Bethany Warren

University of California, Riverside, Riverside, CA, United States

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Publications (11)49.52 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This work investigates the oxidative aging process of SOA derived from select aromatic (m-xylene) and biogenic (α-pinene) precursors within an environmental chamber. Simultaneous measurements of SOA hygroscopicity, volatility, particle density, and elemental chemical composition (C:O:H) reveal only slight particle aging for up to the first 16 h of formation. The chemical aging observed is consistent with SOA that is decreasing in volatility and increasing in O/C and hydrophilicity. Even after aging, the O/C (0.25 and 0.40 for α-pinene and m-xylene oxidation, respectively) was below the OOAI and OOAII ambient fractions measured by high-resolution aerosol mass spectra coupled with Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF). The rate of increase in O/C does not appear to be sufficient to achieve OOAI or OOAII levels of oxygenation within regular chamber experiment duration. No chemical aging was observed for SOA during dark α-pinene ozonolysis with a hydroxyl radical scavenger present. This finding is consistent with observations by other groups that SOA from this system is comprised of first generation products.
    Atmospheric Environment 01/2010; · 3.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Temperature was found to have a dramatic effect on secondary organic aerosol formation from two ozonolysis systems, cyclohexene and α-pinene. Isothermal experiments were conducted for both systems where the lowest temperature, 278 K, formed approximately 2.5–3 times and 5–6 times the SOA formed at 300 K and 318 K, respectively. Changing the cyclohexene system temperature to a different isothermal experimental set point after completion of SOA formation did not lead to sufficient condensation/evaporation to reproduce the SOA formation at other temperature set points. When the system temperature was cycled between two set points at the end of an experiment, the α-pinene system showed reversibility between the initial temperature 318 K and 300 K. For temperature cycles between the initial temperature of 300 K–318 K, an irreversible loss of mass is observed after the first heating cycle with reversibility observed between subsequent temperature cycles. The SOA formed at 278 K was reversible over a 22 K range but was unable to evaporate sufficiently to match the SOA mass formed at 300 K. Hygroscopicity measurements, taken after the completion of SOA formation, indicate that hygroscopicity of the aerosol is also a function of temperature and that the aerosol does not continue to be oxidized after initial growth is complete. The differing hygroscopicity of the semi-volatile component of the aerosol is evident during system temperature changes after completion of the experiment.
    Atmospheric Environment 07/2009; · 3.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A series of 90 experiments were conducted in the UC Riverside/CE-CERT environmental chamber to evaluate the impact of water vapor and dissolved salts on secondary organic aerosol formation for cyclohexene ozonolysis. Water vapor (low – 30±2% RH, medium – 46±2% RH, high – 63±2% RH) was found to directly participate in the atmospheric chemistry altering the composition of the condensing species, thus increasing total organic aerosol formation by ∼22% as compared to the system under dry (
    Atmospheric Environment - ATMOS ENVIRON. 01/2009; 43(10):1789-1795.
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    ABSTRACT: Primary aliphatic amines are an important class of nitrogen containing compounds emitted from automobiles, waste treatment facilities and agricultural animal operations. A series of experiments conducted at the UC-Riverside/CE-CERT Environmental Chamber is presented in which oxidation of methylamine, ethylamine, propylamine, and butylamine with O<sub>3</sub> and NO<sub>3</sub> have been investigated. Very little aerosol formation is observed in the presence of O<sub>3</sub> only. However, after addition of NO, and by extension NO<sub>3</sub>, large aerosol mass yields (~44% for butylamine) are seen. Aerosol generated was determined to be organic in nature due to the small fraction of NO and NO<sub>2</sub> in the total signal (<1% for all amines tested) as detected by an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS). We propose a reaction mechanism between carbonyl containing species and the parent amine leading to formation of particulate imine products. These findings can have significant impacts on rural communities with elevated nighttime PM loadings, when significant levels of NO<sub>3</sub> exist.
    Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 01/2009; · 5.51 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Primary aliphatic amines are an important class of nitrogen containing compounds emitted from automobiles, waste treatment facilities and agricultural animal operations. A series of experiments conducted at the UC-Riverside/CE-CERT Environmental Chamber is presented in which oxidation of methylamine, ethylamine, propylamine, and butylamine with O3 and NO3 have been investigated. Very little aerosol formation is observed in the presence of O3 only. However, after addition of NO, and by extension NO3, large aerosol mass yields (~44% for butylamine) are seen. Aerosol generated was determined to be organic in nature due to the small fraction of NO and NO2 in the total signal (
    ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY AND PHYSICS 01/2009; 9:2051-2060. · 5.51 Impact Factor
  • Bethany Warren, Chen Song, David R Cocker
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    ABSTRACT: A series of m-xylene/NO(x) photooxidation experiments were conducted to determine the influence of light intensity and radiation spectrum on secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation within the UC Riverside/CE-CERT environmental chamber. The environmental chamber is equipped with 80 115-W black lights and a variable voltage 200 kW argon arc lamp that emits a wavelength spectrum more similar to natural light. SOA formation increased significantly with light intensity, measured as the photolysis rate of NO2 to NO (k1), increased from 0.09 to 0.26 min(-1). The argon arc lamp produced approximately 20% more SOA than black lights at a k1 of 0.09 min(-1) for similar amounts of m-xylene consumed. These results may help explain the variation of SOA formation between environmental chambers and the differences between measured SOA in the ambient atmosphere versus environmental chamber predictions.
    Environmental Science and Technology 09/2008; 42(15):5461-6. · 5.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Amines in fine particulate matter have been detected and quantified during ambient studies of winter inversions in Logan, UT, using aerosol mass spectrometry. Amine-related compounds account for 0.5-6 microg m(-3) of fine particulate mass during some wintertime periods. The amine contributions sometimes show a clear diurnal pattern, reaching peak concentrations during the middle of the nightwhile decreasing during the morning and afternoon. Smog chamber reactions show that the reaction of tertiary amines with nitrate radical can account for this behavior in the atmosphere. The lower bound reaction rate of trimethylamine and nitrate radical is estimated at 4.4 x 10(-16) cm3/molecules/s with a conversion rate to the aerosol phase of approximately 65%. This suggests that amines could be a contributor to secondary organic aerosol formation in areas where nitrate radical is a significant player in oxidation chemistry.
    Environmental Science and Technology 08/2008; 42(13):4689-96. · 5.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Secondary organic aerosol formation from the reaction of tertiary amines with nitrate radical was investigated in an indoor environmental chamber. Particle chemistry was monitored using a high resolution aerosol mass spectrometer while gas-phase species were detected using a proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer. Trimethylamine, triethylamine and tributylamine were studied. Results indicate that tributylamine forms the most aerosol mass followed by trimethylamine and triethylamine respectively. Spectra from the aerosol mass spectrometer indicate the formation of complex non-salt aerosol products. We propose a reaction mechanism that proceeds via abstraction of a proton by nitrate radical followed by RO2 chemistry. Rearrangement of the aminyl alkoxy radical through hydrogen shift leads to the formation of hydroxylated amides, which explain most of the higher mass ions in the mass spectra. These experiments show that oxidation of tertiary amines by nitrate radical may be an important night-time source of secondary organic aerosol.
    Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 01/2008; · 4.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) from the photooxidation of xylene isomers (m-, p-, and o-xylenes) has been extensively investigated. The dependence of SOA aerosol formation on the structure of xylene isomers in the presence of NO was confirmed. Generally, SOA formation of p-xylene was less than that of m- and o-xylenes. This discrepancy varies significantly with initial NOx levels. In a NOx-free environment, the difference of aerosol formation between o- and p-xylenes becomes insignificant. Several chemical pathways for the SOA dependence on structure and NOx are explored, with the experimental findings indicating that organic peroxides may be a major key to explaining SOA formation from aromatic hydrocarbons.
    Environmental Science and Technology 12/2007; 41(21):7403-8. · 5.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) from m-xylene photoxidation in the absence of NOx was investigated in a series of smog chamber experiments. Experiments were performed in dry air and in the absence of seed aerosol with H2O2 photolysis providing a stable hydroxyl radical (OH radical) source. SOA formation from this study is exceptionally higher than experiments with existence of NOx. The experiments with elevated HO2 levels indicate that organic hydroperoxide compounds should contribute to SOA formation. Nitrogen oxide (NO) is shown to reduce aerosol formation; the constant aerosol formation rate obtained before addition of NO and after consumption of NO strongly suggests that aerosol formation is mainlythrough reactions with OH and HO2 radicals. In addition, a density of 1.40 +/- 0.1 g cm(-3) for the SOA from the photooxidation of m-xylene in the absence of NOx has been measured, which is significantly higherthan the currently used unit density.
    Environmental Science and Technology 12/2007; 41(21):7409-16. · 5.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Propene is widely used in smog chamber experiments to increase the hydroxyl radical (OH) level based on the assumption that the formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) from parent hydrocarbon is unaffected. A series of m-xylene/NO(x) photooxidation experiments were conducted in the presence of propene in the University of California CE-CERT atmospheric chamber facility. The experimental data are compared with previous m-xylene/N0(x) photooxidation work performed in the same chamber facility in the absence of propene (Song et al. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2005, 39, 3143-3149). The result shows that, for similar initial conditions, experiments with propene have lower reaction rates of m-xylene than those without propene, which indicates that propene reduces OH in the system. Furthermore, experiments with propene showed more than 15% reduction in SOA yield compared to experiments in the absence of propene. Additional experiments of m-xylene/ NO(x) with CO showed similar trends of suppressing OH and SOA formation. These results indicate that SOA from m-xylene/NO(x) photooxidation is strongly dependent on the OH level present, which provides evidence for the critical role of OH in SOA formation from aromatic hydrocarbons.
    Environmental Science and Technology 11/2007; 41(20):6990-5. · 5.48 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

106 Citations
49.52 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2008–2010
    • University of California, Riverside
      • Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering
      Riverside, CA, United States
    • Utah State University
      • Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry
      Logan, OH, United States
  • 2007
    • CSU Mentor
      Long Beach, California, United States