralizing antibody vaccine.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: For nearly 20 years, the principal biological function of the HIV-2/SIV Vpx gene has been thought to be required for optimal virus replication in myeloid cells. Mechanistically, this Vpx activity was recently reported to involve the degradation of Sterile Alpha Motif and HD domain-containing protein 1 (SAMHD1) in this cell lineage. Here we show that when macaques were inoculated with either the T cell tropic SIVmac239 or the macrophage tropic SIVmac316 carrying a Vpx point mutation that abrogates the recruitment of DCAF1 and the ensuing degradation of endogenous SAMHD1 in cultured CD4+ T cells, virus acquisition, progeny virion production in memory CD4+ T cells during acute infection, and the maintenance of set-point viremia were greatly attenuated. Revertant viruses emerging in two animals exhibited an augmented replication phenotype in memory CD4+ T lymphocytes both in vitro and in vivo, which was associated with reduced levels of endogenous SAMHD1. These results indicate that a critical role of Vpx in vivo is to promote the degradation of SAMHD1 in memory CD4+ T lymphocytes, thereby generating high levels of plasma viremia and the induction of immunodeficiency.