[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Comprehensive mutation profiling becomes more and more important in hematopathology complementing morphological and immunohistochemical evaluation of fixed, decalcified and embedded bone marrow biopsies for diagnostic, prognostic and also predictive purposes. However, the number and the size of relevant genes leave conventional Sanger sequencing impracticable in terms of costs, required input DNA, and turnaround time. Since most published protocols and commercially available reagents for targeted resequencing of gene panels are established and validated for the analysis of fresh bone marrow aspirate or peripheral blood it remains to be proven whether the available technology can be transferred to the analysis of archival trephines. Therefore, the performance of the recently available Ion AmpliSeq AML Research panel (LifeTechnologies) was evaluated for the analysis of fragmented DNA extracted from archival bone marrow trephines. Taking fresh aspirate as gold standard all clinically relevant mutations (n = 17) as well as 25 well-annotated SNPs could be identified reliably with high quality in the corresponding archival trephines of the training set (n = 10). Pre-treatment of the extracted DNA with Uracil-DNA-Glycosylase reduced the number of low level artificial sequence variants by more than 60%, vastly reducing time required for proper evaluation of the sequencing results. Subsequently, randomly picked FFPE samples (n = 41) were analyzed to evaluate sequencing performance under routine conditions. Thereby all known mutations (n = 43) could be verified and 36 additional mutations in genes not yet covered by the routine work-up (e.g., TET2, ASXL1, DNMT3A), demonstrating the feasibility of this approach and the gain of diagnostically relevant information. The dramatically reduced amount of input DNA, the increase in sensitivity as well as calculated cost-effectiveness, low hands on , and turn-around-time, necessary for the analysis of 237 amplicons strongly argue for replacing Sanger sequencing by this semiconductor-based targeted resequencing approach.
PLoS ONE 07/2015; 10(7):e0133930. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0133930 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The nasopharyngeal/oropharyngeal lymphatic tissues represent the anatomical site of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) entry. Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLD) are often associated with EBV but little is known about the characteristics of nasopharyngeal/oropharyngeal mass-forming PTLD. Retrospective evaluation of our own PTLD database (n=79) and the PubMed(®) database (n=61). Sinonasal/oro-/nasopharyngeal lymphatic masses were early lesions (n=54/140, 38.5%), polymorphic PTLD (n=32/140, 23%), monomorphic B-PTLD (n=47/140, 33.5%) and T-PTLD (n=7/140, 5%). One fourth of lesions manifested as masses in the Waldeyer's ring and in two thirds of cases, swelling of tonsils was related to manifestation of benign early lesions. Tonsil infiltration by polymorphic PTLD and monomorphic PTLD were present in one third of cases. Extra-tonsillar masses were mainly monomorphic PTLD. Metaanalysis of our data in combination with previously published data revealed that lung transplantion and young patients are at a higher risk for earlier manifestation of monomorphic PTLD. Therapy is similar to PTLD therapy strategies in general: reduced immunosuppression and chemotherapy for polymorphic and monomorphic PTLD, diagnostic and therapeutic surgical gross tumour resection of tonsillar/adenoid lesions. In summary, it is relevant for the clinical differential diagnosis that oro-/nasopharyngeal aggressive PTLD manifested in ~30% as tonsillar masses and >90% at extra-tonsillar sites. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Transplant International 07/2015; DOI:10.1111/tri.12632 · 3.16 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Assessing alterations of the parenchymal architecture is essential in understanding fibrosing interstitial lung diseases. Here, we present a novel method to visualise fibrotic remodelling in human lungs and correlate morphological three-dimensional (3D) data with gene and protein expression in the very same sample. The key to our approach is a novel embedding resin that clears samples to full optical transparency and simultaneously allows 3D laser tomography and preparation of sections for histology, immunohistochemistry and RNA isolation. Correlating 3D laser tomography with molecular diagnostic techniques enables new insights into lung diseases. This approach has great potential to become an essential tool in pulmonary research.
Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Taxane-anthracycline-based adjuvant chemotherapy is standard of care in patients with node-positive breast cancer (BC) but is also associated with severe side effects and significant costs. It is yet unclear, which biomarkers would predict benefit from taxanes and/or general chemoresistance. In this study, we investigate a large cohort of patients with intermediate-risk BC treated within the WSG EC-DOC Trial for the predictive impact of topoisomerase-II-alpha, HER2/neu, and TIMP-1. Tumor tissue was available in a representative cohort of 772 cases of the WSG EC-DOC Trial collective which compared 4xEC-4xDoc versus 6xCEF/CMF. In addition to hormone receptor status and Ki-67, HER2/neu+ and topoisomerase-II-alpha status using fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) and immunohistochemistry, TIMP-1 using immunohistochemistry, and aneuploidy of chromosome 17 using FISH were evaluated and correlated with outcome and taxane benefit. There was significant superiority of EC-Doc over CEF regarding 5-year DFS (90 vs. 80 %, respectively, p = 0.006) particularly in patient subgroups defined by HR+, HER2/neu+, high proliferation (i.e., Ki-67 ≥ 20 %), patient age >50 years old and normal chromosome 17 status, high TIMP-1 and low topoisomerase-II-alpha protein expression. Significant prognostic factors in multivariate analysis were EC-Doc therapy (HR = 0.61; 95 %CI 0.38-0.986), age <50 years old (HR = 1.682; 95 %CI 1.025-2.579), centrally assessed grade 3 (HR = 4.657; 95 %CI 1.809-11.989), and high Ki-67 (HR = 2.232; 95 %CI 1.209-4.121). Interestingly, we observed a significant interaction between treatment arm (EC-Doc vs. CEF) and high topoisomerase-II-alpha protein expression (HR = 0.427; 95 %CI 0.203-0.900) in multivariate interaction analysis. Despite of univariate predictive effect of HER2/neu status among other factors only topoisomerase-II-alpha protein expression was associated with significant benefit from EC-Doc compared to CEF by multivariate interaction analysis.
Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 02/2015; 150(2). DOI:10.1007/s10549-015-3310-x · 4.20 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Comprehensive spatial assessment of hormone receptor immunohistochemistry staining in digital whole slide images of breast cancer requires accurate detection of positive nuclei within biologically relevant regions of interest. Herein, we propose a combination of automated region labeling at low resolution and subsequent detailed tissue evaluation of subcellular structures in lobular structures adjacent to breast cancer, as a proof of concept for the approach to analyze estrogen and progesterone receptor expression in the spatial context of surrounding tissue.
Routinely processed paraffin sections of hormone receptor-negative ductal invasive breast cancer were stained for estrogen and progesterone receptor by immunohistochemistry. Digital whole slides were analyzed using commercially available image analysis software for advanced object-based analysis, applying textural, relational, and geometrical features. Mammary gland lobules were targeted as regions of interest for analysis at subcellular level in relation to their distance from coherent tumor as neighboring relevant tissue compartment. Lobule detection quality was evaluated visually by a pathologist.
After rule set optimization in an estrogen receptor-stained training set, independent test sets (progesterone and estrogen receptor) showed acceptable detection quality in 33% of cases. Presence of disrupted lobular structures, either by brisk inflammatory infiltrate, or diffuse tumor infiltration, was common in cases with lower detection accuracy. Hormone receptor detection tended towards higher percentage of positively stained nuclei in lobules distant from the tumor border as compared to areas adjacent to the tumor. After adaptations of image analysis, corresponding evaluations were also feasible in hormone receptor positive breast cancer, with some limitations of automated separation of mammary epithelial cells from hormone receptor-positive tumor cells.
As a proof of concept for object-oriented detection of steroid hormone receptors in their spatial context, we show that lobular structures can be classified based on texture-based image features, unless brisk inflammatory infiltration disrupts the normal morphological structure of the tubular gland epithelium. We consider this approach as prototypic for detection and spatial analysis of nuclear markers in defined regions of interest. We conclude that advanced image analysis at this level of complexity requires adaptation to the individual tumor phenotypes and morphological characteristics of the tumor environment.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Aberrations in DNA methylation patterns are well-described in human malignancies. However, the existence of the 'CpG island methylator phenotype' (CIMP) in human breast cancer is still controversial. Materials & methods: Illumina's HumanMethylation 450K BeadChip was used to analyze genome-wide DNA methylation patterns. Chromosomal abnormalities were determined by array-based CGH. Results: Invasive lobular breast carcinomas exhibit the highest number of differentially methylated CpG sites and a strong inverse correlation of aberrant DNA hypermethylation and copy number alterations. Nine differentially methylated regions within seven genes discriminating the investigated subgroups were identified and validated in an independent validation cohort and correlated to a better relapse-free survival. Conclusion: These results depict a clear difference between genetically and epigenetically unstable breast carcinomas indicating different ways of tumor progression and/or initiation, which strongly supports the association of CIMP with the lobular subtype and provide new options for detection and therapy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fine needle aspiration (FNA) is a sensitive and specific method (95%), often helpful in characterizing suspected liver lesions. It is appropriate to distinguish between primary and secondary liver neoplasia. Moreover, in most cases, the use of cell block preparations of small specimens allows immunocytochemical evaluation to determine the nature of the primary tumour. In a retrospective study at Hannover Medical School (MHH) from 1998 to 2012 (14 years), 4,136 sonographically guided FNAs were performed. The patients provided consent and the study protocol was approved by the local ethics committee. There were 39.6% malignant and 57.5% benign lesions in the liver, while 2.8% of the cases were undetermined. FNA was non-representative in 1.1% of the cases. The diagnostic utility of highly differentiated hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC; G1) remains difficult; cell bridges with cell atypia are pathognomonic for diagnosis. Ancillary techniques and immunocytochemical investigations will increase the sensitivity and specificity, particularly by using the cell block technique.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Metastasis to the periocular soft tissue of the orbit is a rare manifestation of metastatic cancer. Infiltrating lobular breast cancer (ILBC) is a special breast cancer subtype, which accounts for 10–15% of all mammary carcinomas and for ~1% of all malignancies. Here, we report on a high frequency of lobular breast cancer in patients with orbital metastases identified in an original series of metastatic tumor specimens and by a systematic literature review. A series of 14 orbital metastases was compiled from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded archival tissues. All cases were subjected to histological re-review and detailed immunophenotypical characterization. In addition, we performed a meta-analysis of 68 previously published case reports describing orbital metastases, with special reference to breast cancer subtypes. Based on clinical history, histomorphology, immunophenotype, and/or comparison with matched primary tumors, orbital metastases were derived from breast cancer in 8/14 cases, seven of which were classified as metastatic lobular breast cancer. Other entities included non-small cell lung cancer (4/14), infiltrating ductal breast cancer (1/14), prostate cancer (1/14) and adenocarcinoma of the esophagus (1/14). In line with this original series of orbital metastases, lobular breast cancer was the most common malignancy in 72 patients with orbital metastases described in 68 independent case reports. In conclusion, lobular breast cancer represents the cancer subtype with the highest prevalence among orbital metastases. The high frequency of ILBC in orbital metastases illustrates the special metastatic behavior of this tumor entity and may have implications for the understanding of the organotropism of metastatic lobular breast cancer.
Cancer Medicine 10/2014; 4(1). DOI:10.1002/cam4.331
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Humans and dogs are affected by squamous cell carcinomas of the oral cavity (OSCC) in a considerably high frequency. The high mobility group A2 (HMGA2) protein was found to be highly expressed in human OSCC and its expression was suggested to act as a useful predictive and prognostic tool in clinical management of oral carcinomas. Herein the expression of HMGA2 and its sister gene HMGA1 were analysed within human and canine OSCC samples. Additionally, the HMGA negatively regulating miRNAs of the let-7 family as well as the let-7 regulating gene Lin28 were also comparatively analysed. Deregulations of either one of these members could affect the progression of human and canine OSCC.
Expression levels of HMGA1, HMGA2, Lin28, let-7a and mir-98 were analysed via relative qPCR in primary human and canine OSCC, thereof derived cell lines and non-neoplastic samples. Additionally, comparative HMGA2 protein expression was analysed by immunohistochemistry.
In both species, a significant up-regulation of the HMGA2 gene was found within the neoplastic samples while HMGA1 expression did not show significant deregulations. Comparative analyses showed down-regulation of mir-98 in human samples and up-regulation of let-7a and mir-98 in canine neoplastic samples. HMGA2 immunostainings showed higher intensities within the invasive front of the tumours than in the centre of the tumour in both species.
HMGA2 could potentially serve as tumour marker in both species while HMGA1 might play a minor role in OSCC progression. Comparative studies indicate an inverse correlation of HMGA2 and mir-98 expression in human samples whereas in dogs no such characteristic could be found.
BMC Cancer 09/2014; 14(1):694. DOI:10.1186/1471-2407-14-694 · 3.32 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rare Epstein–Barr virus (EBV)+ smooth muscle tumours (SMT) manifest typically under immunosuppression. Three major subtypes are known: human immunodeficiency virus-associated (HIV-SMT), after transplantation (PTSMT) or associated with congenital immunodeficiency syndromes (CI-SMT).
So far, there are no analyses which compare the clinico-pathological characteristics of all three subtypes.
Case reports and case series on these three tumour types were collected (1990–2012). Meta-data analysis was performed for identification of similarities and differences.
A total of 73 HIV-SMT, 66 PTSMT and 9 CI-SMT were evaluated. There was a slight female predominance (55–67%). Children were affected nearly equally in HIV-SMT (33%) and PTSMT (35%), while all CI-SMT occurred in children. HIV-SMT manifested preferentially in the central nervous system, gut/liver, skin, lungs/larynx/pharynx and adrenal glands. PTSMT were predominantly found in the liver, lungs/larynx/pharynx, gut/spleen and brain. CI-SMT were often found in lungs/larynx, brain, liver, adrenal glands and spleen. Antecedent EBV+ lymphoproliferations manifested more often in PTSMT.
In all three tumour subtypes, survival analyses did not show any significant differences regarding surgical therapeutic approaches, the occurrence of multiple tumours, tumour size or sarcoma-like histological features. HIV-SMT had the poorest overall survival, which might be attributed to HIV-associated infectious complications.
European Journal of Cancer 09/2014; 50(14). DOI:10.1016/j.ejca.2014.06.006 · 4.82 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives
Caspase 14 is reduced in adenocarcinomas of the stomach and colon. In contrast, breast and lung adenocarcinomas frequently show an overexpression of caspase 14. Salivary gland adenocarcinomas have not been evaluated for potential aberrant caspase 14 expression.Materials and Methods
Samples from salivary gland carcinomas (n = 43) were analysed by immunohistochemistry (caspase 14, filaggrin, GATA3 and Ki67) and fluorescence in situ hybridization.ResultsCaspase 14 is not expressed in normal salivary glands, while in a subfraction of carcinomas (32%) an aberrant expression was found. Filaggrin could not be detected. Caspase 14 staining was not associated with tumour dedifferentiation, GATA3 expression or amplification of gene locus 19p13.Conclusion
In summary, aberrant expression of caspase 14 can be found in a subfraction of salivary gland carcinomas but could not be used as a biomarker for a specific carcinoma subtype of the salivary gland.
Journal of Oral Pathology and Medicine 09/2014; 44(6). DOI:10.1111/jop.12253 · 1.87 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Routinely processed skin biopsies are still the mainstay for the diagnosis of melanocytic skin neoplasms (MSNs) and are considered the "gold standard" for individual patient management and clinical trials. The diagnostic challenge of melanocytic lesions of the skin prompts histopathologists to consider new diagnostic tools; among these, immunohistochemistry. We aimed to find putative new immunohistochemical markers, which can supplement the histological criteria used to detect dysplasia. In this immunohistochemical study, we chose a panel of promising biomarkers which could potentially differentiate between different MSN entities. These included α-methylacyl-coenzyme A racemase (AMACR; p504s), which is involved in the degradation of branched chained fatty acid derivates. We analysed a cohort of benign nevi and malignant melanomas. The design of the study included 78 melanocytic skin neoplasms (26 malignant melanomas and 52 benign nevi) in a tissue microarray. Immunohistochemistry of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A (p16Ink4a), methylacyl-coenzyme A racemase (AMACR), cyclin D1, and E-cadherin was performed and assessed. We have observed that the p16Ink4a, AMACR, cyclin D1, and E-cadherin showed no exclusive staining for nevi or melanomas. However, a significant overexpression of AMACR was found in malignant melanomas compared to benign nevi. AMACR overexpression was also associated with an increased p16Ink4a staining. Our results suggest AMACR as an immunohistochemical marker for distinguishing malignant melanomas and dysplastic nevi from conventional melanocytic nevi.