[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: ABSTRACT: The acute phase protein (APP) response is an early systemic sign of disease, detected as substantial changes in APP serum concentrations and most disease states involving inflammatory reactions give rise to APP responses. To obtain a detailed picture of the general utility of porcine APPs to detect any disease with an inflammatory component seven porcine APPs were analysed in serum sampled at regular intervals in six different experimental challenge groups of pigs, including three bacterial (Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, Streptococcus suis, Mycoplasma hyosynoviae), one parasitic (Toxoplasma gondii) and one viral (porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus) infection and one aseptic inflammation. Immunochemical analyses of seven APPs, four positive (C-reactive protein (CRP), haptoglobin (Hp), pig major acute phase protein (pigMAP) and serum amyloid A (SAA)) and three negative (albumin, transthyretin, and apolipoprotein A1 (apoA1)) were performed in the more than 400 serum samples constituting the serum panel. This was followed by advanced statistical treatment of the data using a multi-step procedure which included defining cut-off values and calculating detection probabilities for single APPs and for APP combinations. Combinations of APPs allowed the detection of disease more sensitively than any individual APP and the best three-protein combinations were CRP, apoA1, pigMAP and CRP, apoA1, Hp, respectively, closely followed by the two-protein combinations CRP, pigMAP and apoA1, pigMAP, respectively. For the practical use of such combinations, methodology is described for establishing individual APP threshold values, above which, for any APP in the combination, ongoing infection/inflammation is indicated.
Veterinary Research 03/2011; 42(1):50. DOI:10.1186/1297-9716-42-50 · 3.38 Impact Factor
Tropical Viral Diseases of Large Domestic Animals- Part 1, Advances in Medical and Veterinary Virology, Immunology, and Epidemiology- Vol. 7 edited by Thankam Mathew, 01/2010: chapter Chapter 9 (Section C): pages 641-667.; Xlibris Corporation, United Kingdom., ISBN: 978-1-4415-8160-0
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present report describes a novel chicken model in which reactive (AA) joint amyloidosis arises ajier a single injection of Enterococcus faecalis isolated from jield outbreaks of reactive amyloid arthropathy in domestic fowl. All six week old brown layer pullets injected intravenously with 109 or 109 colony forming units developed reactive amyloid arthropathy. Amyloid masses were also present in internal organs. The first articular amyloid deposits were observed 5 days after injection. in internal organs, deposits were encountered fiom day 13 onwards. on intra-articular injection, amyloid arthropathy developed particularly in Ihe target joint and in the internal organs.
This model ofAA amyloid arthropathy may contribute in future studies to unravel the pathogenesis of the tissue predilection of amyloid deposition and 05 amyloid arthropathy in general.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have previously immunologically typed amyloid protein extracted from a horse with malignant histiolymtphocytic lymphosarcoma as immunoglobulin (Ig)-derived amylaid. In the present paper, the Ig character of the horse amyloid is confirmed by the amino acid sequence of the constituent protein. Its major component is identified as a 217-residue complete horse λ light chain. On the basis of sequence homology, the variable (V) and joining (J) segments were most closely related to those encoded by the equine Vλ2- and JλI-gene families, respectively. Notably, the constant (C) region, although most closely related to the CλI-gene, differed from the prototypic sequence by five residues. These findings have provided further evidence that proteolytic precleavage of the precursor is not essential in light-chain-associated (AL) amyloidogenesis. In addition to establishing the first complete amino acid sequence of a horse Ig light chain, the discovery of a unique C-region primary structure implies extensive CλI polymorphism or the existence of a heretofore unrecognized equine Cλ gene.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to establish the location of cartilage canals in the medial coronoid process (MCP) of the ulna of young Golden Retrievers, a breed that is predisposed to fractures of the medial coronoid process (FMCP). To determine whether the presence of cartilage canals could be associated with the predilection site of FMCP, the right elbows of nine young Golden Retrievers (aged 4, 6, 8, 10, 13, 16, 18, 22 and 24 weeks) were dissected and, with no prior decalcification, the formaldehyde-fixed MCPs were embedded in methylmethacrylate. The entire MCPs were serially sectioned in the frontal plane from cranial to caudal and the sections (5 microm) were routinely stained. Between the ages of 5 and 10 weeks, three main cartilage canals were visible--medial, central and lateral. All originated from the periosteum of the distal parts of the MCP and ended proximally under the articular cartilage. Branches of the main canals were seen more cranially and caudally. At the age of 13 weeks, the central canal was absent, and the remaining canals showed a smaller diameter. From 16 weeks onwards, no cartilage canals were seen. No direct relationship could be established between the predilection site of FMCP (lateral part of the MCP) and the presence/absence of cartilage canals, since both medial and lateral canals disappeared at the same age. Further research is needed to elucidate the pathogenesis of FMCP.
The Veterinary Journal 07/2008; 176(3):333-7. DOI:10.1016/j.tvjl.2007.03.012 · 2.17 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this research was to identify pig welfare indicators that could help in recognizing stressful practices on farm. The study evaluated behavioral and physiological indicators (cortisol and negative acute phase proteins) in 2 groups of 20 female pigs 4 months old after a 48-hr transport. The first group (A) was transported at the end of May, the second (B) in June. Behavioral observations and blood collection occurred at arrival (D1) and 28 days later (D28). Compared with within-animal control samples obtained 28 days later, pigs of Group A had increased cortisol levels and decreased albumin concentrations after arrival. As demonstrated by lesion and behavior observations, the effect on cortisol and albumin was higher in Group B pigs after a tail-biting episode occurred. The study has reported no evidence of Retinol Binding Protein (RBP) in pigs. A method developed for swine RBP quantification found RBP strongly reduced in D28 samples of Group B, confirming it to be a negative protein in pigs. The suggested combination of physiological and behavioral indicators could provide useful information on the welfare state of an animal.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Serum amyloid A (SAA) is of interest as the circulating precursor of amyloid A protein, the fibrillar component of AA (secondary) amyloid deposits, and also as an extremely sensitive and rapid major acute phase protein. Serum concentrations of acute phase proteins (APPs) provide valuable information about the diagnosis and prognosis of various diseases, and thus the relevance of APPs for monitoring the health status of domestic animals is widely accepted. More importantly, the measurement of SAA concentration assists in assessing the prognosis in secondary amyloidosis, which is a common disease of geese, affecting an increasing number of animals. In the present study we introduce a highly sensitive goose-specific ELISA method for measuring SAA concentration in goose serum or plasma samples. Samples were taken from geese of the Landes Grey and Hungarian White breeds, which were stimulated for an acute phase reaction by administration of a commercially available fowl cholera vaccine containing inactivated Pasteurella multocida. Strong and characteristically rapid acute phase responses were measured in both breeds, peaking at approximately 24 h after inoculation. The maximum SAA concentration was 1200 microg/ml. At 72 h postinoculation, the concentrations returned to pre-inoculation values. There was significantly (p = 0.004) less intense response in the control groups; however, a very mild increase of SAA levels was detected due to the stress inevitably caused by the sampling procedure.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present study describes a subclinical necrotizing granulomatous hepatitis in normal broilers routinely slaughtered in a medium-sized (72,000 birds per day) abattoir in the Netherlands. An exploratory investigation was scheduled on line during 20-min periods for 82 flocks (3000 birds examined per period). Liver and duodenum samples were collected for histopathology from 365 birds with liver pathology. Bacteriology was performed from 240 livers with lesions and 80 control livers. In addition to the hepatic pathology, other gross lesions of the carcasses, such as footpad dermatitis and broken legs/wings, were noted. The average prevalence for gross liver lesions was 0.16% (ranging from 0% to 0.63% per flock); 89.59% of the livers were enlarged, had a firm consistency, and revealed multifocal necrotic spots. Microscopically, 51.66% showed a granulomatous reaction in addition to the necrosis. There was no consistent anaerobic or aerobic bacterial growth in comparison to normal livers. A large proportion of the livers revealed growth of Escherichia coli, Bacteroides spp., Lactobacillus spp., Staphylococcus spp., and Streptococcus spp., and this was often with more than one type of bacterial colony. The duodenum mucosa grossly showed some redness with a mucous mass on its surface. Microscopically (n = 176) in 5.70% there were no changes in anatomy and cellular activities; 64.20% had a mildly increased number of lymphoid cells and heterophils in the lamina propria and between villus epithelial cells. The remaining 30.10% had moderate degenerative changes of villus epithelium with a mixed cellular infiltration in the lamina propria; 23.29% of the duodenum samples contained coccidia (infestation stage: mild to moderate). Signs of overgrowth with Clostridium spp. were not observed. There was a small, but significant correlation (rs = 0.30; P = 0.006) between prevalence of liver pathology and footpad dermatitis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate tenascin-C (TN) immunolabelling and labelling for endothelium by von Willebrand Factor (vWF) in melanocytic tumours of dogs as compared with normal tissues, to evaluate the TN distribution in these types of tumours and to investigate whether a relation could be established between TN and angiogenesis in different types of tumour. Samples of normal dog skin (n=8), benign skin melanocytomas (n=10), malignant oral melanomas (n=9) and malignant toe melanomas (n=5) were studied. The percentages of TN and vWF immunolabelling per total microscopical area were analysed by morphometric methods. In normal skin, TN was found at dermo-epidermal junctions, around hair follicles, in the smooth muscles of hair follicles, and in the walls of blood vessels. TN immunolabelling (distribution and intensity) in melanocytomas was comparable with that found in normal skin. In melanomas, TN expression was considerably increased, its intensity in toe melanomas being twice that observed in oral melanomas. The degree of TN immunolabelling was not related to the histological malignancy of the melanomas. In melanomas, TN was found in the connective tissue surrounding the tumour cell nests and in narrow stromal strands inside the tumour. Regions infiltrated with lymphocytes were devoid of TN. The presence of TN around capillaries in melanocytomas and melanomas was investigated by double-immunolabelling (for TN and vWF). The intensity of vWF and TN immunolabelling was higher in melanomas than in melanocytomas, and higher in toe melanomas than in oral melanomas; however, no clear relation between TN expression and immunolabelling for vWF was found.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hepatic granuloma is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by a granulomatous reaction with accumulation of macrophages and/or epithelioid cells, which may fuse to form multinucleated giant cells. The hepatic granulomas typically have a surrounding rim of lymphocytes and fibrous tissues. The etiology of some hepatic granulomas in birds is well known. It could be due to viral, bacterial, fungal, protozoal, or helminthic infection. The presence of these pathogens in the liver is usually through systemic infections that might preferentially colonize the liver or be opportunistic invaders. Persistence of these pathogens infecting the liver can lead to granulomatous inflammation with different gross lesions and histopathologic patterns depending on the causative agent. This review describes the etiology, clinical signs, pathological changes, and diagnosis in a wide variety of diseases associated with hepatic granulomas in birds in which the detection of granulomatous inflammation is an aid in the differential diagnosis.
The Veterinary quarterly 10/2006; 28(3):82-9. DOI:10.1080/01652176.2006.9695213 · 0.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To survive and produce milk, postpartum dairy cows use their reserves through lipolysis. If the negative energy balance is severe, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) are formed that can impair several physiological processes. A pilot study suggested that increased walking activity after calving may be related to a reduced serum concentration of NEFA. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between plasma concentrations of NEFA and walking activity in dairy cattle during the postpartum period. Data were collected from 33 multiparous Holstein-Friesian dairy cows. Walking activities were quantified using pedometry, and blood samples were collected for determination of NEFA. Results of this study indicated that a negative relationship existed between walking activity and plasma NEFA concentrations in postpartum dairy cows.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Swine influenza is a highly infectious viral disease of pigs, causing considerable economic impact. The causative agent is known as a type A orthomyxovirus with a segmented RNA genome. Influenza type A virus is a highly contagious pathogen among a limited number of birds and mammals. The objective of this review is to summarize the current knowledge in swine influenza infection in pigs with emphasizing on epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnostic techniques and control measures.
The Veterinary quarterly 07/2006; 28(2):46-53. DOI:10.1080/01652176.2006.9695207 · 0.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In domestic brown layer fowl, reactive amyloidosis of internal organs, such as liver and spleen, and of the joints is a common disorder. In a variety of amyloid types including the AA-amyloid of the chicken, in addition to amyloid fibrils, proteoglycans and glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are found on immunohistochemistry or after extraction. The aim of the present report is to study amyloid fibrils for the ultrastructural location of GAGs by cuprolinic blue staining and immunogold labeling. Rabbit antichicken AA antiserum was used for the immunogold labeling on conventionally embedded and cryoembedded liver tissue and revealed similar results. Therefore conventional blocks could be used for further analysis. Cuprolinic blue staining was performed on blocks of joint tissue in which clearly discernable rod-shaped glycoproteins were encountered in between collagen fibrils. Moreover, it appeared to stain larger deposits which might represent amyloid. Postlabeling with the immunogold method of the cuprolinic blue-stained tissue proved that cuprolinic blue positive fibrils represented AA-amyloid fibrils. Therefore, it was concluded that the GAGs which appeared to colocalize with the fibrillar microanatomy of amyloid, represent a structural part of the amyloid fibrils and that the avian amyloid fibrils may be considered as a pathological proteoglycan.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A systemic acute phase reaction may develop during infection and inflammation, due to the action of peripherally liberated proinflammatory cytokines. Hepatic metabolism changes, and negative and positive acute phase proteins (APPs) can be measured in the blood: the APPs therefore represent appropriate analytes to assess health. While they are non-specific markers, their levels change with biological effects and this can be used to assess nutritional deficits and reactive processes, especially when positive and negative acute phase variables are combined in an index. Unfortunately, at present, no comprehensive, easy-to-use and cheap system is available to assess various acute phase proteins in serum or blood samples. Protein micro-array technology may satisfy this need; it will permit simultaneous analysis of numerous analytes in the same small volume sample and enable integration of information derived from systemic reactivity and nutrition with disease-specific variables. Applying such technology may help to address health problems in many countries.