[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Published data on the association between AURKA polymorphisms and breast cancer (BC) risk are inconclusive. This meta-analysis was performed to derive a more precise estimation on the relationship between AURKA polymorphisms (rs2273535 and rs1047972) and BC risk.
Cancer Cell International 12/2014; 14(1):91. · 1.99 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: The associations between Interleukin-10 (IL-10) polymorphisms and breast cancer (BC) risk are inconsistent. This study was aimed to evaluate the relationship between IL-10 polymorphisms (rs1800896, rs1800871, and rs1800872) and BC risk. Methods: Databases, including PubMed, Web of Knowledge, Embase, and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, were searched to find relevant studies. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to estimate the strength of associations. Results: A total of 12 studies (4743 cancer cases and 5120 case-free controls) were eligible for meta-analysis. There were nine studies with 1851 cases and 1910 controls for rs1800896, six studies with 1034 cases and 1173 controls for rs1800871, and seven studies with 3637 cases and 3391 controls for rs1800872. Meta-analysis showed that rs1800896 and rs1800871 polymorphisms had no association with BC risk (for rs1800896: OR=1.060, 95% CI=0.785-1.432 in the dominant model, and OR=1.152, 95% CI=0.958-1.386 in the recessive model; for rs1800871: OR=0.952, 95% CI=0.859-1.056 in the dominant model, and OR=0.892, 95% CI=0.741-1.072 in the recessive model). However, rs1800872 polymorphism has association with BC risk based on the recessive model (OR=0.80, 95% CI=0.73-0.88). In the stratified analysis, when analyzed by the recessive model (CC vs. AA+AC), the ORs were 0.75 (95% CI=0.68-0.83) (p<0.00001) among Caucasians and 1.17 (95% CI=0.88-1.55) (p=0.27) among Asians. These results suggested that the CC homozygote has a 25% decreased risk of BC compared with those individuals with AA and AC genotypes in Caucasians. Conclusions: This meta-analysis showed that IL-10 rs1800896 and rs1800871 polymorphisms had no association with BC risk, while rs1800872 polymorphism had a decreased risk of BC in Caucasians.
Genetic Testing and Molecular Biomarkers 04/2014; · 1.44 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Radiation-induced skin injury is a common complication of radiotherapy. The RHIZOMA COPTIDIS and COPTIS CHINENSIS extract (RCE) can ameliorate radiation-induced skin injury in our clinical observation. But, the protective mechanism of RHIZOMA COPTIDIS and COPTIS CHINENSIS in radiation-induced skin injury remains unclear. METHODS: In this experiment, we developed a radiation-induced skin injury rat mode l to study the mechanism. The animals were randomly divided into control group, treatment group, radiation group, and treatment and radiation group. 5 rats in each group were separately executed on 2 d and 49 d post-radiation. The semi-quantitative skin injury score was used to measure skin reactions by unblinded observers, and hematoxylin and eosin staining was used to evaluate the damage areas by irradiation. The MDA content, SOD activity of skin and serum were measured to detect the oxidative stress. RESULTS: Acute skin reactions were caused by a single dose of 45 Gy of beta-ray irradiation, and the skin injury could be found in all rats receiving irradiation based on the observation of HE staining of skin at different time-points, while RCE could significantly ameliorate those changes. The MDA content in serum and skin of control rats was 4.13 +/- 0.12mmol/ml and 4.95 +/- 0.35mmol/mgprot on 2 d post-radiation. The rats receiving radiation showed an increased content of MDA (5.54 +/- 0.21mmol/ml and 7.10 +/- 0.32mmol/mgprot), while it was 4.57 +/- 0.21mmol/ml and 5.95 +/- 0.24mmol/mgprot after treated with RCE (p < 0.05). Similar changes of the MDA content could be seen on 49 d post-radiation. However, the SOD activity of rats receiving radiation decreased compared with control group on both time-points, which was inhibited by RCE (p < 0.05). Meanwhile, no valuable changes could be found between control group and treatment group on 2 d and 49 d. CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides evidences for the radioprotective role of RCE against radiation-induced skin damage in rats by modulating oxidative stress in skin, which may be a useful therapy for radiation-induced skin injury.
BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 05/2013; 13(1):105. · 1.88 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The exact mechanism of the effects of hypoxia on the proliferation and apoptosis in carcinoma cells is still conflicting. This study investigated the variation of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α(HIF-1α) expression and the apoptosis effect of hypoxia stimulated by cobalt chloride (CoCl(2)) in pancreatic cancer PC-2 cells.
PC-2 cells were cultured with different concentration (50-200 μmol/L) of CoCl(2) after 24-120 hours to simulate hypoxia in vitro. The proliferation of PC-2 cells was examined by MTT assay. The cellular morphology of PC-2 cells were observed by light inverted microscope and transmission electron microscope(EM). The expression of HIF-1α on mRNA and protein level was measured by semi-quantitative RT-PCR and Western blot analysis. Apoptosis of PC-2 cells were demonstrated by flow cytometry with Annexin V-FITC/PI double staining.
MTT assay showed that the proliferation of PC-2 cells were stimulated in the first 72 h, while after treated over 72 h, a dose- dependent inhibition of cell growth could be observed. By using transmission electron microscope, swollen chondrosomes, accumulated chromatin under the nuclear membrane and apoptosis bodies were observed. Flow cytometer(FCM) analysis showed the apoptosis rate was correlated with the dosage of CoCl(2). RT-PCR and Western blot analysis indicated that hypoxia could up-regulate the expression of HIF-1α on both mRNA and protein levels.
Hypoxic microenvironment stimulated by CoCl(2) could effectively induce apoptosis and influence cell proliferation in PC-2 cells, the mechanism could be related to up-expression of HIF-1α.
Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research 03/2012; 31:28. · 3.27 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Matrine, an alkaloid purified from the chinese herb Sophora flavescens Ait, is well known to possess activities including anti-inflammation, anti-fibrotic and anticancer. In this study, the mechanism of matrine inducing the apoptosis of gastric carcinoma cells was investigated.
Proliferation of SGC-7901 cells was examined by MTT assay. Cellular morphology was observed under transmission electron microscope. Flow cytometry (FCM) was used to observe the apoptosis of SGC-7901 cells by staining with annexinV-FITC/PI. The expression levels of Fas/FasL in SGC-7901 cells were monitored by FCM analysis using an indirect immunofluorescence method. Activity of caspase-3 enzyme was measured by spectrofluorometry.
MTT assay showed that matrine inhibited SGC-7901 cells proliferation in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner. Apoptosis induction was demonstrated by morphological changes under electron microscope and FCM analysis. Fluorescence intensity levels of Fas and FasL were found to be equally up-regulated after matrine treatment, which were both correlated with apoptosis rate. The activity of caspase-3 enzyme increased in matrine groups, positively correlated with apoptosis rate.
Matrine could inhibit cell proliferation and induce apoptosis of SGC-7901 cells in vitro. The apoptosis induction appears to proceed by up-regulating Fas/FasL expression and activating caspase-3 enzyme.
Journal of ethnopharmacology 06/2009; 123(1):91-6. · 2.32 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the inhibitory effects of Scutellaria barbate extracts on diethylnitrosamine-induced hepatocarcinoma in rats.
Hepatocarcinoma model rats were induced by diethylnitrosamine (DEN). Sixty SD male rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: normal control group, hepatocarcinoma model group, ESB of high dose group and ESB of low dose group. All rats were killed in the 18th week, the levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), total bilirubin (TBIL), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), gamma-glutamyltransferase (gamma-GT) and alpha-L-fucosidase (AFU) in serum were measured by biochemical examinations; Hematoxy and eosin (HE) methods were used to examine the changes of liver pathology.
The levels of ALT, AST, TBIL, ALP, gamma-GT, AFU in hepatocarcinoma model group and ESB groups were higher than that of control group (P < 0.05). ESB could relieve hepatic injures. The levels of liver function indexes in ESB groups were lower than that of model group. Histological examination demonstrated that the number of liver cancer nodus in ESB groups were lower than that of model group. Furthermore, ESB could attenuate the grade of cancer cell differentiation.
ESB could inhibit experimental hepatocarcinoma and relieve hepatic injures in rats.
Zhong yao cai = Zhongyaocai = Journal of Chinese medicinal materials 04/2009; 32(4):568-71.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To study the growth inhibitory and apoptotic effects of Scutellaria barbata D.Don (S. barbata) and to determine the underlying mechanism of its antitumor activity in mouse liver cancer cell line H22.
Proliferation of H22 cells was examined by MTT assay. Cellular morphology of PC-2 cells was observed under fluorescence microscope and transmission electron microscope (EM). Mitochondrial transmembrane potential was determined under laser scanning confocal microscope (LSCM) with rhodamine 123 staining. Flow cytometry was performed to analyze the cell cycle of H22 cells with propidium iodide staining. Protein level of cytochrome C and caspase-3 was measured by semi-quantitive RT-PCR and Western blot analysis. Activity of caspase-3 enzyme was measured by spectrofluorometry.
MTT assay showed that extracts from S. barbata (ESB) could inhibit the proliferation of H22 cells in a time-dependent manner. Among the various phases of cell cycle, the percentage of cells in S phase was significantly decreased, while the percentage of cells in G(1) phase was increased. Flow cytometry assay also showed that ESB had a positive effect on apoptosis. Typical apoptotic morphologies such as condensation and fragmentation of nuclei and blebbing membrane of apoptotic cells could be observed under transmission electron microscope and fluorescence microscope. To further investige the molecular mechanism behind ESB-induced apoptosis, ESB-treated cells rapidly lost their mitochondrial transmembrane potential, released mitochondrial cytochrome C into cytosol, and induced caspase-3 activity in a dose-dependent manner.
ESB can effectively inhibit the proliferation and induce apoptosis of H22 cells involving loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential, release of cytochrome C, and activation of caspase-3.
World Journal of Gastroenterology 01/2009; 14(48):7321-8. · 2.43 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the effects of Scutellaria barbata extract (ESB) in suppressing tumor growth and modulating the immune functions in mice bearing tumors derived from hepatocarcinoma H22 cells.
Fifty mice inoculated subcutaneously with H22 cells were equally divided into the model group, high-, moderate-, and low-dose ESB groups, and 5-Fu group, with corresponding treatments for 10 days. Another 10 mice with only saline injection served as the normal control group. The body weight, tumor mass, thymus index and spleen index of the mice were measured, and the lymphocyte proliferation activity, NK cell activity and interleukin-2 (IL-2) production by the splenocytes were detected.
Moderate- and high-dose ESB significantly suppressed the tumor growth with tumor inhibition rate of 28.68% and 36.98%, respectively. ESB treatment at moderate and high doses significantly increased the thymus index and spleen index (P < 0.01), which were decreased significantly in 5-Fu group. The lymphocyte proliferation activity, NK cell activity and IL-2 production by the splenocytes were significantly lower in the model group than in the normal group (P < 0.05). Compared with the model group, ESB at the high dose obviously increased the three indexes above mentioned. The NK cell activity was also significantly improved in moderate-dose ESB group (P < 0.05).
ESB can suppress the growth of H22 implant tumor and enhance the immune function of the tumor-bearing mice.
Nan fang yi ke da xue xue bao = Journal of Southern Medical University 10/2008; 28(10):1835-7.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the effects of serum containing Scutellaria Barbata extract (ESB) on apoptosis rate and mitochondrial transmembrane potential (MTP) of liver cancer cell line H22 from mice in vitro.
H22 cells were cultured in vitro and divided into 5 groups: blank control group, low-dose ESB group, medium-dose ESB group, high-dose ESB group and fluorouracil (5-Fu) group. Methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium assay was utilized to determine the proliferation rates of H22 cells. Cellular morphology was observed under a transmission electron microscope (EM). The rhodamine 123 was used as a fluorescence probe to label the H22 cells, and the fluorescence intensities were observed with a laser scanning confocal microscope. The fluorescence intensity of H22 cells indicated the MTP of H22 cells.
The inhibition of serum containing ESB on the proliferation of H22 cells in vitro was observed in a time-dependent manner. The typical morphological changes of apoptosis were observed after incubation with ESB-containing serum in high dose for 48h. The apoptosis rates of blank control group, 5-Fu group, low-dose ESB group, medium-dose ESB group and high-dose ESB group were (0.51+/-0.32)%, (11.26+/-2.97)%, (1.07+/-0.46)%, (3.15+/-1.12)%, (7.83+/-2.25)% respectively. ESB could reduce the MTP of H22 cells from mice as compared with the untreated group. The MTPs of the blank control group, 5-Fu group, and low-, medium- and high-dose ESB groups were (245.45+/-67.37), (127.42+/-41.35), (213.68+/-65.52), (186.34+/-56.37) and (142.65+/-39.44) respectively, which were negatively correlated with the apoptosis rates.
ESB-containing serum effectively induces apoptosis, which may be related to the decrease of MTP in H22 cells.
Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine 09/2008; 6(8):821-6.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To explore the relationship between the expression of PTEN gene and the expression of PPARgamma, and the human pancreatic cancer cells PANC-1 were cultured in vitro.
The effects of rosiglitazone and GW9662 on the expression of PTEN gene and PTEN protein in the human pancreatic cancer cells PANC-1 were detected by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry respectively. In addition, the percentage of the expression of PTEN protein was analyzed by flow cytometry.
The expression of PTEN gene and PTEN protein in human pancreatic cancer cells PANC-1 were all increased significantly after treated with rosiglitazone. While those were markedly reduced in GW9662 treated groups, and it has a dose-effect relationship between them.
The expression of PTEN gene were paralleled with the expression of PPARgammain human pancreatic cancer cells PANC-1, which may be related to its inhibitory effects on pancreatic tumor cells.
Xi bao yu fen zi mian yi xue za zhi = Chinese journal of cellular and molecular immunology 08/2008; 24(7):717-20.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the mechanism of gastric carcinoma cells apoptosis induced by matrine injection in vitro.
Effects of 24, 48, 72, 96 h incubation with different concentrations (0.25-1.5 g/L) of matrine injection on proliferation of SGC-7901 cells were evaluated using 3-4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The cellular morphology of SGC-7901 cells was observed by transmission electron microscope (EM). Flow cytometry was used to analyze the apoptosis of SGC-7901 cells by staining with annexin V-FITC/PI. The expression of Fas/FasL was examined by flow cytometry using specific antibody. The activity of caspase-3 was measured by spectrofluorometry.
Matrine injection could inhibit the proliferation of SGC-7901 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The typical morphological changes of apoptosis were observed after incubation with 1.0 g/L matrine injections for 48 h. The apoptosis rates of 0.5 g/L, 1.0 g/L and 1.5 g/L groups were 39.80%, 58.11% and 79.00% respectively. The apoptotic cells in matrine injection group were mainly early apoptotic cells, and those in 5-FU group were mainly late apoptotic cells and necrotic cells. Spectrofluorometry revealed FI levels of Fas and FasL were equal, which were both correlated with apoptosis rate. The activity of caspase-3 increased with the elevation of matrine concentration, and was correlated with the apoptosis rate.
Matrine injection can induce apoptosis of SGC-7901 cells through the up-regulation of Fas/FasL expression and activation of caspase-3.
Zhonghua wei chang wai ke za zhi = Chinese journal of gastrointestinal surgery 06/2008; 11(3):261-5.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the effects of Scutellaria barbate extract (ESB) on suppressing proliferation and inducing apoptosis of mouse hepatoma H22 cells.
H22 cells cultured in vitro were divided into 5 groups: blank control group, ESB in high, medium, low dose groups and 5-Fu group. H22 cells were cultured in media with serum containing different concentrations of ESB and blank serum. The proliferation of H22 cells was determined by microculture tetrazolium (MTT) assay. Fluorescence microscopy was utilized to observe the apoptosis of H22 cells by staining with Hoechst 33258. The cell cycle and apoptosis were analyzed by flow cytometry (FCM).
The inhibition of serum containing ESB on the proliferation of H22 cells in vitro was observerd in a dose and time dependent manner. The typical morphological changes of apoptosis were observed after incubation with ESB-containing serum in high dose for 48 hours. Among the various phases of cell cycle, the percentage of cells in S phase decreased significantly, while the percentage of cells in G1 phase increased. Drug-containing serum showed positive effect on cell apoptosis. The apoptosis rate of blank control group, ESB in low, medium, high dose groups and 5-Fu group were 0.51%, 1.07%, 3.15%, 7.83%, 11.26%, respectively.
ESB containing serum can inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis of H22 cells in vitro.
Zhong yao cai = Zhongyaocai = Journal of Chinese medicinal materials 04/2008; 31(4):550-3.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the relationship between HER-2 expression and the efficacy of neoadjuvant chemotherapy in local advanced breast cancer.
Different neoadjuvant chemotherapy regimens, namely CMF, CEF, and NEF, were administered in 132 patients with local advanced breast cancer for 2 cycles, each lasting for 28 days. According to the criteria recommended by WHO, the efficacy and safety of the regimens were evaluated after two cycles of neoadjuvant chemotherapy. HER-2 expression was examined by immunohistochemistry using specific monoclonal antibodies before chemotherapy and after surgery.
The overall response rate (RR) of CMF, CEF, and NEF regimens were 39.5% (17/43), 54.3% (25/46) and 72.1% (31/43), with incidence of leukopenia of 34.9% (15/43), 58.7% (27/46) and 60.5% (26/43), respectively. Other adverse effects including decreased hemoglobin (Hb) level, thrombocytopenia, gastrointestinal irritation and alopecia were similar between the 3 groups (P>0.05). No significant variation in HER-2 expression occurred after administration of the 3 regimens. The overall RR to CMF regimen in HER-2-negative breast cancer patients was significantly higher than that in HER-2-positive patients, but showed no significant difference with CEF and NEF regimens.
HER-2 expression is not decreased after neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer patients, and HER-2-positive breast cancer can be resistant to CMF regimen, but not to CEF and NEF regimens.
Nan fang yi ke da xue xue bao = Journal of Southern Medical University 10/2007; 27(9):1397-9.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the effect of matrine injections on invasion and metastasis of gastric carcinoma SGC-7901 cells in vitro.
MTT assay was used to examine the effect of matrine injections on proliferation of SGC-7901 cells after 24, 48, 72, 96 hours treatment; Transwell chamber assay was performed to determine the effect of matrine injection on invasion and migratory capacity of the cells; Effect on adhesion potential of SGC-7901 cells was tested by cell matrigel adhesion assay.
Matrine injec-tions could inhibit the proliferation of SGC-7901 cells, with obvious dose-dependent and time-dependent effects. Matrine injections sig-nificantly inhibited adhesion, invasion and migration capacity of SGC-7901 cells in vitro. The inhibitory rate of them after treatment with 1.5 mg/ml matrine injections for 24 h were (45.32 +/- 3.10)%, (32.66 +/- 2.82)%, (38.35 +/- 3.41)% respectively. After treat-ment of matrine injections (1.5 mg/ml)for 24 h, the expression level of CD44(V6) in SGC-7901 cells was decreased compared with the untreated group.
Matrine injections can inhibit the migration, invasion and adhesion capacity of SGC-7901 cells in vitro. The inhibition effect may be related to down-regulating the expression of CD44(V6) protein.
Zhong yao cai = Zhongyaocai = Journal of Chinese medicinal materials 08/2007; 30(7):815-9.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the chemopreventive effect of celecoxib, a specific cyclooxegenease-2 (COX-2) inhibitor, on chemically induced breast cancer of rats and its effect on COX-2 expression.
7, 12-dimethylbenz anthracene (DMBA) was administered intragastrically in SD female rats to establish breast cancer models, which were divided subsequently into control group, tamoxifen group and celecoxib group to receive different treatments accordingly. The occurrence rate of breast cancer was observed and the effect of celecoxib on COX-2 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expressions assayed by immunohistochemical SP method.
The incidence of breast cancer in tamoxifen group (48.15%) and celecoxib group (50.00%) were both significantly lower than that in the control group (85.71%; P=0.003 and P=0.004, respectively). The positivity rate of COX-2 expression in celecoxib group (28.57%) was significantly lower than those of tamoxifen group (48.15%) and control group (83.33%; P=0.001 and P=0.035, respectively). The positivity rate of VEGF expression in celecoxib group (42.86%) was significantly lower than that of control group (79.17%, P=0.023), but comparable with that in tamoxifen group (46.15%, P=0.863).
Celecoxib can significantly suppress DMBA-induced breast cancer in female rats possibly through down-regulation of COX-2 and VEGF expressions.
Nan fang yi ke da xue xue bao = Journal of Southern Medical University 12/2006; 26(11):1599-602.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Breast cancer can be prevented partly by tamoxifen. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is expressed in many kinds of tumors, and correlated to the occurrence and progress of tumors. This study was to evaluate the chemopreventive effect of tamoxifen combined with celecoxib, a COX-2 selective inhibitor, on 7,12-dimethylbenz anthracene (DMBA)-induced breast cancer in rats.
DMBA was irrigated into the stomach of SD female rats to build breast cancer model. The rats were divided into 4 groups: control group, tamoxifen group, celecoxib group, and combination group; each group contained 30 rats. Tumor occurrence, latency period, number and volume of breast cancer were observed.
The tumor occurrence rates in tamoxifen group (48.15%, 13/27) and celecoxib group (50.00%, 14/28) were lower than that in control group (85.71%, 24/28), and higher than that in combination group (21.43%, 6/28). The latency periods of tamoxifen group [(97.54+/-1.85) days] and celecoxib group [(96.79+/-2.89) days] were longer than that of control group [(89.50+/-5.99) days], and shorter than that of combination group [(103.67+/-3.39) days]. The tumor numbers of tamoxifen group (1.77+/-0.73) and celecoxib group (1.71+/-0.61) were less than that of control group (3.50+/-1.62), and more than that of combination group (1.17+/-0.42). The tumor volumes of tamoxifen group [(1.78+/-0.71) cm(3)] and celecoxib group [(2.05+/-1.04) cm(3)] were smaller than that of control group [(6.42+/-3.96) cm(3)], and larger than that of combination group [(0.71+/-0.96) cm(3)]. All differences were significant (P<0.05, respectively).
Celecoxib and tamoxifen could effectively prevent the occurrence of DMBA-induced breast cancer in rats; the combination of them has better chemopreventive effect.
Ai zheng = Aizheng = Chinese journal of cancer 12/2006; 25(11):1346-50.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: To study the relationship between cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression and tumor angiogenesis in human breast cancer.
Methods: Archival primary breast carcinomas (n=62), adjacent ductal carcinomain situ (DCIS, n=13) and DCIS alone (n=5) were analyzed for COX-2 and VEGF expression by immunohistochemistry using specific monoclonal
antibodies. Microvessel density (MVD) was also examined the using CD34 staining. Results: A significant correlation was found
between COX-2 and VEGF expression (P<0.01). Both COX-2 and VEGF were significantly correlated with MVD (P<0.05) andP<0.01, respectively). COX-2 and VEGF genes were overexpressed in tumor specimens as compared with normal epithelia. Conclusion:
COX-2 is related to tumor angiogenesis in breast cancer. It is likely that VEGF is one of the most important mediators of
the COX-2 angiogenic pathway.
Chinese Journal of Cancer Research 05/2003; 15(2):149-151. · 0.93 Impact Factor