ABSTRACT: There has been recent interest in the use of a custom long-stemmed talar component for salvage of failed total ankle replacement or for management of combined ankle and hindfoot pathology. The purpose of this study was to retrospectively review prospective data on patients who underwent total ankle arthroplasty with a custom long-stemmed talar prosthesis.
From November 2004 to February 2006, thirty-three custom total ankle arthroplasties were performed in thirty-two patients. The indication for this prosthesis was stage-IV adult-acquired flatfoot deformity in six patients (19%), failure of a prior total ankle replacement because of severe subsidence and loosening of the talar component in thirteen (41%), and combined arthritis of the ankle and hindfoot joints in thirteen patients (41%; fourteen ankles). Patients were assessed for range of motion, radiographic results, and functional outcomes with use of the Short Form-36 (SF-36) subscale scores, American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle (AOFAS) hindfoot score, and the Maryland Foot Score (MFS) at a minimum of four years.
All patients were followed for an average of 58.6 months (minimum, fifty-two months) There was an overall increase in the total arc of motion following surgery from an average (and standard deviation) of 21.3° ± 14° preoperatively to 32.2° ± 11° postoperatively (p < 0.05). Subsidence (<3 mm) was noted in three patients. One patient had asymptomatic osteolysis around the talar stem. The mean Physical Component Summary score on the SF-36 was 28.2 ± 5.6 preoperatively and increased to 39.7 ± 6.5 postoperatively (p < 0.05). The mean SF-36 Mental Component Summary value increased from 42.2 ± 13.8 preoperatively to 50.8 ± 12.6 postoperatively (p < 0.05). The mean MFS was 47 ± 13 preoperatively and increased to 75 ± 10 postoperatively (p < 0.05). The average AOFAS hindfoot score increased from 41 ± 16 preoperatively to 68 ± 12 postoperatively (p < 0.05). There were three failures at greater than thirty-six months after surgery.
Our data indicate that the use of a custom long-stemmed talar component, either placed primarily in patients with ankle and hindfoot arthritis or used as a revision prosthesis in patients with a failed total ankle replacement, is promising.
The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery 07/2012; 94(13):1194-200. · 3.27 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Obtaining an accurate reduction of the posterior malleolar fragment in high-energy pilon fractures can be difficult through standard anterior or medial incisions, resulting in a less than optimal articular reduction. The purpose of this study was to report on our results using a direct approach with posterior malleolar plating in combination with staged anterior fixation in high-energy pilon fractures.
Prospective clinical cohort.
A Level I trauma and tertiary referral center.
From January 1, 2005, to December 31, 2008, 19 Orthopaedic Trauma Association 43C pilon fractures (16 C3 and 3 C2) with a separate, displaced, posterior malleolar fragment were treated by the authors. Nine patients were treated with posterior plating of the tibia (PL) through a posterolateral approach followed by a staged direct anterior approach. Ten patients with similar fracture patterns were treated using standard anterior or anteromedial incisions (A) with indirect reduction of the posterior fragment. All 19 patients were available for follow-up at an average of 40 months (range, 28-54 months).
All patients were treated with open reduction and internal fixation for their pilon fractures.
Quality of reduction was assessed using postoperative plain radiographs and computed tomography. Serial radiographs were taken during the postoperative course to assess the progression of healing and the development of joint arthrosis. Clinical follow-up included physical examination and evaluation of the ankle using the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society Ankle & Hindfoot score, Maryland Foot Score as well as noting all complications.
There were no differences in injury pattern or time to surgery between groups. Of the 10 patients who were in the A group, 4 (40%) had more than 2 mm of joint incongruity at the posterior articular fracture edge as compared with no patients in the PL group as measured on postoperative computed tomography scans. At latest follow-up, 7 (70%) patients in the A group had radiographic evidence of joint space narrowing compared with 3 (33%) in the PL group. Ankle range of motion for the A group was 35.8° versus 34.2° for the PL group (nonsignificant). There were 2 delayed wound healing complications in the A group with one deep infection in the PL group. Two patients in the A group required arthrodesis procedures resulting from posttraumatic arthrosis compared with none in the PL group. No significant difference was seen in postoperative complications across both groups. The average Maryland Foot Score and American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society/Ankle & Hindfoot score for the PL group was 86.4/85.2 compared with 69.4/76.4 for the A group.
The addition of a posterior lateral approach offers direct visualization for reduction of the posterior distal fragment of the tibial pilon. Although the joint surface itself cannot be visualized, this reduction allows the anterior components to be secured to a stable posterior fragment at a later date. This technique improved our ability to subsequently obtain an anatomic articular reduction based on computed tomography scans and preservation of the tibiotalar joint space at a minimum 1-year follow-up. Furthermore, it correlated with an improvement in clinical outcomes with increases in Maryland Foot Score and Ankle & Hindfoot score for the posterior plating group. Although promising, continued follow-up will be needed to determine the long-term outcome using this technique for treating tibial pilon fractures.
Journal of orthopaedic trauma 12/2011; 26(6):341-7. · 1.78 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: To evaluate the outcomes of displaced intracapsular femoral neck fractures treated with a cephalomedullary device.
Level I trauma center.
Between 2002 and 2008, 18 patients with displaced intracapsular femoral neck fractures were treated at our Level I trauma center with a cephalomedullary nail. There were 12 males and six females. Six patients were younger than 60 years of age with a mean age of 63 years (range, 40-88 years). Thirteen fractures were midcervical (Orthopaedic Trauma Association [OTA] 31-B2.2 and B2.3), and five fractures were subcapital (OTA 31-B3). Patients with basicervical fractures (OTA 31-B2.1) and nondisplaced subcapital fractures (OTA 31-B1) were excluded.
All patients underwent cephalomedullary nail fixation of their femoral neck fractures under the supervision of fellowship-trained orthopaedic trauma surgeons.
Postoperative radiographs were evaluated for fracture reduction quality. Clinical follow-up was available on 13 patients with a minimum of 12 months (range, 12-25 months). A radiographic and chart review was done to identify complications and outcomes.
Seven of eight fractures that healed were anatomically reduced. No failures occurred in the six patients younger than 60 years. Fixation failed in five of 13 fractures (38.4%) with varus collapse as the typical failure mode. The mean time to failure in these cases was 3.8 months (range, 1-7 months). Overall, the failure rate for the subcapital fractures was 100% (three of three) and for midcervical 20% (two of 10) with all failures being in patients older than 60 years (71.4%). Osteonecrosis without fixation failure or cutout occurred in one case.
Cephalomedullary nail fixation of displaced intracapsular femoral neck fractures demonstrated mixed results. For younger patients with midcervical fractures that were well reduced, the fixation performed well. Displaced subcapital fractures in patients older than 60 years demonstrated a 100% failure rate. As a result, we cannot advocate cephalomedullary fixation for displaced intracapsular femoral neck fractures in patients older than 60 years, although in younger patients, these implants may provide an alternative to side-plate based fixation devices.
Journal of orthopaedic trauma 08/2011; 25(12):714-20. · 1.78 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: To compare extra-articular proximal tibial fractures treated with intramedullary nailing (IMN) or percutaneous locked plating (PLP) and assess the ability of each technique to obtain and maintain fracture reduction.
Retrospective clinical study.
: Level 1 Trauma Center.
Beginning with the first use of PLP of the proximal tibia at our institution, all skeletally mature patients with surgically treated proximal extra-articular tibial fractures were reviewed. Between August 1999 and June 2004, 29 patients treated with intramedullary nails and 43 patients treated with percutaneous locked plates were identified. Patients with at least 1-year follow-up included 22 IMN and 34 PLP cases, which formed the final study group.
Final outcomes were assessed for the IMN and the PLP groups by comparing rates of union, malunion, malreduction (defined as >5 degrees angulation in any plane), infection, and removal of implants.
The IMN and PLP groups showed similar age and gender demographics. Average length of follow-up was 3.4 years in the IMN group (15-67 months) and 2.7 years in the PLP group (12-66 months). Open fractures made up 55% of the IMN group and 35% of the PLP group. Final union rates (after additional procedures for nonunions after the index procedure) were similar between groups (IMN = 96% and PLP = 97%). Implant removal in the PLP group was 3 times greater than in the IMN group, (P = 0.390), whereas an apex anterior (procurvatum) malreduction deformity occurred twice as frequently in the IMN group (P = 0.103). Additional surgical techniques (eg, blocking screws) were frequently used during reduction within the IMN group and infrequently used within the PLP group (P = 0.0002). Neither technique resulted in a statistically significant loss of final reduction confirming the stability of each construct.
Neither IMN or PLP showed a distinct advantage in the treatment of proximal extra-articular tibial fractures. Apex anterior malreduction however was the most prevalent form of malreduction in both groups. Additional surgical reduction techniques were frequently needed with IMN, whereas removal of implants seems to be more commonly needed with PLP.
Journal of orthopaedic trauma 08/2009; 23(7):485-92. · 1.78 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: This study was designed to evaluate whether the use of a new femoral nail, specifically designed to be inserted through the greater trochanter, could eliminate the complications previously seen with insertion of straight nails through this entry portal for the treatment of femoral shaft fractures.
Prospective, clinical trial.
Three level I trauma centers.
Sixty-one consecutive patients with femoral shaft fractures (50 closed and 11 open fractures) treated with antegrade nailing with insertion through the greater trochanter.
All patients were treated in the supine position with a TAN nail (Trigen System, Smith & Nephew, Memphis, TN) inserted through the greater trochanter.
Union, alignment, complications, and hip function.
Forty-six of 57 (81%) surviving patients were available for follow-up at a minimum of 12 (range, 12-25) months. Union occurred in all but 1 fracture after the index procedure. No patient sustained iatrogenic fracture comminution, and there were no angular malunions. Pain was reported as slight in 6 patients and moderate in 2. Visual and videotaped gate analysis, performed on 24 patients, revealed symmetrical walking in 21.
This study demonstrates that antegrade nailing of femoral shaft fractures with a specially designed nail inserted through a trochanteric starting point provides predictably high union rates and low rates of complications. Ease of entry and utility in patients with a large body habitus are advantages over conventional piriformis fossa entry techniques. Nailing through the greater trochanter with the patient supine is presently our treatment of choice for patients with femoral shaft fractures.
Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma 10/2005; 19(8):511-7. · 2.13 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: The purpose of this retrospective review was to evaluate the long-term results of surgical treatment of isolated, displaced talar neck and/or body fractures with stable internal fixation.
The study included twenty-five patients with a total of twenty-six displaced fractures isolated to the talus that had been treated with open reduction and stable internal fixation and followed for a minimum of forty-eight months after the injury. The final follow-up examination included standard radiographs, computed tomography, and a clinical evaluation. Variables that were analyzed included wound type, fracture type, Hawkins type, comminution, timing of the surgical intervention, surgical approach, quality of fracture reduction, Hawkins sign, osteonecrosis, union, time to union, posttraumatic arthritis, and the AOFAS scores including subscores (pain, function, and alignment).
The average duration of follow-up was seventy-four months. Surgical intervention resulted in sixteen fractures with an anatomic reduction, five with a nearly anatomic reduction, and five with a poor reduction. All eight noncomminuted fractures were anatomically reduced. The overall union rate was 88%. All closed, displaced talar neck fractures healed, regardless of the time delay until surgical intervention. Posttraumatic arthritis of the subtalar joint was the most common finding and was seen in all patients, sixteen of whom had involvement of more than one joint. Osteonecrosis was a common finding, seen after thirteen of the twenty-six fractures overall and after six of the seven open fractures.
Open reduction and internal fixation is recommended for the treatment of displaced talar neck and/or body fractures. A delay in surgical fixation does not appear to affect the outcome, union, or prevalence of osteonecrosis. Posttraumatic arthritis is a more common complication than osteonecrosis following operative treatment. Patients with a displaced fracture of the talus should be counseled that posttraumatic arthritis and chronic pain are expected outcomes even after anatomic reduction and stable fixation. This is especially true following open fractures.
The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery 11/2004; 86-A(10):2229-34. · 3.27 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: To determine whether open reduction and internal fixation of intra-articular pilon fractures using a staged treatment protocol results in minimal surgical wound complications.
Level 1 trauma center.
Between January 1991 and December 1996, 226 pilon fractures (AO types 43A-C) were treated, of which 108 were AO type 43C. Fifty-six fractures were included in a retrospective analysis of a treatment protocol. Injuries were divided into Group 1, thirty-four closed fractures, and Group II, twenty-two open fractures (three Gustilo Type 1, six Type II, eight Type IIIA, five Type IIIB).
The protocol consisted of immediate (within twenty-four hour) open reduction and internal fixation of the fibula when fractured, using a one-third tubular or 3.5-millimeter dynamic compression plate and application of an external fixator spanning the ankle joint. Patients with isolated injuries were discharged after initial stabilization and readmitted for the definitive reconstruction. Polytrauma patients remained hospitalized and were observed. Formal open reconstruction of the articular surface by plating was performed when soft tissue swelling had subsided. Complications were defined as wound problems requiring hospitalization. All affected limbs were then evaluated via chart and radiograph review, patient interviews, and physical examination until surgical wound healing was complete, for a minimum of twelve months.
Group I (closed pilon): Follow-up was possible in twenty-nine out of thirty fractures (97 percent). Average time from external fixation to open reduction was 12.7 days. All wounds healed. None exhibited wound dehiscence or full thickness tissue necrosis requiring secondary soft tissue coverage postoperatively. Seventeen percent (five out of twenty-nine patients) had partial-thickness skin necrosis. All were treated with local wound care and oral antibiotics and healed uneventfully. There was one late complication (3.4 percent), a chronic draining sinus secondary to osteomyelitis, which resolved after fracture healing and metal removal. Group II (open pilon): Follow-up was possible in seventeen patients with nineteen fractures (86 percent). Average time from external fixation to formal reconstruction was fourteen days (range 4 to 31 days). By definition, all Gustilo Type IIIB fractures required flap coverage for the injury. Two patients experienced partial-thickness wound necrosis. These were treated with local wound care and antibiotics. All surgical wounds healed. There were two complications (10.5 percent), both deep infections. One Type I open fracture developed wound dehiscence and osteomyelitis requiring multiple debridements, intravenous antibiotics, subsequent removal of hardware, and re-application of external fixator to cure the infection. One Type IIIA open fracture of the distal tibia and calcaneus developed osteomyelitis and required a below-knee amputation.
Based on our data, it appears that the historically high rates of infection associated with open reduction and internal fixation of pilon fractures may be due to attempts at immediate fixation through swollen, compromised soft tissues. When a staged procedure is performed with initial restoration of fibula length and tibial external fixation, soft tissue stabilization is possible. Once soft tissue swelling has significantly diminished, anatomic reduction and internal fixation can then be performed semi-electively with only minimal wound problems. This is evidenced by the lack of skin grafts, rotation flaps, or free tissue transfers in our series. This technique appears to be effective in closed and open fractures alike.
Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma 10/2004; 18(8 Suppl):S32-8. · 2.13 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: The combination of dorsal dislocation of the navicular from the talus and an associated comminuted fracture of the calcaneus (transcalcaneal talonavicular dislocation) is an unusual and severe injury. Six cases have been described previously. The purposes of this study were to report the prevalence of this injury and the variations in injury pattern and to characterize methods of treatment and patient outcomes.
Eight patients with nine cases of transcalcaneal talonavicular dislocation were treated by the senior author between January 1, 1990, and February 28, 1998. The comminuted fracture of the calcaneus was apparently caused by plantar flexion of the talus through the anterior portion of the calcaneus. There were five open Grade-III injuries and three associated lacerations of the posterior tibial artery. After initial provisional stabilization of the hindfoot and management of the soft tissues, all injuries were treated with delayed open reduction and internal fixation of the calcaneus and fusion of the subtalar joint. At the last follow-up examination, the outcomes were rated with the Maryland foot score, the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) ankle-hindfoot rating score, and the Creighton-Nebraska score for all patients who had not had an amputation.
The duration of follow-up ranged from 1.1 to eight years. Chronic osteomyelitis developed in four patients, and three of them ultimately had an amputation. The Creighton-Nebraska scores for the remaining six feet ranged from 33 to 92 points, with only one having a good or excellent result. Five of the six patients had a limp, difficulty with shoe wear, limitation with regard to walking, and moderate pain.
Transcalcaneal talonavicular dislocation is a severe injury that often leads to osteomyelitis and amputation. Patients who do not lose the leg as a result of uncontrolled infection should be counseled to expect severe functional limitations and/or chronic pain.
The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery 05/2002; 84-A(4):557-61. · 3.27 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: To determine if the exhaust from surgical compressed-air power tools contains bacteria and if the exhaust leads to contamination of sterile surfaces.
Bacteriologic study of orthopaedic power tools.
Level I trauma center operative theater.
Part I. Exhaust from two sterile compact air drills was sampled directly at the exhaust port. Part II. Exhaust from the drills was directed at sterile agar plates from varying distances. The agar plates represented sterile surfaces within the operative field. Part III. Control cultures. A battery-powered drill was operated over open agar plates in similar fashion as the compressed-air drills. Agar plates left open in the operative theater served as controls to rule out atmospheric contamination. Random cultures were taken from agar plates, gloves, drills, and hoses.
Incidence of positive cultures.
In Part I, all filters from both compressed-air drill exhausts were culture negative ( = 0.008). In Part II, the incidence of positive cultures for air drills number one and number two was 73% and 82%, respectively. The most commonly encountered organisms were, coagulase-negative Staphylococcus, and Micrococcus species. All control cultures from agar plates, battery-powered drill, gloves, and hoses were negative ( < 0.01).
Exhaust from compressed-air power tools in orthopaedic surgery may contribute to the dissemination of bacteria onto the surgical field. We do not recommend the use of compressed-air power tools that do not have a contained exhaust.
Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma 16(10):696-700. · 2.13 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to compare results of femoral shaft fracture treatment with nailing through the greater trochanter to nailing through the piriformis fossa with nails specifically designed for each starting point.
Prospective cohort study.
Four level 1 trauma centers.
One-hundred and eight patients treated by 1 of 4 surgeons for a femoral shaft or subtrochanteric fracture with antegrade nailing between January 2001 and April 2003 were included. Four patients who expired early in the postoperative period and 13 with insufficient follow-up were excluded from analysis.
Patients were treated with either nailing through a greater trochanter starting point with the Trigen TAN nail (GT group) (n = 38) or through a piriformis fossa starting point with the Trigen FAN nail (PF group) (n = 53).
Operative time, fluoroscopy time, fracture alignment, fracture healing, complications, and functional outcome based on the lower-extremity measure (LEM).
Thirty-seven of the 38 fractures from the GT group and 52 of the 53 fractures from the PF group healed after the index procedure. One patient from the GT group had external rotation malalignment of 12 degrees. There were no other malalignments or iatrogenic fracture comminution. There were 2 infectious complications, 1 from each group. The average operative time was 75 minutes for piriformis insertion using the FAN nail and 62 minutes for trochanteric insertion using the TAN nail (P = 0.08). The average fluoroscopy time was 61% greater for the PF group (153 seconds) than for the GT group (95 seconds) (P < 0.05). These differences were magnified in patients who were obese (body mass index > 30) where the operative time was 30% greater (P < 0.05) and the fluoroscopy time was 73% higher in the PF group (P < 0.02). Patients from both groups had a similar initial decline and subsequent improvement in function over time (P > 0.05).
A femoral nail specially designed for trochanteric insertion resulted in equally high union rates, equally low complication rates, and functional results similar to conventional antegrade femoral nailing through the piriformis fossa. The greater trochanter entry portal coupled with an appropriately designed nail represents a rational alternative for antegrade femoral nailing with the benefit of decreased fluoroscopy time and decreased operative time in patients who are obese.
Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma 20(10):663-7. · 2.13 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Results of surgical treatment for clavicle injuries using standard approaches have shown relatively high complication rates including loss of fixation, persistent nonunion, implant related problems, and the need for subsequent surgeries are common. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the clinical results of patients treated for clavicle fractures and painful clavicular nonunions with anterior-inferior plating using a 3.5 mm plate.
Consecutive clinical series.
3 tertiary care academic trauma centers (Level 1 and 2).
Eighty consecutive patients with a middle-third fracture or painful nonunion of the clavicle.
Open reduction and internal fixation using an anterior-inferior plating technique with a precontoured 3.5 mm plate and lag screw(s). Nonunions received autologous bone grafts.
Patients were evaluated using physical and radiographic examination, the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons Shoulder Assessment (ASES), and the Short Form-36 (SF-36) outcomes questionnaire.
Fifty-eight patients had sufficient records and follow-up of at least 24 months (mean 49 months). Clinical and radiographic union was present at a mean of 9.5 weeks for patients treated for acute fracture and 10.5 weeks those treated for nonunion. Complications included 1 failure of fixation, 1 nonunion, and 3 infections. Two patients underwent implant removal for bothersome hardware. Shoulder motion was good or excellent in all patients except those with neurologic injury. Functional results (ASES and SF-36) were good or excellent for the vast majority of patients, except those with neurologic injury.
Anterior-inferior plating of acute middle-third fractures of the clavicle and clavicular nonunions using a plate and lag screws typically results in early healing, few complications and an excellent return of function. Advantages of this technique include stable bony fixation with instrumentation directed away from potentially dangerous infraclavicular structures and a minimal incidence of implant prominence problems.
Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma 20(10):680-6. · 2.13 Impact Factor