B A Reitz

Stanford University, Palo Alto, California, United States

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Publications (375)2080 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Single-center data on pediatric heart transplantation spanning long time frames is sparse. We attempted to analyze how risk profile and pediatric heart transplant survival outcomes at a large center changed over time. We divided 320 pediatric heart transplants done at Stanford University between 1974 and 2014 into three groups by era: the first 20 years (95 transplants), the subsequent 10 years (87 transplants), and the most recent 10 years (138 transplants). Differences in age at transplant, indication, mechanical support, and survival were analyzed. Follow-up was 100% complete. Average age at time of transplantation was 10.4 years, 11.9 years, and 5.6 years in eras 1, 2, and 3, respectively. The percentage of infants who received transplants by era was 21%, 7%, and 18%, respectively. The indication of end-stage congenital heart disease vs cardiomyopathy was 24%, 22%, and 49%, respectively. Only 1 patient (1%) was on mechanical support at transplant in era 1 compared with 15% in era 2 and 30% in era 3. Overall survival was 72% at 5 years and 57% at 10 years. Long-term survival increased significantly with each subsequent era. Patients with cardiomyopathy generally had a survival advantage over those with congenital heart disease. The risk profile of pediatric transplant patients in our institution has increased over time. In the last 10 years, median age has decreased and ventricular assist device support has increased dramatically. Transplantation for end-stage congenital heart disease is increasingly common. Despite this, long-term survival has significantly and consistently improved. Copyright © 2015 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    The Annals of thoracic surgery 07/2015; 100(3). DOI:10.1016/j.athoracsur.2015.05.111 · 3.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OHT is the definitive therapy in end-stage heart failure. Elevated PVRI is considered a relative contraindication to isolated OHT; this assumption is re-evaluated using data from the UNOS database. A retrospective review of de-identified data from the UNOS dataset was performed. There were 1943 pediatric OHT recipients between 10/87 and 12/11 with sufficient data for analysis. Cox regression was performed to examine the effect of baseline characteristics on post-transplant survival. Patients were propensity matched, and Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was performed comparing cohorts of patients using thresholds of 6 and 9 WU × m(2) . PVRI was not a significant predictor of post-transplant outcomes in either univariate or multivariate Cox regression. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed no difference in survival between both unmatched and propensity-matched OHT recipients. In conclusion, elevated PVRI was not associated with post-transplant mortality in pediatric OHT recipients. A prospective study assessing the current use of PVRI ≥6 as a threshold to contraindicate isolated OHT should be undertaken. Removing this potentially unnecessary restriction on transplant candidacy may make this life-saving therapy available to a greater number of patients. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
    Pediatric Transplantation 07/2015; 19(6). DOI:10.1111/petr.12550 · 1.44 Impact Factor
  • Bruce A. Reitz ·

    The Annals of thoracic surgery 06/2015; 99(6). DOI:10.1016/j.athoracsur.2015.04.071 · 3.85 Impact Factor
  • J.M. Schaffer · P. Chiu · B.A. Reitz · G. Dhillon · J. Woo · R. Ha ·

    The Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation 04/2015; 34(4):S171-S172. DOI:10.1016/j.healun.2015.01.466 · 6.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Outcomes of single- and double-lung transplantation have not been rigorously assessed since the allocation of donor lungs according to medical need as quantified by the Lung Allocation Score, which began in 2005. To compare outcomes in single- and double-lung transplant recipients since the Lung Allocation Score was implemented. In this exploratory analysis, adults with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) who underwent lung transplantation in the United States between May 4, 2005, and December 31, 2012, were identified in the United Network for Organ Sharing thoracic registry, with follow-up to December 31, 2012. Posttransplantation graft survival was assessed with Kaplan-Meier analysis. Propensity scores were used to control for treatment selection bias. A multivariable flexible parametric prognostic model was used to characterize the time-varying hazard associated with single- vs double-lung transplantation. Single- or double-lung transplantation. Composite of posttransplant death and graft failure (retransplantation). Patients with IPF (n = 4134, of whom 2010 underwent single-lung and 2124 underwent double-lung transplantation) or COPD (n = 3174, of whom 1299 underwent single-lung and 1875 underwent double-lung transplantation) were identified as having undergone lung transplantation since May 2005. Median follow-up was 23.5 months. Of the patients with IPF, 1380 (33.4%) died and 115 (2.8%) underwent retransplantation; of the patients with COPD, 1138 (34.0%) died and 59 (1.9%) underwent retransplantation. After confounders were controlled for with propensity score analysis, double-lung transplants were associated with better graft survival in patients with IPF (adjusted median survival, 65.2 months [interquartile range {IQR}, 21.4-91.3 months] vs 50.4 months [IQR, 17.0-87.5 months]; P < .001) but not in patients with COPD (adjusted median survival, 67.7 months [IQR, 25.2-89.6 months] vs 64.0 months [IQR, 25.2-88.7 months]; P = .23). The interaction between diagnosis type (COPD or IPF) and graft failure was significant (P = .049). Double-lung transplants had a time-varying association with graft survival; a decreased instantaneous late hazard for death or graft failure among patients with IPF was noted at 1 year and persisted at 5 years postoperatively (instantaneous hazard at 5 years, hazard ratio, 0.67 [95% CI, 0.52-0.84] in patients with IPF and 0.89 [95% CI, 0.71-1.13] in patients with COPD). In an exploratory analysis of registry data since implementation of a medical need-based lung allocation system, double-lung transplantation was associated with better graft survival than single-lung transplantation in patients with IPF. In patients with COPD, there was no survival difference between single- and double-lung transplant recipients at 5 years.
    JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association 03/2015; 313(9):936-48. DOI:10.1001/jama.2015.1175 · 35.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Surgical myectomy and alcohol septal ablation (ASA) aim to decrease left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) gradient in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). Outcome of myectomy beyond 10 years has rarely been described. We describe 20 years of follow-up of surgical myectomy and 5 years of follow-up for ASA performed for obstructive HCM. Methods: We studied 171 patients who underwent myectomy for symptomatic LVOT obstruction between 1972 and 2006. In addition, we studied 52 patients who underwent ASA for the same indication and who declined surgery. Follow-up of New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class, echocardiographic data, and vital status were obtained from patient records. Mortality rates were compared with expected mortality rates of age- and sex-matched populations. Results: Surgical myectomy improved NYHA class (2.74±0.65 to 1.54±0.74, p<0.001), reduced resting gradient (67.4±43.4mmHg to 11.2±16.4mmHg, p<0.001), and inducible LVOT gradient (98.1±34.7mmHg to 33.6±34.9mmHg, p<0.001). Similarly, ASA improved functional class (2.99±0.35 to 1.5±0.74, p<0.001), resting gradient (67.1±26.9mmHg to 23.9±29.4mmHg, p<0.001) and provoked gradient (104.4±34.9mmHg to 35.5±38.6mmHg, p<0.001). Survival after myectomy at 5, 10, 15, and 20 years of follow-up was 92.9%, 81.1%, 68.9%, and 47.5%, respectively. Of note, long-term survival after myectomy was lower than for the general population [standardized mortality ratio (SMR)=1.40, p<0.005], but still compared favorably with historical data from non-operated HCM patients. Survival after ASA at 2 and 5 years was 97.8% and 94.7%, respectively. Short-term (5 year) survival after ASA (SMR=0.61, p=0.48) was comparable to that of the general population. Conclusion: Long-term follow-up of septal reduction strategies in obstructive HCM reveals that surgical myectomy and ASA are effective for symptom relief and LVOT gradient reduction and are associated with favorable survival. While overall prognosis for the community HCM population is similar to the general population, the need for surgical myectomy may identify a sub-group with poorer long-term prognosis. We await long-term outcomes of more extensive myectomy approaches adopted in the past 10 years at major institutions.
    Journal of Cardiology 09/2014; 66(1). DOI:10.1016/j.jjcc.2014.08.010 · 2.78 Impact Factor
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    American Journal of Transplantation 07/2014; 14(8). DOI:10.1111/ajt.12817 · 5.68 Impact Factor
  • J M Schaffer · P Chiu · S K Singh · P E Oyer · B A Reitz · H R Mallidi ·
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    ABSTRACT: Combined heart-liver transplant (HLT) is a viable therapy for patients with concomitant end-stage heart and liver failure. Using data from the United Network for Organ Sharing database, we examined the cumulative incidences of transplant and mortality in waitlisted candidates for HLT, isolated heart transplant (HRT) and isolated liver transplant (LIV) in the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease era. The incidence of waitlist mortality was higher in HLT candidates than in HRT candidates (p = 0.001, 26% vs. 12% at 1 year) or LIV candidates (p = 0.005, 26% vs. 14% at 1 year). These differences persisted after stratifying by disease severity. Posttransplant survival was not significantly different between HLT and HRT recipients or between HLT and LIV recipients. In a multivariable model, undergoing HLT was associated with enhanced survival for HLT candidates (hazard ratio, 0.41; confidence interval, 0.21-0.79; p = 0.008), but undergoing HRT alone was not. Interestingly, 90% of HLT recipients were allocated an organ locally, compared to 60% of HRT candidates and 73% of LIV candidates (both p < 0.001). These data suggest that the current cardiac and liver allocation systems may underestimate the risk of death for patients with concomitant end-stage heart and liver failure on the HLT waitlist.
    American Journal of Transplantation 02/2014; 14(3). DOI:10.1111/ajt.12595 · 5.68 Impact Factor
  • J M Schaffer · P Chiu · S K Singh · P E Oyer · B A Reitz · H R Mallidi ·
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    ABSTRACT: In patients with end-stage heart failure (ESHF) who are candidates for isolated heart transplant (HRT), dialysis dependence (DD) is considered an indication for combined heart-kidney transplantation (HKT). HKT remains controversial in ESHF transplant candidates with nondialysis-dependent renal insufficiency (NDDRI). Using United Network for Organ Sharing data, we examined the cumulative incidences of transplant and mortality in patients with DD and NDDRI waitlisted for HKT or HRT. In all groups, 3-month waitlist mortality was dismal: 31% and 21% for HRT- and HKT-listed patients with DD and 12% and 7% for HRT- and HKT-listed patients with NDDRI. Five-year posttransplant survival was improved in HKT recipients compared with HRT recipients for both patients with DD (73% vs. 51%, p < 0.001) and NDDRI (80% vs. 69%, p < 0.001). Likewise, multivariable analysis associated HKT with better outcomes than HRT in HKT-listed patients, although both improved survival. These data argue strongly for HKT in ESHF transplant candidates with DD. However, in patients with NDDRI, HKT must be weighed against the possibility of renal recovery with isolated HRT. Whether HRT (followed by a staged kidney transplant in patients who do not recover renal function after HRT), as opposed to HKT, maximizes organ benefit for patients with NDDRI and ESHF requires assessment. Nevertheless, given their dismal waitlist outcomes and excellent posttransplant results, we suggest that patients with DD and NDDRI with ESHF be considered for early listing and transplant.
    American Journal of Transplantation 11/2013; 14(2). DOI:10.1111/ajt.12522 · 5.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To assess the pattern of the adoption of internal mammary artery (IMA) grafting in the United States, test its association with clinical outcomes, and assess whether its effectiveness differs in key clinical subgroups. The effect of IMA grafting on major clinical outcomes has never been tested in a large randomized trial, yet it is now a quality standard for coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. We identified Medicare beneficiaries aged ≥66 years who underwent isolated multivessel CABG between 1988 and 2008, and documented patterns of IMA use over time. We used a multivariable propensity score to match patients with and without an IMA, and compared rates of death, myocardial infarction (MI), and repeat revascularization. We tested for variations in IMA effectiveness using treatment by covariate interaction tests. IMA use in CABG rose slowly from 31% in 1988 to 91% in 2008, with persistent wide geographic variations. Among 60,896 propensity score matched patients over a median 6.8 year follow-up, IMA use was associated with lower all-cause mortality (adjusted hazard ratio 0.77, p<0.001), lower death or MI (adjusted hazard ratio 0.77, p<0.001), and fewer repeat revascularization over five years (8% vs. 9%, p<0.001). The association between IMA use and lower mortality was significantly weaker (p≤0.008) for older patients, women, and for patients with diabetes or peripheral arterial disease. IMA grafting was adopted slowly and still shows substantial geographic variation. IMA use is associated with lower rates of death, MI and repeat coronary revascularization.
    Journal of the American College of Cardiology 09/2013; 63(1). DOI:10.1016/j.jacc.2013.08.1632 · 16.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Lung transplantation and heart-lung transplantation represent surgical options for treatment of medically refractory idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension. The effect of the lung allocation score on wait-list and transplantation outcomes in patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension is poorly described. Methods and results: Adults diagnosed with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension and listed for transplantation in the 80 months before and after the lung allocation score algorithm was implemented (n=1430) were identified in the United Network for Organ Sharing thoracic registry. Patients were stratified by organ listed and pre- and post-lung allocation score era. The cumulative incidences of transplantation and mortality for wait-listed patients in both eras were appraised with competing outcomes analysis. Posttransplantation survival was assessed with the Kaplan-Meier method. These analyses were repeated in propensity-matched subgroups. Cox proportional hazards analysis evaluated the effect of prelisting and pretransplantation characteristics on mortality. We found that patients in the post-lung allocation score era had significantly worse comorbidities; nevertheless, both lung transplantation and heart-lung transplantation candidates in this era enjoyed lower wait-list mortality and a higher incidence of transplantation in unmatched and propensity-matched analyses. On multivariable analysis, heart-lung transplantation and double-lung transplantation were associated with improved survival from the time of wait-listing, as was being listed at a medium- to high-volume institution. Donor/recipient sex matching predicted posttransplantation survival. Conclusions: The incidence of transplantation has increased while wait-list mortality has decreased in patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension wait-listed for transplantation in the post-lung allocation score era. Both heart-lung transplantation and double-lung transplantation are predictive of survival in transplantation candidates with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension, as is being listed at a medium- to high-volume institution. Donor/recipient sex matching is associated with better posttransplantation survival.
    Circulation 05/2013; 129(16). DOI:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.112.001080 · 14.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Allosensitization in potential orthotopic heart transplant recipients is evaluated with the panel reactive antibody assay. Sensitized patients have prolonged wait times and increased waitlist and post-transplant mortality. Although low panel reactive antibody activity at the time of orthotopic heart transplantation is associated with improved outcomes, literature regarding the survival benefit of a panel reactive antibody reduction in the sensitized orthotopic heart transplant recipient remains limited. Methods: Adult orthotopic heart transplant recipients listed in the United Network for Organ Sharing database (October 1, 1987, to June 29, 2004) were stratified by peak panel reactive antibody activity and whether a substantial decline from peak to most recent panel reactive antibody activity occurred before transplant. Propensity matching adjusted for differences in recipient and donor characteristics. Graft survival was assessed with Kaplan-Meier analysis. Cox proportional hazards regression determined predictors of graft survival. Results: Pretransplant characteristics differed between sensitized patients who had a substantial decline in panel reactive antibody activity and those who did not. Propensity matching compensated for these differences. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis of matched groups showed that the median graft survival was 120 months in patients with a significant panel reactive antibody reduction and 103 months in patients with a trivial reduction (P = .007, log-rank). In Cox proportional hazards modeling, a significant reduction in panel reactive antibody activity had an independent protective effect on graft survival (hazard ratio, 0.88; confidence interval, 0.80-0.96; P = .006). Conclusions: Sensitized patients who had a substantial reduction in panel reactive antibody activity had an associated decline in the incidence of graft failure compared with those without a panel reactive antibody activity reduction. These results support efforts to reduce panel reactive antibody activity before orthotopic heart transplantation in patients with high panel reactive antibody activity.
    The Journal of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery 12/2012; 145(2). DOI:10.1016/j.jtcvs.2012.10.025 · 4.17 Impact Factor

  • The Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation 04/2012; 31(4):S52. DOI:10.1016/j.healun.2012.01.132 · 6.65 Impact Factor

  • The Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation 04/2012; 31(4):S64. DOI:10.1016/j.healun.2012.01.169 · 6.65 Impact Factor
  • Bruce A Reitz ·

    The Journal of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery 04/2011; 141(4):867-9. DOI:10.1016/j.jtcvs.2010.12.014 · 4.17 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The use of ventricular assist devices (VADs) to bridge pediatric patients to heart transplantation has increased dramatically over the last 15 years. In this report, we present the largest US single-center report of pediatric VAD use to date. We present detailed descriptions of morbidity and mortality associated with VAD support, using standard Interagency Registry for Mechanically Assisted Circulatory Support (INTERMACS) criteria for pediatrics to facilitate the comparison of these results to other studies. We retrospectively identified 25 patients younger than 18 years with 27 episodes of mechanical circulatory support using VADs as bridge to heart transplantation from January 1998 to December 2007. Survival to transplant for the entire cohort was 74%. The most common major morbidities, as defined by INTERMACS criteria for a pediatric population, were respiratory failure, major localized infections, major bleeding events, hepatic dysfunction, and right heart failure. Major neurological events occurred in 48% of the study population. The median time to the first occurrence of an adverse event was less than 14 days for respiratory failure, right heart failure, major localized infection, and major bleeding. Patients who died before transplantation had significantly more adverse events per day of support than did those who were successfully transplanted. Episodes of major bleeding, tamponade, acute renal failure, respiratory failure, and right heart failure were all associated with increased risk of mortality. INTERMACS criteria can be successfully used to analyze pediatric VAD outcomes. These data serve as a baseline for future studies of VAD support in children and indicate good survival rates but considerable morbidity.
    Circulation Heart Failure 11/2010; 3(6):682-8. DOI:10.1161/CIRCHEARTFAILURE.109.918672 · 5.89 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Direct thrombin inhibitors are heparin alternatives for anticoagulation during cardiopulmonary bypass in patients with heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. We report a case of a large thrombus forming in the venous reservoir while using bivalirudin. We suggest that blood stasis associated with the full venous reservoir maintained in this case led to formation of a large thrombus at the top of the venous canister. Furthermore, activated clotting times may not accurately reflect the magnitude of anticoagulation when using direct thrombin inhibitors.
    Anesthesia and analgesia 09/2010; 111(3):609-12. DOI:10.1213/ANE.0b013e3181e9ead3 · 3.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Long-term survival after heart-lung transplantation was first achieved in 1981 at Stanford and a total of 217 heart-lung transplantations had been performed by June 2008. This review summarizes Stanford's cumulative experience with heart-lung transplantation, demonstrates the progress that has been made, and discusses past and persistent problems. Diagnostic tools and treatment options for infectious diseases and rejection have changed and patient survival markedly improved over the almost three decades. Eight patients lived longer than 20 years. Further options to treat infections and strategies to control bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome, the main causes of early and long-term mortality, respectively, are required to achieve routine long-term survival.
    The Annals of thoracic surgery 07/2010; 90(1):329-37. DOI:10.1016/j.athoracsur.2010.01.023 · 3.85 Impact Factor
  • T Deuse · D Weill · S Hunt · H Reichenspurner · B Reitz ·

    The Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgeon 02/2010; 58(S 01). DOI:10.1055/s-0029-1247071 · 0.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Inadequate left atrial cuff surrounding donor pulmonary veins may present a technical challenge for successful lung transplantation. A simple technique for construction of venous anastomoses during lung transplantation when donor atrial cuff is lacking involves circumferential incorporation of surrounding donor pericardium into the anastomosis without directly suturing or augmenting donor venous structures.
    The Annals of thoracic surgery 10/2009; 88(4):1374-6. DOI:10.1016/j.athoracsur.2008.11.031 · 3.85 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

10k Citations
2,080.00 Total Impact Points


  • 1979-2015
    • Stanford University
      • • Department of Medicine
      • • Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery
      • • Department of Pediatrics
      • • Falk Cardiovascular Research Center
      • • Division of Pediatric Cardiology
      • • Division of Pulmonary Medicine
      • • Division of Vascular Surgery
      Palo Alto, California, United States
  • 1977-2014
    • Stanford Medicine
      • • Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery
      • • Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences
      • • Falk Cardiovascular Research Center
      • • Department of Medicine
      • • Division of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery
      Stanford, California, United States
  • 2004
    • Lucile Packard Children’s Hospital at Stanford
      Palo Alto, California, United States
  • 2000
    • The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia
      Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States
  • 1986-1997
    • Johns Hopkins Medicine
      • • Division of Cardiac Surgery
      • • Department of Surgery
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
  • 1985-1996
    • University of Maryland, Baltimore
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
  • 1994
    • Onassis Cardiac Surgery Center
      Kallithea, Attica, Greece
  • 1984-1994
    • Johns Hopkins University
      • Division of Cardiac Surgery
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States