[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:Diffusion-weighted imaging can be used to characterize brain maturation. MR imaging of the fetus is used in cases of suspected Chiari II malformation when further evaluation of the posterior fossa is required. We sought to investigate whether there were any quantitative ADC abnormalities of the cerebellum in fetuses with this malformation.MATERIALS AND METHODS:Measurements from ROIs acquired in each cerebellar hemisphere and the pons were obtained from calculated ADC maps performed on our Avanto 1.5T imaging system. Values in groups of patients with Chiari II malformations were compared with those from fetuses with structurally normal brains, allowing for the dependent variable of GA by using linear regression analysis.RESULTS:There were 8 fetuses with Chiari II malformations and 23 healthy fetuses, ranging from 20 to 31 GW. There was a significant linear decline in the cerebellar ADC values with advancing gestation in our healthy fetus group, as expected. The ADC values of the cerebellum of fetuses with Chiari II malformation were higher [1820 (±100) × 10(-6) mm(2)/s] than ADC values in the healthy fetuses (1370 ± 70) × 10(-6) mm(2)/s. This was statistically significant, even when allowing for the dependent variable of GA (P = .0126). There was no significant difference between the pons ADC values in these groups (P = .645).CONCLUSIONS:While abnormal white matter organization or early cerebellar degeneration could potentially contribute to our findings, the most plausible explanation pertains to abnormalities of CSF drainage in the posterior fossa, with increased extracellular water possibly accounting for this phenomenon.
American Journal of Neuroradiology 05/2013; · 3.17 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mutations in the FKRP gene account for a broad spectrum of patients ranging from CMD to a much milder LGMD2I. The involvement of the eyes can be variable with most patients having normal eye examination. We describe eye abnormalities in a child with Walker–Warburg phenotype due to a novel FKRP gene mutation in exon 3 and compare these with other reported cases with FKRP mutation. A boy was born to a G6P3L2 woman from Ghana. The couple was non-consanguineous and a previous pregnancy was interrupted for occipital encephalocele. Antenatal ultrasound showed severe hydrocephalus and delivery was by caesarian section at term. He had hypotonia, bilateral elbow contractures and very limited spontaneous movements. His creatine kinase was 6664 IU/L. Brain MRI showed massive hydrocephalus, diffuse cobblestone lissencephaly, hypomyelination, cerebellar cortical dysplasia, hypoplastic pons and deformed brainstem with fusion of colliculi. Eye examination revealed right micropthalmia, nonreactive pupils, absent red reflex, very deep anterior chamber with retrolental fibrovascular tissue. B scan showed closed funnel and total retinal unattachment. The left eye had shallow anterior chamber, tunica vasculosa lentis and clear lens, persistent vascular membrane, hypoplastic optic nerve, retinal pigmentary epithelium and vitreous hemorrhage. Fluorescein angiography revealed large areas of capillary dropouts and non perfusion ischemic retina. DNA testing showed two mutations in the FKRP gene: Exon 3:c.558dupC (p.Ala187fs) and Exon 3:c.1418T>G (p.Phe473cys).Patients with FKRP gene mutation have no or mild eye involvement (strabismus) with very few cases reported with moderate to severe eye involvement. Our patient represents one of the most severe phenotypes described in regards to eye involvement.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective was to determine the risk of sampling error in amniocentesis and chorionic villus sampling (CVS) in singleton and multiple pregnancies. Data from this and other published studies were used to discuss current practice guidelines for molecular identity testing.
Clinical and laboratory records of all patients undergoing molecular-based identity testing in our clinical laboratory from July 2002 until March 2008 were reviewed. DNA microsatellite testing was performed to determine zygosity in multiple pregnancies and maternal cell contamination (MCC) in both singleton and multiple pregnancies.
MCC was detected in 6/148 (4%) CVS and 1/87 (1%) amniotic fluids from singleton pregnancies. In two of the CVS, only maternal cells were found. In 2/24 (8%) twin pregnancies, the same fetus was tested twice. In a total of 285 pregnancies (235 singleton, 24 twin, 26 with >or= 3 fetuses), without molecular identity testing, four women would have received erroneous results.
Current guidelines recommend molecular identity testing for MCC in conjunction with molecular diagnostic testing, but not for cytogenetic testing. No published guidelines were found for zygosity testing in multiple pregnancies. We suggest that identity testing be considered for all prenatal testing of multiple pregnancies, especially if CVS is performed.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ciliary disorders share typical features, such as polydactyly, renal and biliary cystic dysplasia, and retinitis pigmentosa, which often overlap across diagnostic entities. We report on two siblings of consanguineous parents and two unrelated children, both of unrelated parents, with co-occurrence of Joubert syndrome and Jeune asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy, an association that adds to the observation of common final patterns of malformations in ciliary disorders. Using homozygosity mapping in the siblings, we were able to exclude all known genes/loci for both syndromes except for INVS, AHI1, and three genes from the previously described Jeune locus at 15q13. No pathogenic variants were found in these genes by direct sequencing. In the third child reported, sequencing of RPGRIP1L, ARL13B, AHI1, TMEM67, OFD1, CC2D2A, and deletion analysis of NPHP1 showed no mutations. Although this study failed to identify a mutation in the patients tested, the co-occurrence of Joubert and Jeune syndromes is likely to represent a distinct entity caused by mutations in a yet to be discovered gene. The mechanisms by which certain organ systems are affected more than others in the spectrum of ciliary diseases remain largely unknown.
American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A 06/2010; 152A(6):1411-9. · 2.30 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Deletions that encompass 2q31.1 have been proposed as a microdeletion syndrome with common clinical features, including intellectual disability/developmental delay, microcephaly, cleft palate, growth delay, and hand/foot anomalies. In addition, several genes within this region have been proposed as candidates for split hand-foot malformation 5 (SHFM5). Methods: To delineate the genotype-phenotype correlation between deletions of this region, we identified 14 individuals with deletions at 2q31.1 detected by microarray analysis for physical and developmental disabilities. Results: All subjects for whom detailed clinical records were available had neurological deficits of varying degree. Seven subjects with deletions encompassing the HOXD cluster had hand/foot anomalies of varying severity, including syndactyly, brachydactyly, and ectrodactyly. Of 7 subjects with deletions proximal to the HOXD cluster, 5 of which encompassed DLX1/DLX2, none had clinically significant hand/foot anomalies. In contrast to previous reports, the individuals in our study did not display a characteristic gestalt of dysmorphic facial features. Conclusion: The absence of hand/foot anomalies in any of the individuals with deletions of DLX1/DLX2 but not the HOXD cluster supports the hypothesis that haploinsufficiency of the HOXD cluster, rather than DLX1/DLX2, accounts for the skeletal abnormalities in subjects with 2q31.1 microdeletions.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Combined immunodeficiency (SCID) can be isolated and involve the immune system only or associated with abnormalities affecting other organs, mainly the skeletal and neurological systems. We report on sisters, born to consanguineous parents, with CID, facial dysmorphism, developmental delay, optic atrophy, myoclonic seizures, and skeletal anomalies. To the best of our knowledge, this is a hitherto new syndrome with most probably autosomal recessive inheritance and unknown etiology.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Screening studies for trisomy 21 demonstrate that low maternal serum pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) at 11-13 weeks' gestation is associated with stillbirth, intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and pre-eclampsia in chromosomally normal fetuses. However, the strength of these associations is too weak to justify screening for these placental insufficiency syndromes. Our objective was to evaluate placental size and uterine artery (UtA) Doppler imaging as second-stage screening tests for women with low PAPP-A.
We prospectively studied 90 normal singleton pregnancies with first-trimester PAPP-A </= 0.30 multiples of the median. Maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) at 15-18 weeks' gestation, and second-trimester placental size and UtA Doppler indices were assessed as predictors of pregnancy outcome.
The risks of IUGR, preterm delivery before 32 weeks' gestation and stillbirth were significantly associated with small placental size (relative risk (RR), 3.96; 95% CI, 2.21-5.98; RR, 3.96; 95% CI, 2.21-5.98; and RR, 6.44, 95% CI, 2.74-14.54, respectively) and elevated AFP (RR, 3.67; 95% CI, 1.78-7.71; RR, 2.48; 95% CI, 1.23-4.94; and RR, 5.14; 95% CI, 1.66-16.85, respectively), but not with abnormal UtA Doppler indices. The combination of elevated AFP and small placental size further increased the risk of IUGR (RR, 4.88; 95% CI, 2.88-5.31), delivery before 32 weeks' gestation (RR, 4.25; 95% CI, 2.38-4.98) and stillbirth (RR, 7.44; 95% CI, 3.04-3.75).
Small placental size and elevated AFP, but not UtA Doppler indices, identify women with low PAPP-A at high risk of IUGR, extreme preterm delivery and stillbirth. These additional screening tests may directly improve perinatal outcomes in women with low PAPP-A.
Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology 09/2009; 34(3):274-82. · 3.56 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The clinical outcome of prenatally diagnosed congenital heart defects (CHD) continues to be affected significantly by associated extracardiac and chromosomal abnormalities. We sought to: determine the frequency and type of major extracardiac abnormalities (with impact on quality of life) and chromosomal abnormalities associated with fetal CHD; and compare the extracardiac abnormalities detected prenatally to the postnatal and autopsy findings in affected fetuses, to find the incidence of extracardiac abnormalities missed on prenatal ultrasound.
We reviewed the computerized database of the Division of Cardiology of the Hospital for Sick Children in Toronto to identify all cases of major CHD detected prenatally from 1990 to 2002. Medical records, fetal echocardiograms and ultrasound, cytogenetic and autopsy reports were reviewed. The types of CHD detected were grouped into categories and the frequencies of major extracardiac and chromosomal abnormalities in these categories were noted. Prenatal ultrasound findings were compared with those at autopsy or postnatal examination.
Of 491 fetuses with major structural CHD, complete data were obtained for 382. Of these, there were 141 (36.9%) with major extracardiac abnormalities at autopsy or postnatal exam, of which 46 had chromosomal abnormalities and 95 did not. In the absence of chromosomal abnormalities, the organ systems most affected were urogenital (12.2%) and gastrointestinal (11.6%). CHDs with the highest incidence of extracardiac abnormalities (>25%) included: heterotaxy, single left ventricle and tricuspid atresia, hypoplastic left heart syndrome and tetralogy of Fallot. Ninety-four of 334 (28.1%) fetuses tested had chromosomal abnormalities. The most common chromosomal abnormalities were trisomies 21 (43.6%), 18 (19.1%) and 13 (9.6%), monosomy X (7.4%) and 22q11.2 deletion (7.4%). Of 289 extracardiac abnormalities from the complete series, 134 (46.4%) were not identified prenatally. Of the missed extracardiac abnormalities, 65 were considered not detectable at prenatal ultrasound, so 23.9% (69/289) of detectable extracardiac abnormalities were missed prenatally.
Major extracardiac and chromosomal abnormalities are common in fetuses with major fetal CHD. Many important associated extracardiac abnormalities may be missed prenatally, which should be taken into consideration in the prenatal counseling for fetal CHD.
Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology 04/2009; 33(5):552-9. · 3.56 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report the prenatal ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging finding of periventricular, large subependymal pseudocysts (SEPCs) in a patient who was later diagnosed as having mitochondrial depletion syndrome (MDS). To our knowledge, this is the first report of fetal SEPCs in a patient with MDS. These findings may provide an important diagnostic tool for prenatal diagnosis of MDS in at risk pregnancies when the gene mutation causing the condition has not been delineated. It may also direct the neonatologist in the postnatal care of the newborn detected prenatally with SEPCs in view of the association of this finding with infection, chromosome abnormalities, metabolic disorders and other abnormalities, when such findings are identified serendipitously. Further research is needed to find if the SEPCs detected in our patient is an association or a coincidental finding.
Fetal Diagnosis and Therapy 04/2009; 25(2):177-82. · 1.90 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rhombencephalosynapsis is a rare, but increasingly recognized, brain malformation characterized by congenital fusion of the cerebellar hemispheres and absence of the vermis. Rhombencephalosynapsis is associated with significant developmental delay, seizures and involuntary head movements. We report four cases, with correlation of prenatal and postnatal imaging and autopsy findings.
Over a 2-year period, four cases of rhombencephalosynapsis were diagnosed in the perinatal period, three in one center and one in another center. The clinical cases were reviewed, and correlation was made between the prenatal and postnatal imaging and autopsy findings where available.
All cases presented initially with ventriculomegaly on prenatal ultrasound examination. Subsequent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) established the diagnosis in two cases and postnatal MRI established the diagnosis in a further two cases. Autopsy was available and confirmed the diagnosis in two cases. In one case the pregnancy was terminated, two infants died in the neonatal period and one died in infancy.
The cases in this perinatal series of rhombencephalosynapsis showed a very poor prognosis. The presence of ventriculomegaly on prenatal ultrasound imaging should alert the physician to consider rhombencephalosynapsis in the differential diagnosis. MRI appears to be the imaging modality of choice in establishing the diagnosis.
Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology 06/2008; 31(5):542-8. · 3.56 Impact Factor