Leonardo Pantoni

Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria Careggi, Firenzuola, Tuscany, Italy

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Publications (236)1116.21 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Background and purpose: Disruption of cortical-subcortical circuits related to small vessel disease (SVD) may predispose to depression in the elderly. We aimed to determine the independent association between white matter (WM) microstructural damage, evaluated with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), and depressive symptoms in a cohort of elderly subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and SVD. Methods: The vascular mild cognitive impairment (VMCI)-Tuscany Study is an observational multicentric longitudinal study that enrolled patients with MCI and moderate to severe degrees of WM hyperintensities on MRI. Lacunar infarcts, cortical atrophy, medial temporal lobe atrophy, microbleeds, and DTI-derived indices (mean diffusivity, MD and fractional anisotropy, FA) were evaluated on baseline MRI. Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) (score 0-15) was used to assess depressive symptoms. An extensive neuropsychological battery, Instrumental Activities of Daily Living scale, and the Short Physical Performance Battery were used for cognitive, functional, and motor assessments, respectively. Results: Seventy-six patients (mean age: 75.1 ± 6.8 years) were included. Univariate analyses showed a significant association between GDS score and both DTI-derived indices (MD: r = 0.307, p = 0.007; FA: r = -0.245; p = 0.033). The association remained significant after adjustment for age, WM hyperintensities severity, global cognitive, functional and motor performances, and antidepressant therapy (MD: r = 0.361, p = 0.002; FA: r = -0.277; p = 0.021). Conclusions: These results outline the presence of an association between WM microstructural damage and depressive symptoms in MCI patients with SVD. This relationship does not seem to be mediated by disability, cognitive, and motor impairment, thus supporting the vascular depression hypothesis. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry 10/2015; DOI:10.1002/gps.4368 · 2.87 Impact Factor
  • Anna Poggesi · Domenico Inzitari · Leonardo Pantoni ·

    Stroke 09/2015; DOI:10.1161/STROKEAHA.115.008225 · 5.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) prodromic of vascular dementia is expected to have a multidomain profile. In a sample of cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) patients, we assessed MCI subtypes distributions according to different operationalization of Winblad criteria and compared the neuroimaging features of single versus multidomain MCI. We applied three MCI diagnostic scenarios in which the cutoffs for objective impairment and the number of considered neuropsychological tests varied. Passing from a liberal to more conservative diagnostic scenarios, of 153 patients, 5% were no longer classified as MCI, amnestic multidomain frequency decreased, and nonamnestic single domain increased. Considering neuroimaging features, severe medial temporal lobe atrophy was more frequent in multidomain compared with single domain. Operationalizing MCI criteria changes the relative frequency of MCI subtypes. Nonamnestic single domain MCI may be a previously nonrecognized type of MCI associated with SVD. Copyright © 2015 The Alzheimer's Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Alzheimer's & dementia: the journal of the Alzheimer's Association 06/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.jalz.2015.02.010 · 12.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The term cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) refers to a group of pathologic processes with various etiologies that affect small arteries, arterioles, venules, and capillaries of the brain. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) correlates of SVD are lacunes, recent small subcortical infarcts, white-matter hyperintensities, enlarged perivascular spaces, microbleeds, and brain atrophy. Endothelial dysfunction is thought to have a role in the mechanisms leading to SVD-related brain changes, and the study of endothelial dysfunction has been proposed as an important step for a better comprehension of cerebral SVD. Among available methods to assess endothelial function in vivo, measurement of molecules of endothelial origin in peripheral blood is currently receiving selective attention. These molecules include products of endothelial cells that change when the endothelium is activated, as well as molecules that reflect endothelial damage and repair. This review examines the main molecular factors involved in both endothelial function and dysfunction, and the evidence linking endothelial dysfunction with cerebral SVD, and gives an overview of clinical studies that have investigated the possible association between endothelial circulating biomarkers and SVD-related brain changes.Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism advance online publication, 10 June 2015; doi:10.1038/jcbfm.2015.116.
    Journal of cerebral blood flow and metabolism: official journal of the International Society of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism 06/2015; DOI:10.1038/jcbfm.2015.116 · 5.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Apolipoprotein E (APOE) increases the risk for Alzheimer's disease (ɛ4 allele) and cerebral amyloid angiopathy (ɛ2 and ɛ4), but its role in small vessel disease (SVD) is debated. Here we studied the effects of APOE on white matter hyperintensity volume (WMHV) in CADASIL (cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy), a nonamyloidogenic angiopathy and inherited early-onset form of pure SVD. Four hundred and eighty-eight subjects were recruited through a multicenter consortium. Compared with APOE ɛ3/ɛ3, WMHV was increased in APOE ɛ2 (P=0.02) but not APOE ɛ4. The results remained significant when controlled for genome-wide genetic background variation. Our findings suggest a modifying influence of APOE ɛ2 on WMHV caused by pure SVD.Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism advance online publication, 29 April 2015; doi:10.1038/jcbfm.2015.85.
    Journal of cerebral blood flow and metabolism: official journal of the International Society of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism 04/2015; DOI:10.1038/jcbfm.2015.85 · 5.41 Impact Factor
  • A Del Bene · L Ciolli · L Borgheresi · A Poggesi · D Inzitari · L Pantoni ·
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    ABSTRACT: A significantly increased interest has been dedicated to the study of the effects of diabetes mellitus (DM) on the brain. DM is associated with an increased risk of stroke and cognitive decline. In patients with DM, neuroimaging discloses with high-frequency structural changes, such as cerebral atrophy, infarcts and white matter lesions, also called leukoaraiosis (LA), an expression of small vessel disease. A previous review showed a relation between DM and both cerebral atrophy and lacunar infarcts, while the question about the relation between DM and LA remained unanswered. In this review, we provide an update on data on this last association. In the reviewed studies, we examined the presence of DM, other disease characteristics, such as duration and complications, and laboratory markers of the disease such as blood glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), insulin resistance, insulin concentrations and their association with LA. About 40% of the reviewed studies reported a statistically significant association between DM and LA. Long-standing DM and a poor glycemic control were associated with severe LA. Studies using innovative MRI techniques, such as diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), reported a significant association between microstructural white matter alterations and DM. This review highlights more firmly than previously reported the existence of a relation between DM and both presence and severity of LA. These results are possibly due to more sensitive and advanced imaging techniques recently used to study the extent of LA. However, because of the heterogeneous methodology used in the reviewed studies, a definitive conclusion cannot be drawn. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
    Acta Neurologica Scandinavica 03/2015; 132(3). DOI:10.1111/ane.12398 · 2.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The pathogenesis of cerebral small-vessel disease (SVD) is still incompletely understood, although evidence from family and twin studies supports the hypothesis that genetic factors may contribute to SVD pathogenesis. Identification of genetic susceptibility factors for SVD may improve our knowledge on SVD pathogenesis. SVE-LA (Small Vessel and Lacunar) project is a multicenter prospective Lombardia region study aimed at applying innovative genetic technologies and accurate patient phenotyping to discover the genetic basis of SVD. A continuous series of subjects (aged 15-80 years) with a clinically and radiologically defined lacunar stroke referring to the participating Lombardia region stroke centers and an adequate number of age- and sex-matched controls are being included into the study. For each patient, clinical, demographic, instrumental, and familial data are collected applying standardized forms. After informed consent, a DNA sample for genetic analysis from patients and controls has been collected. The next generation sequencing (NGS) technology was applied to systematically screen patients for the most important genetic factors both monogenic and polygenic associated with SVD. The study includes also a centralized quantitative and qualitative analysis of neuroimaging studies. Between March 2011 and October 2013, 212 lacunar stroke patients and 78 controls have been collected. Mean age of cases was 65.8 ± 11.1 years and 67% were men. This is the first study applying systematically NGS technology on a wide series of lacunar stroke patients. A translational approach combining a systematic genetic screening with a detailed phenotyping may facilitate the discovery of genetic basis and improve our knowledge in the pathogenesis of SVD. Copyright © 2015 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Journal of stroke and cerebrovascular diseases: the official journal of National Stroke Association 02/2015; 24(4). DOI:10.1016/j.jstrokecerebrovasdis.2014.10.019 · 1.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background and purpose: A number of studies have suggested associations between dementia and depression in older adults. One reason could be that these disorders share structural correlates, such as white matter lesions (WMLs) and cortical atrophy. No study has examined whether these lesions precede both dementia and depression independently of each other in the general population. Methods: Whether WMLs and cortical atrophy on computed tomography predict dementia and depression was investigated in a population-based sample of 70-year-olds (n = 380) followed over 10 years. Exclusion criteria were dementia, major depression, history of stroke and a Mini-Mental State Examination score below 26 at baseline in 2000-2001. Dementia was diagnosed according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, third edition, revised, and depression according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition. Primary outcomes included dementia and major depression at 10-year follow-up. Results: Adjusted logistic regression models, including both WMLs and temporal lobe atrophy, showed that moderate to severe WMLs [odds ratio (OR) 3.96, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.23-12.76] and temporal lobe atrophy (OR 2.93, 95% CI 1.13-7.60) predicted dementia during a 10-year follow-up independently of major depression. Similarly, both moderate to severe WMLs (OR 3.84, 95% CI 1.25-11.76) and temporal lobe atrophy (OR 2.52, 95% CI 1.06-5.96) predicted depression even after controlling for incident dementia. Conclusion: White matter lesions and temporal lobe atrophy preceded 10-year incidence of both dementia and depression in 70-year-olds. Shared structural correlates could explain the reported associations between dementia and depression. These brain changes may represent independent and complementary pathways to dementia and depression. Strategies to slow progression of vascular pathology and neurodegeneration could indirectly prevent both dementia and depression in older adults.
    European Journal of Neurology 01/2015; 22(5). DOI:10.1111/ene.12651 · 4.06 Impact Factor
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    Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery 12/2014; 129C:34-36. DOI:10.1016/j.clineuro.2014.12.001 · 1.13 Impact Factor
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    Raffaella Valenti · Leonardo Pantoni · Hugh S Markus ·
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    ABSTRACT: Increasing evidence suggests vascular risk factors (VRF) play a role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Epidemiological studies have found associations between VRF and risk of AD. Treating VRF in patients with AD offers a potential treatment option but ineffective treatments should be avoided in this group who are frequently on multiple medications and in whom compliance may be challenging. Studies containing information on the treatment of VRF in patients with a diagnosis of AD were identified using a defined search strategy. Randomised controlled trials and observational studies were included. The pre-specified search strategy retrieved 11,992 abstract articles, and 25 papers including those identified on review of reference lists and reviews met the inclusion criteria. Of these, 11 were randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and 14 observational studies. Observational studies suggested that a VRF package and treatment of hypertension and statin therapy may be associated with improved outcome but these studies suffered from potential bias. The few RCTs performed were mostly small with short duration follow-up, and do not provide clear evidence either way. Observational data raises the possibility that treating VRF could alter the rate of decline in AD. However RCT data are not yet available to support this hypothesis and to alter clinical practice. RCTs in larger numbers of individuals with longer follow-up, ideally in the early stages of AD, are required to address this potentially important treatment question.
    BMC Medicine 12/2014; 12(1):160. DOI:10.1186/s12916-014-0160-z · 7.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background and purpose: Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) has been proposed as a screening tool in vascular cognitive impairment. Diffusion tensor imaging is sensitive to white matter microstructural damage. We investigated if diffusion tensor imaging-derived indices are more strongly associated with performances on MoCA or on the widely used mini mental state examination in patients with mild cognitive impairment and small vessel disease. Methods: Mild cognitive impairment patients with moderate/severe degrees of white matter hyperintensities on MRI were enrolled. Lacunar infarcts, cortical atrophy, medial temporal lobe atrophy and median values of mean diffusivity and fractional anisotropy of the cerebral white matter were studied and correlated with cognitive tests performances. Results: Seventy-six patients (mean age 75.1±6.8 years, mean years of education 8.0±4.3) were assessed. In univariate analyses, a significant association of both MoCA and mini mental state examination scores with age, education, cortical atrophy, and medial temporal lobe atrophy was found, whereas mean diffusivity and fractional anisotropy were associated with MoCA. In partial correlation analyses, adjusting for all demographic and neuroimaging variables, both mean diffusivity and fractional anisotropy were associated only with MoCA (mean diffusivity: r= -0.275, P=0.023; fractional anisotropy: r=0.246, P=0.043). Conclusions: In patients with mild cognitive impairment and small vessel disease, diffusion tensor imaging-measured white matter microstructural damage is more related to MoCA than mini mental state examination performances. MoCA is suited for the cognitive screening of patients with small vessel disease.
    Stroke 11/2014; 46(1). DOI:10.1161/STROKEAHA.114.007553 · 5.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is an abnormal condition defined by the presence of cognitive decline not severe enough to fit dementia criteria. According to Winblad et al.'s criteria, the clinical distinction of MCI subtypes (amnestic/non-amnestic, single/multiple domain) is based on the cognitive profiling (conventional diagnosis) and infers possible different MCI etiologies. MCI prodromic of vascular dementia (Vasc-MCI) is thought to be characterized by a multiple domain profile. In our outpatient clinic (the "Florence VAS-COG clinic"), the diagnosis of MCI and of its different subtypes (vascular, degenerative, mixed) is based on a comprehensive evaluation of clinical and neuroimaging features (pragmatic diagnosis).
    Aging - Clinical and Experimental Research 11/2014; 27(3). DOI:10.1007/s40520-014-0284-1 · 1.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of the study is to detail clinical and NOTCH3 gene mutational spectrum in a large group of Italian CADASIL patients. Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) is a familial cerebral small vessels disease caused by mutations in the NOTCH3 gene on 19p13 usually presenting in young or middle adulthood. Characteristic features include migraine, recurrent lacunar stroke, subcortical dementia, mood disturbances and leukoencephalopathy. The disorder is often overlooked and misdiagnosed. CADASIL prevalence and disease burden is still undetermined. We retrospectively reviewed demographic, clinical, and mutational characteristic of all CADASIL patients diagnosed from January 2002 to December 2012 in three referral centers for neurogenetic and cerebrovascular diseases in central Italy. 229 NOTCH3 positive subjects were identified. Mean age at diagnosis was 57.8 ± 14.7 years, and 48.6 ± 17.1 years at first symptom onset. Most frequent clinical symptoms were ischemic events (59 %) and psychiatric disturbances (48 %). The highest percentage of mutations were found on exons 4 and 19 (20.6 and 17.6 % respectively), the remaining being dispersed over the entire EGF-like region of the NOTCH3 gene. 209 patients resided in a circumscribed geographic area which included three regions of the central Italy, yielding a minimum prevalence of 4.1 per 100.000 adult inhabitants. This is the most extensive study on CADASIL in Italy. Clinical phenotype showed several peculiarities in frequency and presentation of the main disease manifestations. Our study enlarges the number of pathogenic NOTCH3 mutations and due to the heterogeneous mutational spectrum observed suggests that full sequencing of exons 2-24 is mandatory for CADASIL screening in the Italian population.
    Journal of Neurology 10/2014; 262(1). DOI:10.1007/s00415-014-7533-2 · 3.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Small vessel disease (SVD) represents a common often progressive condition in elderly people contributing to cognitive disability. The relationship between cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers and imaging correlates of SVD was investigated, and the findings were hypothesized to be associated with a neuropsychological profile of SVD. CSF SVD-related biomarkers [neurofilament light (NF-L), myelin basic protein (MBP), soluble amyloid precursor protein-β (sAPPβ), matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)] were analysed in 46 non-demented elderly with imaging findings of SVD. We assessed the relationship between the CSF biomarkers and white matter hyperintensity (WMH) volume, diffusion-weighted imaging and atrophy as well as their association with neuropsychological profiles. The WMH volume correlated with ventricular dilation, which was associated with executive function and speed and attention. Increased WMH and ventricular dilation were related to increased CSF levels of TIMP-1, NF-L and MBP and to decreased sAPPβ. A positive correlation was found between the CSF biomarker MMP-9 and WMH progression. The link between progressive WMH and MMP-9 suggests an involvement of the enzyme in white matter degeneration. CSF TIMP-1, NF-L, MBP and sAPPβ may function as biological markers of white matter damage.
    10/2014; 4(3):385-394. DOI:10.1159/000366119
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives Physical activity reduces the risk of cognitive decline but may affect cognitive domains differently. We examined whether physical activity modifies processing speed, executive function and memory in a population of non-dementia elderly subjects with age-related white matter changes (ARWMC).Methods Data from the Leukoaraiosis And DISability (LADIS) study, a multicenter, European prospective cohort study aimed at examining the role of ARWMC in transition to disability, was used. Subjects in the LADIS study were clinically assessed yearly for 3 years including MRI at baseline and 3-year follow-up. Physical activity was assessed at baseline, and cognitive compound scores at baseline and 3-year assessment were used.ResultsTwo-hundred-eighty-two subjects (age, y (mean (SD)): 73.1 (±5.1); gender (f/m): 164/118); MMSE (mean (SD)): 28.3 (±1.7)) who had not progressed to MCI or dementia, were included. Multiple variable linear regression analysis with baseline MMSE, education, gender, age, stroke, diabetes and ARWMC rating as covariates revealed that physical activity was associated with better scores at baseline and 3-year follow-up for executive function (baseline: β: 0.39, 95% CI: 0.13-0.90, p = 0.008; follow-up: β: 0.24, 95% CI: 0.10-0.38, p = 0.001) and processing speed (baseline: β: 0.48, 95% CI: 0.14-0.89, p = 0.005; follow-up: β: 0.15, 95% CI: 0.02-0.29, p = 0.02) but not memory. When including baseline cognitive score as a covariate in the analysis of 3-year follow-up scores, executive function remained significant (β: 0.11, 95% CI: 0-0.22, p = 0.04).Conclusion Our findings confirm previous findings of a positive effect of physical activity on cognitive functions in elderly subjects, and further extends these by showing that the association is also present in patients with ARWMC.
    International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry 10/2014; 9(4). DOI:10.1002/gps.4220 · 2.87 Impact Factor
  • Serena Nannucci · Ida Donnini · Leonardo Pantoni ·
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    ABSTRACT: The currently widespread use of neuroimaging has led neurologists to often face the problem of the differential diagnosis of white matter diseases. There are various forms of leukoencephalopathies (vascular, inflammatory and immunomediated, infectious, metabolic, neoplastic) and sometimes white matter lesions are expression of a genetic disease. While many inherited leukoencephalopathies fall in the child neurologist’s interest, others may have a delayed or even a typical onset in the middle or old age. This field is rapidly growing and, in the last few years, many new inherited white matter diseases have been described and genetically defined. A non-delayed recognition of middle and old age inherited leukoencephalopathies appears important to avoid unnecessary tests and therapies in the patient and to possibly anticipate the diagnosis in relatives.
    Journal of the Neurological Sciences 09/2014; 347(1-2). DOI:10.1016/j.jns.2014.09.020 · 2.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cerebral autosomal-dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL), a rare autosomal dominant disorder caused by NOTCH3 mutations, is characterized by vascular smooth muscle and endothelial cells abnormalities, altered vasoreactivity, and recurrent lacunar infarcts. Vasomotor function may represent a key factor for disease progression. Tetrahydrobiopterin, essential cofactor for nitric oxide synthesis in endothelial cells, ameliorates endothelial function. We assessed whether supplementation with sapropterin, a synthetic tetrahydrobiopterin analog, improves endothelium-dependent vasodilation in CADASIL patients.
    Stroke 09/2014; 45(10). DOI:10.1161/STROKEAHA.114.005937 · 5.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background and objective: Vascular cognitive impairment may have a selective neuropsychological profile. We developed a battery for assessing mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in patients with small vessel disease (SVD), its applicability, and psychometric properties. Methods: Among those proposed by the 2006 NINDS-CSN Consensus Conference, we selected tests for which norms based on healthy Italians and equivalent scores methodology were available. Confirmatory factor analysis was applied to ascertain the fit of the theoretically assumed dimensions to empirical data and to derive each cognitive dimension compound measures. Results: The entire battery was applied to 146 out of a cohort of 201 patients with MCI and SVD. Most tests showed good applicability. Fifty-five patients, who were older and cognitively more impaired, proved unable to complete the Trail Making Test part B, the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure, and the Stroop test, and were excluded from the analysis. Among the remaining patients, Mini-Mental State Examination proved largely normal, while Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure, Symbol digit modalities test, and Trail Making Test part B were most frequently abnormal. Confirmatory factor analysis showed a good fit of the 4-factor theoretical model to empirical data. Praxis domain resulted in the highest percentage of abnormal performance (65%), followed by Memory and Attention/EF domains (19% and 15%), and Language (8%). Conclusions: Our battery proved to be comprehensive, robust, and applicable. Attention-executive dysfunction and impaired memory and visuo-constructional abilities, were the prominent features. The assessment of the Consensus Conference, that included Trial Making Test, looks poorly applicable to older and cognitively impaired patients.
    Journal of Alzheimer's disease: JAD 08/2014; 43(4). DOI:10.3233/JAD-141449 · 4.15 Impact Factor
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    Guido Chiti · Leonardo Pantoni ·

    Stroke 08/2014; 45(10). DOI:10.1161/STROKEAHA.114.004590 · 5.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background and objective: Services dedicated to patients with cognitive and behavioral consequences of cerebrovascular diseases are not well established. In this paper, we report on the general organization of such a service (the Florence VAS-COG Clinic) after 9 years of activity, updating a previous work related to the first 5 years. Methods: The Florence VAS-COG clinic, started in 2006, is an outpatient service dedicated to the assessment and follow-up of patients with cerebrovascular diseases and related cognitive, psychiatric, and behavioral disturbances. The staff involved in the clinic is composed of certified neurologists, one neuropsychologist, and neurology residents. The diagnostic protocol includes detailed personal and family history, general and neurologic examinations, and functional, neuropsychological, and neuroimaging assessment. After this work-up, comprehensive diagnoses are made. Results: From January 2006 to March 2014, 600 patients (mean age 67.3 years ± 13.9; 52% females) have been evaluated in the clinic. Cognitive impairment, including mild cognitive impairment and dementia, mainly of vascular origin, was the most common (36.4%) diagnostic category, followed by suspected or confirmed familial micro-angiopathy (35.8%). Compared to the first years of activity, we are now facing the need of augmenting the number of visits due to increasing request and to better implement the multidisciplinarity of the team. Efforts are currently directed towards the definition of management protocols in pharmacological and non-pharmacological strategies. Conclusions: The establishment of a VAS-COG clinic represents an important step for the appreciation of the patient clinical needs and for the implementation of screening, diagnostic, and treatment options in the field of the neuropsychiatric consequences of cerebrovascular diseases.
    Journal of Alzheimer's disease: JAD 08/2014; 42. DOI:10.3233/JAD-141569 · 4.15 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

10k Citations
1,116.21 Total Impact Points


  • 2013-2015
    • Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria Careggi
      • Stroke and Neurology Unit
      Firenzuola, Tuscany, Italy
  • 1991-2015
    • University of Florence
      • Dipartimento di Neuroscienze, Psicologia, Area del Farmaco e Salute del Bambino
      Florens, Tuscany, Italy
  • 1995-1997
    • Henry Ford Hospital
      • Department of Neurology
      Detroit, Michigan, United States