[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: During insulin resistance, glucose homeostasis is maintained by an increase in plasma insulin via increased secretion and/or decreased first-pass hepatic insulin extraction. However, the relative importance of insulin secretion vs. clearance to compensate for insulin resistance in obesity has yet to be determined. This study utilizes the fat-fed dog model to examine longitudinal changes in insulin secretion and first-pass hepatic insulin extraction during development of obesity and insulin resistance. Six dogs were fed an isocaloric diet with an approximately 8% increase in fat calories for 12 wk and evaluated at weeks 0, 6, and 12 for changes in 1) insulin sensitivity by euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp, 2) first-pass hepatic insulin extraction by direct assessment, and 3) glucose-stimulated insulin secretory response by hyperglycemic clamp. We found that 12 wk of a fat diet increased subcutaneous and visceral fat as assessed by MR imaging. Consistent with increased body fat, the dogs exhibited a approximately 30% decrease in insulin sensitivity and fasting hyperinsulinemia. Although insulin secretion was substantially increased at week 6, beta-cell sensitivity returned to prediet levels by week 12. However, peripheral hyperinsulinemia was maintained because of a significant decrease in first-pass hepatic insulin extraction, thus maintaining hyperinsulinemia, despite changes in insulin release. Our results indicate that when obesity and insulin resistance are induced by an isocaloric, increased-fat diet, an initial increase in insulin secretion by the beta-cells is followed by a decrease in first-pass hepatic insulin extraction. This may provide a secondary physiological mechanism to preserve pancreatic beta-cell function during insulin resistance.
AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism 07/2007; 292(6):E1581-9. · 4.51 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Obesity is strongly associated with hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance, both primary risk factors for type 2 diabetes. It has been thought that increased fasting free fatty acids (FFA) may be responsible for the development of insulin resistance during obesity, causing an increase in plasma glucose levels, which would then signal for compensatory hyperinsulinemia. But when obesity is induced by fat feeding in the dog model, there is development of insulin resistance and a marked increase in fasting insulin despite constant fasting FFA and glucose. We examined the 24-h plasma profiles of FFA, glucose, and other hormones to observe any potential longitudinal postprandial or nocturnal alterations that could lead to both insulin resistance and compensatory hyperinsulinemia induced by a high-fat diet in eight normal dogs. We found that after 6 wk of a high-fat, hypercaloric diet, there was development of significant insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia as well as accumulation of both subcutaneous and visceral fat without a change in either fasting glucose or postprandial glucose. Moreover, although there was no change in fasting FFA, there was a highly significant increase in the nocturnal levels of FFA that occurred as a result of fat feeding. Thus enhanced nocturnal FFA, but not glucose, may be responsible for development of insulin resistance and fasting hyperinsulinemia in the fat-fed dog model.
AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism 07/2007; 292(6):E1590-8. · 4.51 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Identifying the genetic variants that increase the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D) in humans has been a formidable challenge. Adopting a genome-wide association strategy, we genotyped 1161 Finnish T2D cases and 1174 Finnish normal glucose-tolerant (NGT) controls with >315,000 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and imputed genotypes for an additional >2 million autosomal SNPs. We carried out association analysis with these SNPs to identify genetic variants that predispose to T2D, compared our T2D association results with the results of two similar studies, and genotyped 80 SNPs in an additional 1215 Finnish T2D cases and 1258 Finnish NGT controls. We identify T2D-associated variants in an intergenic region of chromosome 11p12, contribute to the identification of T2D-associated variants near the genes IGF2BP2 and CDKAL1 and the region of CDKN2A and CDKN2B, and confirm that variants near TCF7L2, SLC30A8, HHEX, FTO, PPARG, and KCNJ11 are associated with T2D risk. This brings the number of T2D loci now confidently identified to at least 10.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Visceral adiposity has been identified as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease and the so-called metabolic syndrome. The canine obesity model closely recapitulates the correlation between human visceral adiposity and insulin resistance. A recent canine study indicates that insulin expands the volume of distribution associated with skeletal muscle, and that its ability to enhance macromolecular distribution within this space is blunted in the fat-fed obese canine model. Our canine study supports the portal theory of insulin resistance, in which free fatty acids (FFAs) from visceral fat directly enter the liver and have a detrimental effect on insulin action. The role of adipokines in this condition remains less clear. Sympathetic nervous system hyperactivity in obesity may also contribute to excessive FFA release, hypertension, and insulin resistance. Pathologies interrelated with insulin resistance include beta-cell hypersecretion, reduced insulin clearance, and resultant hyperinsulinemia. An observed nocturnal increase in plasma FFA levels may account for both insulin resistance and compensatory hyperinsulinemia and warrants further investigation. The elucidation of these interrelated pathologies may help reveal points where medical intervention can reduce metabolic disease.
The American journal of medicine 03/2007; 120(2 Suppl 1):S3-8; discussion S29-32. · 4.47 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to examine carefully heterogeneity underlying evidence for linkage to type 2 diabetes (T2DM) on chromosome 6q from two sets of FUSION families.
Ordered subsets analysis (OSA) was performed on two sets of FUSION families. For OSA results showing significant improvement in evidence for linkage, T2DM-related phenotypes were compared between individuals with T2DM within the subset versus the complement.
OSA analysis revealed 105 families with the highest average HDL to total cholesterol ratio (HDL ratio) that had strongly increased evidence for linkage (MLS = 7.91 at 78.0 cM; uncorrected p = 0.00002). Subjects with T2DM within this subset were significantly leaner, had lower fasting glucose, insulin, and C-peptide, and more favorable cardiovascular risk profile compared to the complement set of subjects with T2DM. OSA also revealed 33 families with the lowest average fasting insulin that had increased evidence for linkage at a second locus (MLS = 3.45 at 128 cM; uncorrected p = 0.017) coincident with quantitative trait locus linkage analysis results for fasting and 2-hour insulin in subjects without T2DM.
These results suggest two diabetes susceptibility loci on chromosome 6q that may affect subsets of individuals with a milder form of T2DM.
Human Heredity 02/2007; 63(1):17-25. · 1.57 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The study aimed to assess the frequency of hypoglycaemia during the insulin-modified, frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test (FSIVGTT) in overweight Hispanic children. The study included 210 children, mean age=11+/-1.7 years, BMI percentile=97.2+/-2.9 who where enrolled in a longitudinal study to explore risk factors for type 2 diabetes. Two fasting blood samples were collected to determine basal glucose and insulin concentrations. At time 0, glucose (0.3 g/kg body weight) was administered intravenously. Eleven blood samples were collected until 180 min post glucose injection. Insulin (0.02 U/kg body weight) was injected intravenously at 20 min. Plasma was analyzed for glucose and insulin and used for the determination of insulin sensitivity. Hypoglycaemia, defined as a plasma glucose<50 mg/dl, was observed in one asymptomatic subject (<0.5% subjects). In addition, only 1.9% of subjects (n=4) had plasma glucose<60 mg/dl at any time during the FSIVGTT. The frequency of hypoglycaemia during the insulin modified FSIVGTT is very low in overweight Hispanic youth.
International Journal of Pediatric Obesity 02/2007; 2(2):122-5. · 2.28 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Prior studies of Mexican Americans described association of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) gene haplotypes with insulin sensitivity/resistance and atherosclerosis. The most common haplotype (haplotype 1) was protective, whereas the fourth most common haplotype (haplotype 4) conferred risk for insulin resistance and atherosclerosis.
In this study of Hispanics in the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study Family Study, we sought to replicate LPL haplotype association with insulin sensitivity/resistance.
LPL haplotypes based on 12 single nucleotide polymorphisms were analyzed for association with indexes of insulin sensitivity and other metabolic and adiposity measures.
This study was conducted in the general community of San Antonio, Texas, and San Luis Valley, Colorado.
Participants in this study were 978 members of 86 Hispanic families.
LPL haplogenotype, metabolic phenotypes, and adiposity were measured in this study.
The haplotype structure was identical with that observed in prior studies. Among 978 phenotyped subjects, haplotype 1 was associated with decreased fasting insulin (P = 0.01), and haplotype 4 was associated with increased fasting insulin (P = 0.02) and increased visceral fat mass (P = 0.002). Insulin sensitivity, derived from iv glucose tolerance testing, tended (P > 0.1) to be higher with haplotype 1 (S(I) = 1.72) and lower with haplotype 4 (S(I)=1.38). Haplotype 2 was associated with increases in fasting insulin, triglycerides (TGs), TG to high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol ratio, and apolipoprotein B (P = 0.01-0.04).
This study independently replicates our prior results of LPL haplotypes 1 and 4 as associated with measures of insulin sensitivity and resistance, respectively. Haplotype 4 may confer insulin resistance by increasing visceral fat. Haplotype 2 was identified as a new risk haplotype, suggesting the complex nature of LPL's effect on features of the insulin resistance syndrome.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: More than 120 published reports have described associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and type 2 diabetes. However, multiple studies of the same variant have often been discordant. From a literature search, we identified previously reported type 2 diabetes-associated SNPs. We initially genotyped 134 SNPs on 786 index case subjects from type 2 diabetes families and 617 control subjects with normal glucose tolerance from Finland and excluded from analysis 20 SNPs in strong linkage disequilibrium (r(2) > 0.8) with another typed SNP. Of the 114 SNPs examined, we followed up the 20 most significant SNPs (P < 0.10) on an additional 384 case subjects and 366 control subjects from a population-based study in Finland. In the combined data, we replicated association (P < 0.05) for 12 SNPs: PPARG Pro12Ala and His447, KCNJ11 Glu23Lys and rs5210, TNF -857, SLC2A2 Ile110Thr, HNF1A/TCF1 rs2701175 and GE117881_360, PCK1 -232, NEUROD1 Thr45Ala, IL6 -598, and ENPP1 Lys121Gln. The replication of 12 SNPs of 114 tested was significantly greater than expected by chance under the null hypothesis of no association (P = 0.012). We observed that SNPs from genes that had three or more previous reports of association were significantly more likely to be replicated in our sample (P = 0.03), although we also replicated 4 of 58 SNPs from genes that had only one previous report of association.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Variants of uncoupling protein genes UCP1 and UCP2 have been associated with a range of traits. We wished to evaluate contributions of known UCP1 and UCP2 variants to metabolic traits in the Insulin Resistance and Atherosclerosis (IRAS) Family Study.
We genotyped five promoter or coding single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 239 African American (AA) participants and 583 Hispanic participants from San Antonio (SA) and San Luis Valley. Generalized estimating equations using a sandwich estimator of the variance and exchangeable correlation to account for familial correlation were computed for the test of genotypic association, and dominant, additive and recessive models. Tests were adjusted for age, gender and BMI (glucose homeostasis and lipid traits), or age and gender (obesity traits), and empirical P-values estimated using a gene dropping approach.
UCP1 A-3826G was associated with AIR(g) in AA (P = 0.006) and approached significance in Hispanic families (P = 0.054); and with HDL-C levels in SA families (P = 0.0004). Although UCP1 expression is reported to be restricted to adipose tissue, RT-PCR indicated that UCP1 is expressed in human pancreas and MIN-6 cells, and immunohistochemistry demonstrated co-localization of UCP1 protein with insulin in human islets. UCP2 A55V was associated with waist circumference (P = 0.045) in AA, and BMI in SA (P = 0.018); and UCP2 G-866A with waist-to-hip ratio in AA (P = 0.016).
This study suggests a functional variant of UCP1 contributes to the variance of AIR(g) in an AA population; the plausibility of this unexpected association is supported by the novel finding that UCP1 is expressed in islets.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The insulinotropic intestinal hormone GLP-1 is thought to exert one of its effects by direct action on the pancreatic beta-cell receptors. GLP-1 is rapidly degraded in plasma, such that only a small amount of the active form reaches the pancreas, making it questionable whether this amount is sufficient to produce a direct incretin effect. The aim of our study was to assess, in a dog model, the putative incretin action of GLP-1 acting directly on the beta-cell in the context of postprandial rises in GLP-1 and glucose. Conscious dogs were fed a high-fat, high-carbohydrate meal, and insulin response was measured. We also infused systemic glucose plus GLP-1, or glucose alone, to simulate the meal test values of these variables and measured insulin response. The results were as follows: during the meal, we measured a robust insulin response (52 +/- 9 to 136 +/- 14 pmol/l, P < 0.05 vs. basal) with increases in portal glucose and GLP-1 but only limited increases in systemic glucose (5.3 +/- 0.1 to 5.7 +/- 0.1 mmol/l, P = 0.1 vs. basal) and GLP-1 (6 +/- 0 to 9 +/- 1 pmol/l, P = 0.5 vs. basal). Exogenous infusion of systemic glucose and GLP-1 produced a moderate increase in insulin (43 +/- 5 to 84 +/- 15 pmol/l, 43% of the meal insulin). However, infusion of glucose alone, without GLP-1, produced a similar insulin response (37 +/- 6 to 82 +/- 14 pmol, 53% of the meal insulin, P = 0.7 vs. glucose and GLP-1 infusion). In conclusion, in dogs with postprandial rises in systemic glucose and GLP-1, the hormone might not have a direct insulinotropic effect and could regulate glycemia via indirect, portohepatic-initiated neural mechanisms.
AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism 10/2006; 291(4):E779-85. · 4.51 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Prior reports have suggested that variants in the genes for maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) may confer susceptibility to type 2 diabetes, but results have been conflicting and coverage of the MODY genes has been incomplete. To complement our previous studies of HNF4A, we examined the other five known MODY genes for association with type 2 diabetes in Finnish individuals. For each of the five genes, we selected 1) nonredundant single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (r(2)< 0.8 with other SNPs) from the HapMap database or another linkage disequilibrium map, 2) SNPs with previously reported type 2 diabetes association, and 3) nonsynonymous coding SNPs. We tested 128 SNPs for association with type 2 diabetes in 786 index cases from type 2 diabetic families and 619 normal glucose-tolerant control subjects. We followed up 35 of the most significant SNPs by genotyping them on another 384 case subjects and 366 control subjects from Finland. We also supplemented our previous HNF4A results by genotyping 12 SNPs on additional Finnish samples. After correcting for testing multiple correlated SNPs within a gene, we find evidence of type 2 diabetes association with SNPs in five of the six known MODY genes: GCK, HNF1A, HNF1B, NEUROD1, and HNF4A. Our data suggest that common variants in several MODY genes play a modest role in type 2 diabetes susceptibility.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2) is part of the Wnt signaling pathway. Genetic variants within TCF7L2 on chromosome 10q were recently reported to be associated with type 2 diabetes in Icelandic, Danish, and American (U.S.) samples. We previously observed a modest logarithm of odds score of 0.61 on chromosome 10q, approximately 1 Mb from TCF7L2, in the Finland-United States Investigation of NIDDM Genetics study. We tested the five associated TCF7L2 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) variants in a Finnish sample of 1,151 type 2 diabetic patients and 953 control subjects. We confirmed the association with the same risk allele (P value <0.05) for all five SNPs. Our strongest results were for rs12255372 (odds ratio [OR] 1.36 [95% CI 1.15-1.61], P = 0.00026) and rs7903146 (1.33 [1.14-1.56], P = 0.00042). Based on the CEU HapMap data, we selected and tested 12 additional SNPs to tag SNPs in linkage disequilibrium with rs12255372. None of these SNPs showed stronger evidence of association than rs12255372 or rs7903146 (OR < or =1.26, P > or = 0.0054). Our results strengthen the evidence that one or more variants in TCF7L2 are associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Adiponectin (APM1) is an adipocyte-derived peptide that contributes to glucose, lipid, and energy homeostasis. We assessed the genetic basis of plasma adiponectin in Hispanic-American and African-American families enrolled through the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study Family Study. A 10-cM genome scan was performed in two batches: an original set (set 1) consisting of 66 families (45 Hispanic American and 21 African American) and a replication set (set 2) consisting of 66 families (45 Hispanic American and 21 African American). Adiponectin levels were measured by radioimmunoassay in 1,727 individuals from 131 of 132 families. Linkage analysis was carried out in Hispanic Americans and African Americans separately in set 1, set 2, and the pooled set (set 1 plus set 2), with and without diabetic subjects. A major gene was mapped to 3q27 with a logarithm of odds (LOD) score of 8.21 in the Hispanic-American sample. Ninety-six unrelated individuals were screened for polymorphisms in the APM1 gene, and 18 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped in the Hispanic-American sample. Plasma adiponectin level was modestly associated with two SNPs and their accompaning haplotypes. Incorporating each or both SNPs in the linkage analysis, however, did not significantly reduce the LOD score. Therefore, a quantitative trait locus at 3q27, likely distinct from the APM1 gene, contributes to the variation of plasma adiponectin levels in the Hispanic-American population.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Physiological hyperinsulinemia provokes hemodynamic actions and augments access of macromolecules to insulin-sensitive tissues. We investigated whether induction of insulin resistance by a hypercaloric high-fat diet has an effect on the extracellular distribution of macromolecules to insulin-sensitive tissues. Male mongrel dogs were randomly selected into two groups: seven dogs were fed an isocaloric control diet ( approximately 3,900 kcal, 35% from fat), and six dogs were fed a hypercaloric high-fat diet ( approximately 5,300 kcal, 54% from fat) for a period of 12 weeks. During hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps, we determined transport parameters and distribution volumes of [(14)C]inulin by applying a three-compartment model to the plasma clearance data of intravenously injected [(14)C]inulin (0.8 microCi/kg). In another study with direct cannulation of the hindlimb skeletal muscle lymphatics, we investigated the effect of physiological hyperinsulinemia on the appearance of intravenously injected [(14)C]inulin in skeletal muscle interstitial fluid and compared the effect of insulin between control and high-fat diet groups. The hypercaloric high-fat diet resulted in significant weight gain (18%; P<0.001) associated with marked increases of subcutaneous (140%; P<0.001) and omental (83%; P<0.001) fat depots, as well as peripheral insulin resistance, measured as a significant reduction of insulin-stimulated glucose uptake during clamps (-35%; P<0.05). Concomitantly, we observed a significant reduction of the peripheral distribution volume of [(14)C]inulin (-26%; P<0.05), whereas the vascular distribution volume and transport and clearance parameters did not change as a cause of the diet. The second study directly confirmed our findings, suggesting a marked reduction of insulin action to stimulate access of macromolecules to insulin-sensitive tissues (control diet 32%, P<0.01; high-fat diet 18%, NS). The present results indicate that access of macromolecules to insulin-sensitive tissues is impaired during diet-induced insulin resistance and suggest that the ability of insulin itself to stimulate tissue access is diminished. We speculate that the observed diet-induced defects in stimulation of tissue perfusion contribute to the development of peripheral insulin resistance.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Glucose homeostasis, a defining characteristic of physiological glucose metabolism, is the result of complex feedback relationships with both genetic and environmental determinants that influence insulin sensitivity and beta-cell function. Relatively little is known about the genetic basis of glucose homeostasis phenotypes or their relationship to risk of diabetes. Our group previously published a genome scan for glucose homeostasis traits in 284 African-American subjects from 21 pedigrees in the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study Family Study (IRASFS) and presented evidence for linkage to disposition index (DI) on chromosome 11q with a logarithm of odds (LOD) of 3.21 at 81 cM flanked by markers D11S2371 and D11S2002 (support interval from 71 to 96 cM). In this study, genotyping and analysis of an additional 214 African-American subjects in 21 pedigrees from the IRASFS yielded independent evidence of linkage to DI. When these two datasets were combined, a DI linkage peak was observed with an LOD of 3.89 at 78 cM (support interval from 67 to 89 cM). Fine mapping with 15 additional microsatellite markers in this 11q region for the entire 42 pedigrees resulted in an LOD score of 4.80 at 80 cM near marker D11S937 (support interval from 76 to 84 cM). In these 42 pedigrees, there was also suggestive evidence for linkage to acute insulin response (AIR) at two separate locations flanking the DI peak (64 cM, LOD 2.77, flanked by markers D11S4076 and D11S981; and 85 cM, LOD 2.54, flanked by markers D11S4172 and D11S2002). No evidence of linkage to the insulin sensitivity index (S(i)) was observed. Nine positional candidate genes were evaluated for association to DI and AIR. Among these candidates, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in muscle glycogen phosphorylase showed evidence of association with DI (P < 0.011). In addition, SNPs in the pyruvate carboxylase gene showed evidence of association (P < 0.002) with AIR. Further analysis of these candidate genes, however, did not provide evidence that these SNPs accounted for the evidence of linkage to either DI or AIR. These detailed genetic analyses provide strong evidence of a DI locus on 11q in African-American pedigrees, with additional suggestive evidence of independent AIR loci in the same region.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The pattern and nature of linkage disequilibrium in the human genome is being studied and catalogued as part of the International HapMap Project [:2003 Nature 426:789-796]. A key goal of the HapMap Project is to enable identification of tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that capture a substantial portion of common human genetic variability while requiring only a small fraction of SNPs to be genotyped [International HapMap Consortium, 2005: Nature 437:1299-1320]. In the current study, we examined the effectiveness of using the CEU HapMap database to select tag SNPs for a Finnish sample. We selected SNPs in a 17.9-Mb region of chromosome 14 based on pairwise linkage disequilibrium (r(2)) estimates from the HapMap CEU sample, and genotyped 956 of these SNPs in 1,425 Finnish individuals. An excess of SNPs showed significantly different allele frequencies between the HapMap CEU and the Finnish samples, consistent with population-specific differences. However, we observed strong correlations between the two samples for estimates of allele frequencies, r(2) values, and haplotype frequencies. Our results demonstrate that the HapMap CEU samples provide an adequate basis for tag SNP selection in Finnish individuals, without the need to create a map specifically for the Finnish population, and suggest that the four-population HapMap data will provide useful information for tag SNP selection beyond the specific populations from which they were sampled.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mitochondria play an integral role in ATP production in cells and are involved in glucose metabolism and insulin secretion, suggesting that variants in the mitochondrial genome may contribute to diabetes susceptibility. In a study of Finnish families ascertained for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), we genotyped single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) based on phylogenetic networks. These SNPs defined eight major haplogroups and subdivided groups H and U, which are common in Finns. We evaluated association with both diabetes disease status and up to 14 diabetes-related traits for 762 cases, 402 non-diabetic controls, and 465 offspring of genotyped females. Haplogroup J showed a trend toward association with T2DM affected status (OR 1.69, P=0.056) that became slightly more significant after excluding cases with affected fathers (OR 1.77, P=0.045). We also genotyped non-haplogroup-tagging SNPs previously reported to show evidence for association with diabetes or related traits. Our data support previous evidence for association of T16189C with reduced ponderal index at birth and also show evidence for association with reduced birthweight but not with diabetes status. Given the multiple tests performed and the significance levels obtained, this study suggests that mitochondrial genome variants may play at most a modest role in glucose metabolism in the Finnish population. Furthermore, our data do not support a reported maternal inheritance pattern of T2DM but instead show a strong effect of recall bias.
Human Genetics 12/2005; 118(2):245-54. · 4.63 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The SLC2A10 gene encodes a glucose transporter and is located on chromosome 20q13, where evidence has been found for linkage to type 2 diabetes (T2D) in multiple studies. We investigated SLC2A10 as a T2D candidate gene in Finns. We did not confirm the previously reported association between Ala206Thr and fasting insulin and we observed no statistically significant evidence for T2D association with any single marker. We tested haplotypes for association with diabetes-related traits and observed no excess of significant results.
Molecular Genetics and Metabolism 09/2005; 85(4):323-7. · 2.83 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Genetic and environmental determinants play critical roles in insulin resistance and beta-cell function. A model of the complex feedback system for maintenance of glucose tolerance has been developed that reflects the constraint of glycemia within narrow physiologic limits. The "glucose homeostasis" model is described by insulin sensitivity, glucose effectiveness, acute insulin response to glucose, and disposition index (DI). Relatively little is known about the genetic basis of glucose homeostasis phenotypes or their relationship to risk of diabetes and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. There is increasing evidence that variation in glucose homeostasis reflects genetic control better than that of commonly used surrogate measures (fasting glucose or fasting insulin). Further, recent linkage scans have identified regions in the human genome that may contain loci that contribute to variation in glucose homeostasis phenotypes. Thus, the prospects are encouraging for positional cloning of genes contributing to glucose homeostasis and providing insight into the nature of the metabolic syndrome and diabetes. Ultimately, knowledge of the genetic basis of glucose homeostasis will facilitate the development of more directed therapies for prevention and treatment of diabetes and other diseases associated with disordered glucose metabolism.