Hideki Kuramitz

University of Toyama, Тояма, Toyama, Japan

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Publications (63)128.72 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), a type of brominated flame retardant that shows endocrine disruption effects, has been identified in leachates from landfills. Iron(III)-porphyrins that mimic the active site of peroxidases have been shown to be effective in oxidizing halogenated phenols, such as TBBPA. In the present study, TBBPA was subjected to oxidation with potassium monopersulfate (KHSO5) using an iron(III)-phthalocyanine-tetrasulfonic acid (FePcTS), structural analogue of iron(III)-porphyrin, in the presence of humic acid (HA), a major component in landfill leachates. When TBBPA was oxidized using the above system, the levels of degradation and debromination increased with increasing pH in the presence of HA. Because of landfill leachates are weakly alkaline (around pH 8), oxidation products derived from TBBPA were investigated at pH 8. Approximately 48% of the bromine in the degraded TBBPA was incorporated into HA, and hydroxy-tribromobisphenol A was determined to be the major brominated intermediate in the HA fraction. In the iron(III)-porphyrin catalytic systems, the brominated intermediate incorporated into HA is mainly TBBPA, and no hydroxy-substituted bromophenols are found. Thus, the catalytic power of FePcTS is higher than that of iron(III)-porphyrin catalysts.
    Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part A Toxic/Hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering 07/2014; 49(9):981-7.
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    ABSTRACT: For this study, a new method was developed to electrochemically detect ovalbumin via its binding with the peptide-1(RNRCKGTDVQAW) in lysozymes. The peptide that exists at the C-terminal of a lysozyme was combined with ovalbumin. When an electroactive compound was introduced to the N-terminal side of the peptide through ethylene gycolbis(sulfosuccinimidyl succinate), the labeled peptide-1 served as a probe for the detection of ovalbumin. The electrode responses of labeled peptide-1 were measured after the labeled peptide-1 and ovalbumin were incubated in a 0.1M phosphate buffer (pH 5.6). As a result, the electrode response decreased as the concentration of ovalbumin increased. The detection limit of ovalbumin was 2.3×10(-11)M as estimated at 3-fold the standard deviation (3σ) (n=5). Because the steric structure of the peptide and some of the amino acid residues were related to the binding, we prepared a peptide-2, to which the N- and C-terminals of peptide-1 were alternated. The decrease in the response for the labeled peptide-2 was less than that for the labeled peptide-1. In addition, the peak current of a peptide-3, for which the D of peptide-1 was replaced with S, was hardly changed with or without ovalbumin. Therefore, it was clear that the binding was influenced by the steric factors and by the sequence of the peptide. However, a peptide-1 with bis(sulfosuccinimidyl) suberate was designed to investigate the hydrophobic influences on the probe. The change in the peak current was smaller than that of peptide-1 with ethylene gycolbis(sulfosuccinimidyl succinate), which was due to the hydrophobic properties of the alkyl chain between the peptide and the ovalbumin. The proposed method could be applied to the determination of ovalbumin in egg whites. Consequently, the concept becomes an electrochemical sensing method for proteins based on the protein-peptide interaction.
    Analytica chimica acta. 06/2014; 834C:37-44.
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    ABSTRACT: When peat forest fires happen, it leads to burn soil and also humic acids as a dominant organic matter contained in peat soil as well as the forest. The structure and properties of humic acids vary depending on their origin and environment, therefore the transformation of humic acid is also diverse. The impacts of the peat fires on peat soil from Central Kalimantan, Indonesia were investigated through the characterization of humic acids, extracted from soil in burnt and unburnt sites. The characterization of humic acids was performed by elemental composition, functional groups, molecular weight by HPSEC, pyrolysate compounds by pyrolysis-GC/MS, fluorescence spectrum by 3DEEM spectrofluorometer, and thermogravimetry. The elemental composition of each humic substance indicated that the value of H/C and O/C of humic acids from burnt sites were lower than that from unburnt sites. The molecular weight of humic acids from burnt sites was also lower than that from unburnt sites. Pyrolysate compounds of humic acids from unburnt sites differed from those of humic acids from burnt soil. The heating experiment showed that burning process caused the significant change in the properties of humic acids such as increasing the aromaticity and decreasing the molecular weight.
    Environmental Science and Pollution Research 05/2014; · 2.76 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To electrochemically detect concanavalin A (ConA), a new method was developed using mixed micelles between a non-ionic surfactant with a maltose moiety and electroactive daunomycin. The surfactants, in which the length of the alkyl chain was different, were n-decyl-β-d-maltoside, n-dodecyl-β-d-maltoside, and n-tetradecyl-β-d-maltoside. The measurement principle was due to the micelle breakdown caused by the binding between the ConA and maltose moieties. When ConA was combined with maltose moieties at a concentration of surfactant that was near the critical micelle concentration, the daunomycin that formed the micelles was moved to a solution from the micelles. As a result, the peak current of daunomycin increased as the concentration of ConA was increased. The mechanism was proposed using voltammetry, spectrometry, and gel filtration. The linear range using n-tetradecyl-β-d-maltoside was 2.0×10(-9) to 8.0×10(-8)M of ConA, and it was the most sensitive in the presence of the three surfactants. To examine whether selective binding took place, measurements with several proteins were carried out. The electrode responses of daunomycin were not influenced by the presence of 5.0×10(-6)M protein. Furthermore, this method could be applied to the determination of ConA in a serum, and to the measurement of sugar chains that can be combined with ConA on the cell surface.
    Analytica chimica acta 03/2014; 814C:55-62. · 4.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Because ovalbumin was combined with lysozyme, a new method was developed to electrochemically detect ovalbumin via its binding with peptide contained in lysozyme. The measurement principle was based on the change of the electrode response caused by the binding between the peptide with an electroactive compound and ovalbumin.
    Analytica Chimica Acta. 01/2014; 834:37–44.
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    ABSTRACT: An improved molybdenum blue spectrophotometry using a soluble membrane filter and CaCO(3)-column was proposed for determining arsenic in drinking water supplied from ground water in the presence of phosphate. A 100 mL sample solution containing 0.5 - 10 μg arsenic was passed through a CaCO(3)-column to remove phosphate, arsenate (As(V)). Arsenite (As(III)) which was not retained on the column was oxidized to As(V). As(V) was converted into a heteropolymolybdenum blue anion. The blue anion was collected on a membrane filter as an ion-associate with n-dodecyltrimethylammonium ion by filtration. The filter was dissolved in 2 mL of 2-methoxyethanol. The absorbance of the solution was measured at 810 nm against a reagent blank. Total inorganic arsenic was determined by reducing As(V) to As(III) before the column treatment. The RSDs for 10 μg L(-1) of As(III) and As(V) were 2.9%. Phosphate 0.2 mg L(-1) (as P) and iron 0.1 mg L(-1) did not interfere with the determination of 10 μg L(-1) arsenic. The proposed method was successfully applied to ground waters.
    Analytical Sciences 01/2013; 29(1):67-72. · 1.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A higher enrichment of organic pollutant, di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) was found in estuary of Oyabe River and Jinzu River, Japan. Based on this, the distribution of DEHP between water and bed sediment was investigated as a model of organic pollutant through both the field investigation and laboratory experiment. The laboratory experiment was performed to examine the effect of seawater, organic matter in sediment and hydrophobicity (log K ow ) of organic pollutants. The result showed that salting-out effect due to the high salinity in seawater and organic matter in sediment contributed towards the increasing of DEHP distribution between water and sediment. Furthermore, the hydrophobicity of organic pollutant also enhances the distribution between water and sediment to a higher magnitude in the presence of seawater.
    SpringerPlus 01/2013; 2:422.
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    ABSTRACT: A micro-scale algal growth inhibition (μ-AGI) test using a common micro-plate based fluorometric detection was used to demonstrate the effects of humic substances (HSs) on the toxicity of tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) and its oxidative decomposition products 2,5-dibromo-1,4-benzoquinone (2,5-DBBQ), 2,5-dibromohydroquinone (2,5-DBHQ), 2,6-dibromobenzoquinone (2,6-DBBQ), and 2,6-dibromophenol (2,6-DBP) to Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata. The EC50 values were: EC50(TBBPA) = 7 mg L−1, EC50(2,5-DBHQ) = 7 mg L−1, EC50(2,5-DBBQ) = 19 mg L−1, EC50(2,6-DBP) = 49 mg L−1, and EC50(2,6-DBBQ) = 13 mg L−1. The toxicity of the chemicals was slightly lower in the presence of HA. The toxicity of TBBPA decomposed by a biomimetic catalytic system consisting of iron (III) 5,10,15,20-tetrakis (p-sulfonatophenyl) porphyrin (Fe(III)-TPPS) and KHSO5 was also evaluated using P. subcapitata and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.
    Toxicological and Environmental Chemistry 01/2013; 95(3).
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    ABSTRACT: Rainwater pollution with formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and other aliphatic aldehydes was investigated from May 2008 to June 2011 at 19 locations over a wide area in Japan to survey the pollution level. The pollution level was remarkably controlled by the amount of precipitation. The concentrations of total aliphatic aldehydes and formaldehyde sometimes exceeded 0.6 mg L−1 and 0.2 mg L−1 when the rainfall was small, and decreased rapidly with increasing the amount of rainfall. And in larger rainfall, the concentrations were converged to ca. 0.09 mg L−1 and 0.06 mg L−1 respectively. It was found that the concentration of the pollutants collected in a bottle for a single rainfall event is expressed by an equation based on a dilution model where heavy deposition occurred only at early rainfall followed by continuous dilution of the water with less polluted rainwater. These results were interpreted that the aldehydes in air were washed out very quickly due to their high solubility in water. As progressing of rainfall, the pollution level attained to an equilibrium state between influx and outflux of the pollutants. Precise investigation through a sequential sampling of rainwater by 1 mm during a rainfall event was also performed at several sites. It was found that a break of rainfall is another dominant factor to control the pollution level. A break of rainfall quickly enhanced the pollution level of the resumed rain. Regional difference on rainwater pollution level was observed only at the early stage throughout a rainfall event. The air-pollution levels were high just before beginning rainfall, and they decreased quickly with increasing the amount of rainfall, but never converged to zero. These results suggest that continuous influx of the pollutants occurs in a wide area in Japan besides regional influx.
    Atmospheric Environment 12/2012; 61:588–596. · 3.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To monitor protein-glycoprotein interactions on magnetic beads, the present study developed an electrochemical assay of the binding between concanavalin A (ConA) and ovalbumin (OVA). The system was a powerful model that could be used to evaluate cell junctions. ConA with an electroactive daunomycin was immobilized on 6 different sizes of magnetic beads (diameter: 1.0-8.9 μm) through a cross-linking agent. Six sizes of OVA-beads (diameter: 1.0-8.9 μm) were also prepared using a similar method. The binding was evaluated using an oxidation peak of ConA with daunomycin because ConA recognized OVA with α-mannose residues. When binding took place on the beads' surface, the peak current was decreased due to the electroactive moieties being covered with OVA. When ConA/daunomycin-OVA binding was evaluated, the change of the peak current obtained by the beads (diameter: 8.9 μm) modified with ConA and daunomycin was the greatest in the presence of OVA-modified beads (diameter: 2.5 μm). In contrast, particle agglomeration was observed for the smallest beads (diameter: 1.0 μm) with ConA/daunomycin and OVA. The results suggested that ConA-OVA binding depended on the size of beads. Thus, this method could be applied to measure protein-glycoprotein interactions on the cell surface.
    The Analyst 07/2012; 137(16):3781-6. · 4.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A paramagnetic microbead-based enzyme immunoassay was demonstrated for detecting ovalbumin (OVA). The immunoassay sandwich was made by attaching a biotinylated antibody to the streptavidin coated beads as a mobile solid phase, capturing antigen, and then exposing the antigen to an antibody conjugated with β-galactosidase. β-Galactosidase converts p-aminophenyl galactopyranoside (PAPG) and fluorescein di-β-D-galactopyranoside (FDG) to p-aminophenol (PAP) and fluorescein, respectively. The current response of PAP generated by the enzymatic reaction of β-galactosidase was detected with hydrodynamic voltammetry in a droplet using a rotating disk electrode (RDE) system. The performance of this electrochemical assay was compared with fluorometric detection of fluorescein produced by the same assay system. The limits of detection for OVA determined by hydrodynamic amperometry and fluorometry were 2.1 nM (43 fmol) and 2.9 nM (58 fmol), respectively. Furthermore, the effects of the conditions commonly found in drinking water supply systems on the OVA assay were also evaluated.
    Analytical methods 05/2012; 4(6):1783-1789. · 1.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The SOS/umu genotoxicity assay evaluates the primary DNA damage caused by chemicals from the β-galactosidase activity of S. typhimurium. One of the weaknesses of the common umu test system based on spectrophotometric detection is that it is unable to measure samples containing a high concentration of colored dissolved organic matters, sediment, and suspended solids. However, umu tests with electrochemical detection techniques prove to be a better strategy because it causes less interference, enables the analysis of turbid samples and allows detection even in small volumes without loss of sensitivity. Based on this understanding, we aim to develop a new umu test system with hydrodynamic chronoamperometry using a rotating disk electrode (RDE) in a microliter droplet. PAPG when used as a substrate is not electroactive at the potential at which PAP is oxidized to p-quinone imine (PQI), so the current response of chronoamperometry resulting from the oxidation of PAP to PQI is directly proportional to the enzymatic activity of S. typhimurium. This was achieved by performing genotoxicity tests for 2-(2-furyl)-3-(5-nitro-2-furyl)-acrylamide (AF-2) and 2-aminoanthracene (2-AA) as model genotoxic compounds. The results obtained in this study indicated that the signal detection in the genotoxicity assay based on hydrodynamic voltammetry was less influenced by the presence of colored components and sediment particles in the samples when compared to the usual colorimetric signal detection. The influence caused by the presence of humic acids (HAs) and artificial sediment on the genotoxic property of selected model compounds such as 4-nitroquinoline-N-oxide (4-NQO), 3-chloro-4-(dichloromethyl)-5-hydroxy-2(5H)-furanone (MX), 1,8-dinitropyrene (1,8-DNP) and 1-nitropyrene (1-NP) were also investigated. The results showed that the genotoxicity of 1-NP and MX changed in the presence of 10 mg∙L-1 HAs. The genotoxicity of tested chemicals with a high hydrophobicity such as 1,8-DNP and 1-NP were decreased substantially with the presence of 1 g∙L-1 sediment. This was not observed in the case of genotoxins with a low log K(ow) value.
    Sensors 01/2012; 12(12):17414-32. · 2.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The paramagnetic microbead-based electrochemical binding assay was demonstrated for detecting two kinds of protein simultaneously. The principle of this assay is based on the sequestration electrochemistry. The protein binding electroactive magnetic microbeads which are conjugated with an electroactive compound and a ligand to bind specifically with a target protein were prepared. The avidin-biotin and soybean agglutinin (SBA)-galactosamine were chosen as model protein-ligand systems. The avidin binding electroactive magnetic microbead (ABEMMb) and SBA binding electroactive magnetic microbead (SBEMMb) are constructed by biotin/thionine and galactosamine/ferrocene modified on paramagnetic microbeads. The voltammetric response for these functionalized microbeads was measured by the Nd-Fe-B magnet-incorporating carbon paste rotating disk electrode. The measurements were performed in a microliter droplet using a rotating disk electrode system. Avidin and SBA were simultaneously detected by the decrease in the current responses from the reduction of ABEMMb and SBEMMb that was caused by the binding with target proteins. The limits of detection for avidin and SBA were 4 × 10(-10) and 2 × 10(-10) M, respectively.
    Analytical Sciences 01/2012; 28(1):77. · 1.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A simple electrochemical binding assay for cholera toxin (CT) was developed using lactose labeled with daunomycin as an electroactive compound. The labeled lactose (LL) was determined with high sensitivity by adsorptive stripping voltammetry (AdSV). The electrochemical behaviors of LL at glassy carbon (GC), plastic formed carbon (PFC) and carbon nanotubes paste (CNTP) electrode were investigated. The CNTP electrode showed the greatest accumulation capacity for LL. The assay for CT based on the sequestration electrochemistry was demonstrated. The binding event of the LL to CT was detected by the decrease in the electrochemical response of daunomycin as an electroactive label without a separation process to remove the free LL from the one bound with CT before any measurements can be made. The detection limit of the CT assay using the CNTP electrode was 0.5 nM (42 ng mL(-1)).
    The Analyst 06/2011; 136(11):2373-8. · 4.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The dissolved organic matter (DOM) is one of the important factors for controlling water quality. The behavior and constitutions of DOM is related to the risk of human health because it is able to directly or indirectly affect the behavior, speciation and toxicity of various environmental pollutants. However, it is not easy to know the contents of DOM components without using various complicated and time consuming analytical methods because DOM is a complex mixture and usually exists at low concentration. Here, we describe the fluorescence properties of DOM components in water samples collected from four rivers in Toyama, Japan by means of the three-dimensional excitation-emission matrix (3DEEM) fluorescence spectroscopy. In order to evaluate the alterations of DOM components in each of the river during the flow from upstream to downstream, the patterns of relative fluorescence intensity (RFI) at six peaks which are originated from fluorophores including humic-like and protein-like components were investigated. The changes in the patterns of RFI values at each of the peak and the concentration of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) for each river water sample were discussed in connection with the differences of land use managements and basic water quality parameters, such as pH, EC, turbidity, Fe(3+), T-N, NO(3)-N, T-P, PO(4)-P, chlorophyll a, DOC and N/P ratio. The DOC concentrations in the water samples collected from these rivers were relatively low (0.63-1.16 mg/L). Two main peaks which have a strong RFI value expressed a positive correlation with the DOC concentration (r = 0.557, 0.535). However, the correlations between the RFI values for other four peaks and the DOC concentration were below 0.287. The alterations of DOM components during the flow of a river from upstream to downstream were investigated from the changes in the patterns of RFI values for six fluorescent peaks. It was clarified that the great increase of RFI values in peak A and peak T from river water located in urban area showed high concentration of PO(4)-P and Fe(3+), and low N/P ratio due to the high biological activities. The values of fluorescence index (FIX) and biological index (BIX) were as high as 1.60 and 0.72, respectively.
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 05/2011; 8(5):1655-70. · 2.00 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The influence of halogen substituents on the catalytic oxidation of 2,4,6-trihalogenated phenols (TrXPs) by iron(III)-porphyrin/KHSO₅ catalytic systems was investigated. Iron(III)-5,10,15,20-tetrakis(p-hydroxyphenyl)porphyrin (FeTHP) and its supported variants were employed, where the supported catalysts were synthesized by introducing FeTHP into hydroquinone-derived humic acids via formaldehyde poly-condensation. F (TrFP), Cl (TrCP), Br (TrBP) and I (TrIP) were examined as halogen substituents for TrXPs. Although the supported catalysts significantly enhanced the degradation and dehalogenation of TrFP and TrCP, the oxidation of TrBP and TrIP was not enhanced, compared to the FeTHP catalytic system. These results indicate that the degree of oxidation of TrXPs is strongly dependent on the types of halogen substituent. The order of dehalogenation levels for halogen substituents in TrXPs was F > Cl > Br > I, consistent with their order of electronegativity. The electronegativity of a halogen substituent affects the nucleophilicity of the carbon to which it is attached. The levels of oxidation products in the reaction mixtures were analyzed by GC/MS after extraction with n-hexane. The most abundant dimer product from TrFP via 2,6-difluoroquinone is consistent with a scenario where TrXP, with a more electronegative halogen substituent, is readily oxidized, while less electronegative halogen substituents are oxidized less readily by iron(III)-porphyrin/KHSO₅ catalytic systems.
    Molecules 01/2011; 17(1):48-60. · 2.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), a commercially used brominated flame retardant, also functions as an endocrine disruptor and is of serious concern in terms of environmental pollution. TBBPA has been detected in leachates from landfills, because hydrophobic interactions with humic acids (HAs) result in an increase in its solubility. In the present study, the oxidation of TBBPA was examined using a biomimetic catalytic system comprised of a combination of iron(III)-tetrakis(p-sulfophenyl)porphyrin (FeTPPS) and KHSO(5). Although more than 90% of TBBPA was oxidized at pH 8 in the absence and presence of HAs, no debromination was observed. An analysis of the oxidation products by GC/MS indicated that 4-(2-hydroxyisopropyl)-2,6-dibromophenol was the main byproduct. However, only about 6-12% of the TBBPA was degraded. In the presence of HAs, the remaining byproducts from TBBPA may be incorporated into HAs via a variety of interactions. Thus, HA fractions in the reaction mixture were separated, and analyzed for their Br content. Based on the analyses, the majority of the Br species (70-80%) were found to be incorporated into HAs after oxidation with TBBPA. In addition, coupling compounds between brominated intermediates from TBBPA and phenolic moieties in HAs were detected by pyrolysis-GC/MS. These results lead to the conclusion that the oxidation of TBBPA in the presence of HAs via catalytic oxidation using FeTPPS resulted in the incorporation of brominated intermediates into the polymeric structures of HAs.
    Chemosphere 08/2010; 80(8):860-5. · 3.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To functionalize chitin surfaces using proteins, we developed a glucose oxidase (GOD)-chitin/platinum-modified glassy carbon paste electrode (GCPE) as a model. In a weakly acidic solution, negatively charged GOD were immobilized by the protonated acetylamide groups on chitin. When the electrode was immersed in a solution containing GOD, the enzyme was readily immobilized due to the electrostatic interaction. In addition, measurements were performed using electrodes made with powders of different sizes because sensor performance depends on the particle sizes of glassy carbon powder.
    Analytical Sciences 11/2009; 25(11):1365-8. · 1.57 Impact Factor
  • Kazuharu Sugawara, Asako Yugami, Hideki Kuramitz
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    ABSTRACT: An electrochemical method that uses glucose labeled with an electroactive compound was developed to evaluate the binding of wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) to cellohexose-modified magnetic microbeads. Cellohexose was attached to amino groups on the magnetic bead surface via formation of a Schiff's base. The labeled glucose acts as an electrochemical probe to monitor binding events between WGA and the cellohexose-modified beads. For a known quantity of cellohexose-modified beads, binding of WGA with cellohexose-modified beads was evaluated based on changes in electrochemical response of the labeled glucose. In particular, the peak current decreased as the concentration of WGA increased. Furthermore, the binding affinities of WGA for beads modified with four different cello-oligosaccharides were systematically compared using a voltammetric method.
    Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 09/2009; 395(3):767-72. · 3.66 Impact Factor
  • Hideki Kuramitz
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    ABSTRACT: This review provides a summary of recent works concerning electrochemical immunoassays using magnetic microbeads as a solid phase. Recent research activity has led to innovative and powerful detection strategies that have been resulted in sensitive electrochemical detection. Coupling of magnetic microbeads with highly sensitive electrochemical detection provides a useful analytical method for environmental evaluation and clinical diagnostics, etc. The huge surface area and high dispersion capability of magnetic microbeads strongly contributes towards the development of new sensitive, rapid, user-friendly, and miniaturized electrochemical immunoassay systems. Moreover, the immunocomplexes formed on the magnetic microbead surface can be easily detected without pretreatment steps such as preconcentration or purification, which are normally required for standard methods. The discussion in this review is organized in two main subjects that include magnetic-microbead-based assays using enzyme labels and nanoparticle tags.
    Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 03/2009; 394(1):61-9. · 3.66 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

270 Citations
128.72 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2006–2014
    • University of Toyama
      • Department of Environmental Biology and Chemistry
      Тояма, Toyama, Japan
  • 2009
    • Maebashi Institute of Technology
      Maebashi, Gunma Prefecture, Japan
  • 2004–2009
    • University of Cincinnati
      • Department of Chemistry
      Cincinnati, OH, United States
    • Shippensburg University
      • Department of Chemistry
      Shippensburg, PA, United States
  • 2002–2009
    • Gunma University
      • Faculty of Education
      Maebashi-shi, Gunma-ken, Japan
  • 2005–2006
    • Toyama University
      Тояма, Toyama, Japan
  • 1999–2006
    • Hokkaido University
      • Graduate School of Environmental Science
      Sapporo-shi, Hokkaido, Japan