Nobuyo Maeda

University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States

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Publications (257)1597.8 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Reducing dilute aqueous HAuCl4 with NaSCN under alkaline conditions is known to produce 2 to 3 nm diameter yellow nanoparticles without the addition of extraneous capping agents. We here describe two very simple methods for producing highly stable oligomeric grape-like clusters (oligoclusters) of these small nanoparticles. The oligoclusters have well-controlled diameters ranging from ~5 nm to ~30 nm, depending mainly on the number of subunits in the cluster. Our first ["delay-time"] method controls the size of the oligoclusters by varying from seconds to hours the delay time between making the HAuCl4 alkaline and adding the reducing agent, NaSCN. Our second ["add-on"] method controls size by using yellow nanoparticles as seeds onto which varying amounts of gold derived from "hydroxylated gold", Na+[Au(OH4-x)Clx]-, are added-on catalytically in the presence of NaSCN. Possible reaction mechanisms and a simple kinetic model fitting the data are discussed. The crude oligocluster preparations have narrow size distributions, and for most purposes do not require fractionation. The oligoclusters do not aggregate after ~300-fold centrifugal-filter concentration, and at this high concentration are easily derivatized with a variety of thiol-containing reagents. This allows rare or expensive derivatizing reagents to be used economically. Unlike conventional glutathione-capped nanoparticles of comparable gold content, large oligoclusters derivatized with glutathione do not aggregate at high concentrations in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) or in the circulation when injected into mice. The oligoclusters are not overtly toxic. Their sizes can be made small enough to allow their excretion in the urine or large enough to prevent them from crossing capillary basement membranes. Consequently they can be used as tracers for studies of the biological fate of macromolecules with controlled sizes and charges. The ease of derivatizing the oligoclusters makes them potentially useful for presenting pharmacological agents to different tissues while controlling escape of the reagents from the circulation.
    Langmuir : the ACS journal of surfaces and colloids. 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Impaired adipogenesis renders an adipose tissue unable to expand, leading to lipotoxicity and conditions such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease. While factors important for adipogenesis have been studied extensively, those that set the limits of adipose tissue expansion remain undetermined. Feeding a Western-type diet to apolipoprotein E2 knock-in mice, a model of metabolic syndrome, produced 3 groups of equally obese mice: mice with normal glucose tolerance, hyperinsulinemic yet glucose-tolerant mice, and prediabetic mice with impaired glucose tolerance and reduced circulating insulin. Using proteomics, we compared subcutaneous adipose tissues from mice in these groups and found that the expression of PTRF (polymerase I and transcript release factor) associated selectively with their glucose tolerance status. Lentiviral and pharmacologically overexpressed PTRF, whose function is critical for caveola formation, compromised adipocyte differentiation of cultured 3T3-L1cells. In human adipose tissue, PTRF mRNA levels positively correlated with markers of lipolysis and cellular senescence. Furthermore, a negative relationship between telomere length and PTRF mRNA levels was observed in human subcutaneous fat. PTRF is associated with limited adipose tissue expansion underpinning the key role of caveolae in adipocyte regulation. Furthermore, PTRF may be a suitable adipocyte marker for predicting pathological obesity and inform clinical management.-Perez-Diaz, S., Johnson, L. A., DeKroon, R. M., Moreno-Navarrete, J. M., Alzate, O., Fernandez-Real, J. M., Maeda, N., Arbones-Mainar, J. M. Polymerase I and transcript release factor (PTRF) regulates adipocyte differentiation and determines adipose tissue expandability.
    The FASEB Journal 05/2014; · 5.70 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hypothermia is a key symptom of sepsis, but the mechanism(s) leading to hypothermia during sepsis is largely unknown and thus no effective therapy is available for hypothermia. Therefore, it is important to investigate the mechanisms and develop effective therapeutic methods. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced hypothermia accompanied by excess nitric oxide (NO) production, lead to a reduction in energy production in wild type mice. However, mice lacking inducible nitric oxide synthase did not suffer from LPS-induced hypothermia, suggesting that hypothermia is associated with excess NO production during sepsis. This observation is supported by the treatment of wild type mice with α-lipoic acid (LA) in that it effectively attenuates LPS-induced hypothermia with decreased NO production. We also found that LA partially restored ATP production, and activities of the mitochondrial enzymes involved in energy metabolism, which were inhibited during sepsis. These data suggest that hypothermia is related to mitochondrial dysfunction, which is likely compromised by excess NO production and that LA administration attenuates hypothermia mainly by protecting mitochondrial enzymes from NO damage.
    Free Radical Biology & Medicine 03/2014; · 5.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Human apolipoprotein E (apoE) exists in three isoforms: apoE2, apoE3 and apoE4. APOE ε4 (E4) is a major genetic risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). ApoE mediates cholesterol metabolism by binding various receptors. The low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) has a high affinity for apoE, and is the only member of its receptor family to demonstrate an apoE isoform specific binding affinity (E4>E3>E2). Evidence suggests that a functional interaction between apoE and LDLR influences the risk of CVD and AD. We hypothesize that the differential cognitive effects of the apoE isoforms are a direct result of their varying interactions with LDLR. To test this hypothesis, we have employed transgenic mice that express human apoE2, apoE3, or apoE4, and either human LDLR (hLDLR) or no LDLR (LDLR-/-). Our results show that plasma and brain apoE levels, cortical cholesterol, and spatial memory are all regulated by isoform-dependent interactions between apoE and LDLR. Conversely, both anxiety-like behavior and cued associative memory are strongly influenced by APOE genotype, but these processes appear to occur via an LDLR-independent mechanism. Both the lack of LDLR and the interaction between E4 and the LDLR were associated with significant impairments in the retention of long term spatial memory. Finally, levels of hippocampal apoE correlate with long term spatial memory retention in mice with human LDLR. In summary, we demonstrate that the apoE-LDLR interaction affects regional brain apoE levels, brain cholesterol, and cognitive function in an apoE isoform-dependent manner.
    Neurobiology of Disease 01/2014; · 5.62 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Apolipoprotein E-null mice on a DBA/2J genetic background (DBA-apoE) are highly susceptible to atherosclerosis in the aortic root area compared with those on a 129S6 background (129-apoE). To explore atherosclerosis-responsible genetic regions, we performed a quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis using 172 male and 137 female F2 derived from an intercross between DBA-apoE and 129-apoE mice. A genome-wide scan identified two significant QTL for the size of lesions at the root: one is Ath44 on Chromosome (Chr) 1 at 158 Mb, and the other Ath45 on Chr 2 at 162 Mb. Ath44 co-localizes with but appears to be independent of a previously reported QTL, Ath1, while Ath45 is a novel QTL. DBA alleles of both Ath44 and Ath45 confer atherosclerosis-susceptibility. In addition, a QTL on Chr 14 at 73 Mb was found significant only in males, and 129 allele conferring susceptibility. Further analysis detected female-specific interactions between a second QTL on Chr 1 at 73 Mb and a QTL on Chr 3 at 21 Mb, and between Chr 7 at 84 Mb and Chr 12 at 77 Mb. These loci for the root atherosclerosis were independent of QTLs for plasma total cholesterol and QTLs for triglycerides, but a QTL for HDL (Chr 1 at 126 Mb) overlapped with the Ath44. Notably, haplotype analysis among 129S6, DBA/2J and C57BL/6 genomes and their gene expression data narrowed the candidate regions for Ath44 and Ath45 to less than 5 Mb intervals where multiple genome wide associations with cardiovascular phenotypes have also been reported in humans. SNPs in or near Fmo3, Sele and Selp for Ath44, and Lbp and Pkig for Ath45 were suggested for further investigation as potential candidates underlying the atherosclerosis susceptibility.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(2):e88274. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) regulate matrix metalloproteinase activity and maintain extracellular matrix homeostasis. Although TIMP-3 has multiple functions (e.g., apoptosis, inhibition of VEGF binding to VEGF receptor, and inhibition of TNFα converting enzyme), its roles in thermogenesis and metabolism, which influence energy expenditure and can lead to the development of metabolic disorders when dysregulated, are poorly understood. This study aimed to determine whether TIMP-3 is implicated in metabolism by analyzing TIMP-3 knockout (KO) mice. TIMP-3 KO mice had higher body temperature, oxygen consumption, and carbon dioxide production than wild-type (WT) mice, although there were no differences in food intake and locomotor activity. These results suggest that metabolism is enhanced in TIMP-3 KO mice. Real-time PCR analysis showed that the expression of PPAR-δ, UCP-2, NRF-1 and NRF-2 in soleus muscle, and PGC-1α and UCP-2 in gastrocnemius muscle, was higher in TIMP-3 KO mice than in WT mice, suggesting that TIMP-3 deficiency may increase mitochondrial activity. When exposed to cold for 8 hours to induce thermogenesis, TIMP-3 KO mice had a higher body temperature than WT mice. In the treadmill test, oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production were higher in TIMP-3 KO mice both before and after starting exercise, and the difference was more pronounced after starting exercise. Our findings suggest that TIMP-3 KO mice exhibit enhanced metabolism, as reflected by a higher body temperature than WT mice, possibly due to increased mitochondrial activity. Given that TIMP-3 deficiency increases energy expenditure, TIMP-3 may present a novel therapeutic target for preventing metabolic disorders.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(4):e94930. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Much concern has arisen regarding critical adverse effects of thiazolidinediones (TZDs), including rosiglitazone and pioglitazone, on cardiac tissue. Although TZD-induced cardiac hypertrophy (CH) has been attributed to an increase in plasma volume or a change in cardiac nutrient preference, causative roles have not been established. To test the hypothesis that volume expansion directly mediates rosiglitazone-induced CH, mice were fed a high-fat diet with rosiglitazone, and cardiac and metabolic consequences were examined. Rosiglitazone treatment induced volume expansion and CH in wild-type and PPARγ heterozygous knockout (Pparg(+/-)) mice, but not in mice defective for ligand binding (Pparg(P465L/+)). Cotreatment with the diuretic furosemide in wild-type mice attenuated rosiglitazone-induced CH, hypertrophic gene reprogramming, cardiomyocyte apoptosis, hypertrophy-related signal activation, and left ventricular dysfunction. Similar changes were observed in mice treated with pioglitazone. The diuretics spironolactone and trichlormethiazide, but not amiloride, attenuated rosiglitazone effects on volume expansion and CH. Interestingly, expression of glucose and lipid metabolism genes in the heart was altered by rosiglitazone, but these changes were not attenuated by furosemide cotreatment. Importantly, rosiglitazone-mediated whole-body metabolic improvements were not affected by furosemide cotreatment. We conclude that releasing plasma volume reduces adverse effects of TZD-induced volume expansion and cardiac events without compromising TZD actions in metabolic switch in the heart and whole-body insulin sensitivity.
    American Journal Of Pathology 11/2013; · 4.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We performed in vivo micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) imaging using a novel carbon nanotube (CNT)-based x-ray source to detect calcification in the aortic arch of apolipoprotein E (apoE)-null mice. We measured calcification volume of aortic arch plaques using CNT-based micro-CT in 16- to 18-month-old males on 129S6/SvEvTac and C57BL/6J genetic backgrounds (129-apoE KO and B6-apoE KO). Cardiac and respiratory gated images were acquired in each mouse under anesthesia. Images obtained using a CNT micro-CT had less motion blur and better spatial resolution for aortic calcification than those using conventional micro-CT, evaluated by edge sharpness (slope of the normalized attenuation units, 1.6±0.3 versus 0.8±0.2) and contrast-to-noise ratio of the calcifications (118±34 versus 10±2); both P<0.05, n=6. Calcification volume in the arch inner curvature was 4 times bigger in the 129-apoE KO than in the B6-apoE KO mice (0.90±0.18 versus 0.22±0.10 mm(3), P<0.01, n=7 and 5, respectively), whereas plaque areas in the inner curvature measured in dissected aorta were only twice as great in the 129-apoE KO than in the B6-apoE KO mice (6.1±0.6 versus 3.7±0.4 mm(2), P<0.05). Consistent with this, histological calcification area in the plaques was significantly higher in the 129-apoE KO than in the B6-apoE KO mice (16.9±2.0 versus 9.6±0.8%, P<0.05, 3 animals for each). A novel CNT-based micro-CT is a useful tool to evaluate vascular calcifications in living mice. Quantification from acquired images suggests higher susceptibility to calcification of the aortic arch plaques in 129-apoE KO than in B6-apoE KO mice.
    Journal of the American Heart Association. 01/2013; 2(1):e003358.
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    ABSTRACT: Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is an important mediator of fibrosis; emerging evidence link changes in plasma and urinary CTGF levels to diabetic kidney disease. To further ascertain the role of CTGF in responses to high glucose, we assessed the consequence of 4 months of streptozotocin-induced diabetes in wild type (+/+) and CTGF heterozygous (+/-) mice. Subsequently, we studied the influence of glucose on gene expression and protein in mice embryonic fibroblasts (MEF) cells derived from wildtype and heterozygous mice. At study initiation, plasma glucose, creatinine, triglyceride and cholesterol levels were similar between non-diabetic CTGF+/+ and CTGF+/- mice. In the diabetic state, plasma glucose levels were increased in CTGF+/+ and CTGF+/- mice (28.2 3.3 mmol/L vs 27.0 3.1 mmol/L), plasma triglyceride levels were lower in CTGF+/- mice than in CTGF+/+ (0.7 0.2 mmol/L vs 0.5 0.1 mmol/L, p<0.05), but cholesterol was essentially unchanged in both groups. Plasma creatinine was higher in diabetic CTGF+/+ group (11.7±1.2 vs 7.9±0.6 µmol/L p<0.01), while urinary albumin excretion and mesangial expansion were reduced in diabetic CTGF+/- animals. Cortices from diabetic mice (both CTGF +/+ and CTGF +/-) manifested higher expression of CTGF and thrombospondin 1 (TSP1). Expression of nephrin was reduced in CTGF +/+ animals; this reduction was attenuated in CTGF+/- group. In cultured MEF from CTGF+/+ mice, glucose (25 mM) increased expression of pro-collagens 1, IV and XVIII as well as fibronectin and thrombospondin 1 (TSP1). In contrast, activation of these genes by high glucose was attenuated in CTGF+/- MEF. We conclude that induction of Ctgf mediates expression of extracellular matrix proteins in diabetic kidney. Thus, genetic variability in CTGF expression directly modulates the severity of diabetic nephropathy.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(8):e70441. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Diabetes is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. To examine how diabetes interacts with a mildly compromised lipid metabolism, we introduced the diabetogenic Ins2C96Y/+ (Akita) mutation into mice expressing human apoE4 (E4) combined with either an over-expressing human LDL receptor gene (hLDLR) or the wild-type mouse gene. The hLDLR allele caused 2-fold reductions in plasma HDL-cholesterol, plasma apoA1, and hepatic triglyceride secretion. Diabetes increased plasma total cholesterol 1.3-fold, and increased apoB48 secretion 3-fold while reducing triglyceride secretion 2-fold. Consequently, diabetic E4 mice with hLDLR secrete increased numbers of small, cholesterol-enriched, apoB48-containing VLDL, although they have near normal plasma cholesterol (<120mg/dl). Small foam cell lesions were present in the aortic roots of all diabetic E4 mice with hLDLR that we analyzed at 6 months of age. None were present in non-diabetic mice or in diabetic mice without hLDLR. Aortic expression of genes affecting leukocyte recruitment and adhesion was enhanced by diabetes. However, apoA1 levels but not diabetes were strongly correlated with the ability of plasma to efflux cholesterol from macrophages. We conclude that the diabetes-induced pro-inflammatory changes in the vasculature and the hLDLR-mediated cholesterol accumulation in macrophages synergistically trigger atherosclerosis in mice with human apoE4, although neither alone is sufficient.
    The Journal of Lipid Research 11/2012; · 4.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To study the effects of reduced lipoic acid gene expression on diabetic atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E null mice (Apoe(-/-)). Heterozygous lipoic acid synthase gene knockout mice (Lias(+/-)) crossed with Apoe(-/-) mice were used to evaluate the diabetic effect induced by streptozotocin on atherosclerosis in the aortic sinus of the heart. While diabetes markedly increased atherosclerotic plaque size in Apoe(-/-) mice, a small but significant effect of reduced expression of lipoic acid gene was observed in diabetic Lias(+/-)Apoe(-/-) mice. In the aortic lesion area, the Lias(+/-)Apoe(-/-) mice exhibited significantly increased macrophage accumulation and cellular apoptosis than diabetic Lias(+/+)Apoe(-/-) littermates. Plasma glucose, cholesterol, and interleukin-6 were also higher. These abnormalities were accompanied with increased oxidative stress including a decreased ratio of reduced glutathione/oxidized glutathione in erythrocytes, increased systemic lipid peroxidation, and increased Gpx1 and MCP1 gene expression in the aorta. Decreased endogenous lipoic acid gene expression plays a role in development of diabetic atherosclerosis. These findings extend our understanding of the role of antioxidant in diabetic atherosclerosis.
    Atherosclerosis 05/2012; 223(1):137-43. · 3.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The dominant-negative mutation, P467L, in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) affects adipose tissue distribution, insulin sensitivity, and blood pressure in heterozygous humans. We hypothesized that the equivalent mutation, PPARγ-P465L, in mice will worsen atherosclerosis. Apolipoprotein E-null mice with and without PPARγ-P465L mutation were bred in 129S6 inbred genetic background. Mild hypertension and lipodystrophy of PPARγ-P465L persisted in the apolipoprotein E-null background. Glucose homeostasis was normal, but plasma adiponectin was significantly lower and resistin was higher in PPARγ-P465L mice. Plasma cholesterol and lipoprotein distribution were not different, but plasma triglycerides tended to be reduced. Surprisingly, there were no overall changes in the atherosclerotic plaque size or composition. PPARγ-P465L macrophages had a small decrease in CD36 mRNA and a small yet significant reduction in very-low-density lipoprotein uptake in culture. In unloaded apolipoprotein E-null macrophages with PPARγ-P465L, cholesterol uptake was reduced whereas apolipoprotein AI-mediated efflux was increased. However, when cells were cholesterol loaded in the presence of acetylated low-density lipoprotein, no genotype difference in uptake or efflux was apparent. A reduction of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression in aorta suggests a relatively antiatherogenic vascular environment in mice with PPARγ-P465L. Small, competing pro- and antiatherogenic effects of PPARγ-P465L mutation result in unchanged plaque development in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice.
    Arteriosclerosis Thrombosis and Vascular Biology 04/2012; 32(6):1436-44. · 6.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Changes in intestinal absorption of nutrients are important aspects of the aging process. To address this issue, we investigated the impact of accelerated mitochondrial DNA mutations on the stem/progenitor cells in the crypts of Lieberkühn in mice homozygous for a mitochondrial DNA polymerase gamma mutation, Polg(D257A), that exhibit accelerated aging phenotype. As early as 3-7 mo of age, the small intestine was significantly enlarged in the PolgD257A mice. The crypts of the PolgD257A mice contained 20% more cells than those of their wild-type littermates and exhibited a 10-fold increase in cellular apoptosis primarily in the stem/progenitor cell zones. Actively dividing cells were proportionally increased, yet a significantly smaller proportion of cells was in the S phase of the cell cycle. Stem cell-derived organoids from PolgD257A mice failed to develop fully in culture and exhibited fewer crypt units, indicating an impact of the mutation on the intestinal epithelial stem/progenitor cell maintenance. In addition, epithelial cell migration along the crypt-villus axis was slowed and less organized, and the ATP content in the villi was significantly reduced. On a high-fat, high-carbohydrate diet, PolgD257A mice showed significantly restricted absorption of excess lipids accompanied by an increase in fecal steatocrits. We conclude that the PolgD257A mutation causes cell cycle dysregulation in the crypts leading to the age-associated changes in the morphology of the small intestine and contributes to the restricted absorption of dietary lipids.
    AJP Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology 02/2012; 302(9):G914-24. · 3.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Excess soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 (sFlt-1) of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1 secreted from the placenta causes pre-eclampsia-like features by antagonizing vascular endothelial growth factor signaling, which can lead to reduced endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity; the effect of this concomitant decrease in eNOS activity is unknown. We tested whether the decrease in nitric oxide occurring in female mice lacking eNOS aggravates the pre-eclampsia-like phenotype induced by increased sFlt-1. Untreated eNOS-deficient female mice had higher BP than wild-type mice. Adenovirus-mediated overexpression of sFlt-1 increased systolic BP by approximately 27 mmHg and led to severe loss of fenestration of glomerular capillary endothelial cells in both eNOS-deficient and wild-type mice. However, only the eNOS-deficient sFlt-1 mice exhibited severe foot process effacement. Compared with wild-type sFlt-1 mice, eNOS-deficient sFlt-1 mice also showed markedly higher urinary albumin excretion (467±74 versus 174±23 μg/d), lower creatinine clearance (126±29 versus 452±63 μl/min), and more severe endotheliosis. Expression of preproendothelin-1 (ET-1) and its ET(A) receptor in the kidney was higher in eNOS-deficient sFlt-1 mice than in wild-type sFlt-1 mice. Furthermore, the selective ET(A) receptor antagonist ambrisentan attenuated the increases in BP and urinary albumin excretion and ameliorated endotheliosis in both wild-type and eNOS-deficient sFlt-1 mice. Ambrisentan improved creatinine clearance and podocyte effacement in eNOS-deficient sFlt-1 mice. In conclusion, reduced maternal eNOS/nitric oxide exacerbates the sFlt1-related pre-eclampsia-like phenotype through activation of the endothelin system.
    Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 01/2012; 23(4):652-60. · 8.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Oxidative stress contributes to the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy. In mitochondria, lipoic acid synthase produces α-lipoic acid, an antioxidant and an essential cofactor in α-ketoacid dehydrogenase complexes, which participate in glucose oxidation and ATP generation. Administration of lipoic acid abrogates diabetic nephropathy in animal models, but whether lower production of endogenous lipoic acid promotes diabetic nephropathy is unknown. Here, we crossed mice heterozygous for lipoic acid synthase deficiency (Lias(+/-)) with Ins2(Akita/+) mice, a well characterized model of type 1 diabetes. Double mutant mice had more overt diabetic nephropathy, including microalbuminuria, glomerular basement thickening, mesangial matrix expansion, and hypertension, compared with Lias(+/+)Ins2(Akita/+) controls. We also identified proximal tubules as a major site for generation of superoxide anions during diabetic nephropathy. Mitochondria in proximal tubular cells were particularly sensitive to damage in diabetic mice with reduced lipoic acid production. These results suggest that lipoic acid synthase deficiency increases oxidative stress and accelerates the development of diabetic nephropathy.
    Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 01/2012; 23(1):103-11. · 8.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We investigated the relationships between hemodynamics and differential plaque development at the aortic arch of apolipoprotein E (apoE)-null mice on 129S6/SvEvTac (129) and C57BL/6J (B6) genetic backgrounds. Mean flow velocities at the ascending and descending aorta (mVAA and mVDA) were measured by Doppler ultrasound in wild type and apoE-null male mice at 3 and 9 months of age. Following dissection of the aortic arches, anatomical parameters and plaque areas were evaluated. Arch plaques were five times bigger in 129-apoE than in B6-apoE mice at 3 months, and twice as large at 9 months. The geometric differences, namely larger vessel diameter in the B6 strain and broader inner curvature of the aortic arch in the 129 strain, were exaggerated in 9-month-old apoE-null mice. Cardiac output and heart rate under anesthesia were significantly higher in the B6 strain than in the 129 strain. The values of mVAA were similar in the two strains, while mVDA was lower in the 129 strain. However, there was a 129-apoE-specific reduction of flow velocities with age, and both mVAA and mVDA were significantly lower in 129-apoE than in B6-apoE mice at 9 months. The mean relative wall shear stress (rWSS) over the aortic arch in 129-apoE and B6-apoE mice were not different, but animals with lower mean rWSS had larger arch plaques within each strain. The plaque formation in the arch of apoE-null mice is accompanied by strain-dependent changes in both arch geometry and hemodynamics. While arch plaque sizes negatively correlate with mean rWSS, additional factors are necessary to account for the strain differences in arch plaque development.
    Atherosclerosis 10/2011; 220(1):78-85. · 3.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Adipose tissue (AT) is the body's largest free cholesterol reservoir and abundantly expresses ATP binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1), a key cholesterol transporter for high-density lipoprotein (HDL) biogenesis. However, the extent to which AT ABCA1 expression contributes to HDL biogenesis in vivo is unknown. Adipocyte-specific ABCA1 knockout mice (ABCA1(-A/-A)) were generated by crossing ABCA1(floxed) mice with aP2Cre transgenic mice. AT from ABCA1(-A/-A) mice had <10% of wild-type ABCA1 protein expression but normal hepatic and intestinal expression. Deletion of adipocyte ABCA1 resulted in a significant decrease in plasma HDL cholesterol (approximately 15%) and apolipoprotein A-I (approximately 13%) concentrations. AT from ABCA1(-A/-A) mice had a 2-fold increase in free cholesterol content compared with wild-type mice and failed to efflux cholesterol to apolipoprotein A-I. However, cholesterol efflux from AT to plasma HDL was similar for both genotypes of mice. Incubation of wild-type AT explants with apolipoprotein A-I resulted in the formation of multiple discrete-sized nascent HDL particles ranging in diameter from 7.1 to 12 nm; similar incubations with ABCA1(-A/-A) AT explants resulted in nascent HDL <8 nm. Plasma decay and tissue uptake of wild-type (125)I-HDL tracer were similar in both genotypes of recipient mice, suggesting that adipocyte ABCA1 deficiency reduces plasma HDL concentrations solely by reducing nascent HDL particle formation. We provide in vivo evidence that AT ABCA1-dependent cholesterol efflux and nascent HDL particle formation contribute to systemic HDL biogenesis and that AT ABCA1 expression plays an important role in adipocyte cholesterol homeostasis.
    Circulation 09/2011; 124(15):1663-72. · 15.20 Impact Factor
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    Nobuyo Maeda
    Arteriosclerosis Thrombosis and Vascular Biology 09/2011; 31(9):1957-62. · 6.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We sought to develop a murine model to examine the antithrombotic and antiinflammatory functions of human thrombomodulin in vivo. Knock-in mice that express human thrombomodulin from the murine thrombomodulin gene locus were generated. Compared with wild-type mice, human thrombomodulin knock-in mice exhibited decreased protein C activation in the aorta (P<0.01) and lung (P<0.001). Activation of endogenous protein C following infusion of thrombin was decreased by 90% in knock-in mice compared with wild-type mice (P<0.05). Carotid artery thrombosis induced by photochemical injury occurred more rapidly in knock-in mice (12±3 minutes) than in wild-type mice (31±6 minutes; P<0.05). No differences in serum cytokine levels were detected between knock-in and wild-type mice after injection of endotoxin. When crossed with apolipoprotein E-deficient mice and fed a Western diet, knock-in mice had a further decrease in protein C activation but did not exhibit increased atherosclerosis. Expression of human thrombomodulin in place of murine thrombomodulin produces viable mice with a prothrombotic phenotype but unaltered responses to systemic inflammatory or atherogenic stimuli. This humanized animal model will be useful for investigating the function of human thrombomodulin under pathophysiological conditions in vivo.
    Arteriosclerosis Thrombosis and Vascular Biology 09/2011; 31(11):2509-17. · 6.34 Impact Factor
  • Zhi H Huang, Nobuyo Maeda, Theodore Mazzone
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    ABSTRACT: Expression of apoE in adipocytes has been shown to have an important role in modulating adipocyte triglyceride (TG) metabolism and gene expression that is independent of circulating and extracellular apoE. The impact of adipocyte expression of common human apoE isoforms was evaluated using adipocytes harvested from human apoE2, -3, and -4 knock-in mice. Expression of the apoE2 isoform was associated with an increase in adipocyte apoE gene expression and apoE synthesis. Newly synthesized apoE2 was unstable in adipocytes and demonstrated increased degradation and decreased secretion. ApoE2-expressing mice were hyperlipidemic, and had increased size of gonadal fat pads and of adipocytes, compared with apoE3 mice. In isolated cells, however, expression of the apoE2 isoform produced defective lipogenesis and increased TG hydrolysis. Incubation of adipose tissue with apoE3-containing TG-rich lipoproteins resulted in a significant increase in TG in adipose tissue from apoE3 and -E4 mice, but not apoE2 mice. Reduced capacity to internalize FFA as lipogenic substrate contributed to defective lipogenesis. Newly synthesized apoE2 is unstable in adipocytes and results in decreased adipocyte TG synthesis and defective FA uptake. These changes recapitulate those observed in apoE knockout adipocytes and have implications for understanding metabolic disturbances in humans expressing the E2 isoform.
    The Journal of Lipid Research 09/2011; 52(9):1733-41. · 4.39 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

15k Citations
1,597.80 Total Impact Points


  • 1989–2014
    • University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
      • • Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine
      • • Department of Cell Biology and Physiology
      • • Department of Medicine
      North Carolina, United States
  • 2013
    • University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center
      Dallas, Texas, United States
  • 1995–2011
    • Wake Forest School of Medicine
      • • Department of Pathology
      • • Department of Internal Medicine
      • • Section on Comparative Medicine
      Winston-Salem, NC, United States
    • University of California, San Francisco
      • Division of Hospital Medicine
      San Francisco, CA, United States
  • 2009
    • National Cheng Kung University
      • Institute of Clinical Medicine
      Tainan, Taiwan, Taiwan
  • 2007
    • Molecular Biology Institute of Barcelona
      Barcino, Catalonia, Spain
  • 2006
    • Institut Pasteur de Lille
      Lille, Nord-Pas-de-Calais, France
  • 2005–2006
    • University of Washington Seattle
      • Department of Pathology
      Seattle, WA, United States
  • 1999–2006
    • Yokohama City University
      Yokohama, Kanagawa, Japan
    • Tulane University
      • Department of Physiology
      New Orleans, LA, United States
    • University of Shizuoka
      Sizuoka, Shizuoka, Japan
  • 1998–2006
    • University of Zaragoza
      • Departamento de Bioquímica y Biología Molecular y Celular
      Zaragoza, Aragon, Spain
    • Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center
      • Department of Pathology
      Lubbock, TX, United States
    • Duke University Medical Center
      • Department of Medicine
      Durham, NC, United States
  • 2003
    • University of Texas at Austin
      Austin, Texas, United States
  • 1998–2001
    • McMaster University
      • Department of Pathology and Molecular Medicine
      Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
  • 1996–1999
    • Northwestern University
      • Department of Pathology
      Evanston, IL, United States
  • 1988
    • The Nippon Dental University
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
  • 1987–1988
    • University of Wisconsin, Madison
      • • Department of Medicine
      • • Laboratory of Genetics
      Madison, MS, United States