Tracy Osredkar

Banner Sun Health Research Institute, Sun City, Arizona, United States

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Publications (12)37.14 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Fibromyalgia (FM) has been understudied in the elderly population, a group with particular vulnerabilities to pain, reduced mobility, and sleep disruption.
    Aging clinical and experimental research. 05/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Adjuvant-induced arthritic (AA) differentially affects norepinephrine concentrations in immune organs, and in vivo β -adrenergic receptor ( β -AR) agonist treatment distinctly regulates ex vivo cytokine profiles in different immune organs. We examined the contribution of altered β -AR functioning in AA to understand these disparate findings. Twenty-one or 28 days after disease induction, we examined β 2-AR expression in spleen and draining lymph nodes (DLNs) for the arthritic limbs using radioligand binding and western blots and splenocyte β -AR-stimulated cAMP production using enzyme-linked immunoassay (EIA). During severe disease, β -AR agonists failed to induce splenocyte cAMP production, and β -AR affinity and density declined, indicating receptor desensitization and downregulation. Splenocyte β 2-AR phosphorylation (p β 2-AR) by protein kinase A (p β 2-ARPKA) decreased in severe disease, and p β 2-AR by G protein-coupled receptor kinases (p β 2-ARGRK) increased in chronic disease. Conversely, in DLN cells, p β 2-ARPKA rose during severe disease, but fell during chronic disease, and p β 2-ARGRK increased during both disease stages. A similar p β 2-AR pattern in DLN cells with the mycobacterial cell wall component of complete Freund's adjuvant suggests that pattern recognition receptors (i.e., toll-like receptors) are important for DLN p β 2-AR patterns. Collectively, our findings indicate lymphoid organ- and disease stage-specific sympathetic dysregulation, possibly explaining immune compartment-specific differences in β 2-AR-mediated regulation of cytokine production in AA and rheumatoid arthritis.
    Clinical and Developmental Immunology 01/2013; 2013:764395. · 3.06 Impact Factor
  • Brain Behavior and Immunity - BRAIN BEHAV IMMUN. 01/2011; 25.
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    ABSTRACT: Chronic pain, sickness behaviors, and cognitive decline are symptoms in rheumatoid arthritis. In the adjuvant-induced arthritis Lewis rat model, we examined the dynamics of c-Fos expression in the hippocampus, a brain region important for these symptoms. Brain sections were stained for c-Fos using immunohistochemistry. c-Fos-positive nuclei were counted in CA1, CA2, CA3 and the dentate gyrus of the dorsal hippocampi from rats receiving no treatment or base-of-the-tail injections of (1 or 2) incomplete or complete Freund's adjuvant (low- or high-dose), (3), Mycobacterium butyricum cell wall suspended in saline, or (4) saline, and sacrificed 4, 14, 21, or 126days post-immunization. Disease severity was evaluated by dorsoplantar foot pad widths and X-ray analysis. We report sustained dose- and subfield-dependent c-Fos expression with arthritis, but transient expression in nonarthritic groups, suggesting long-term genomic changes in rheumatoid arthritis that may be causal for behavioral changes, adaptation to chronic pain and/or cognitive decline associated with disease.
    Journal of neuroimmunology 10/2010; 230(1-2):85-94. · 2.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cocaine-associated cues acquire incentive motivational effects that manifest as cue-elicited craving in humans and cocaine-seeking behavior in rats. Here we examine the hypothesis that neuronal processes associated with incentive motivational effects of cocaine cues involve increased expression of the plasticity-associated gene, Arc. Rats trained to self-administer cocaine subsequently underwent extinction training, during which cocaine-seeking behavior (i.e., responses without cocaine reinforcement) progressively decreased. Rats were then tested for cocaine-seeking behavior either with or without response-contingent presentations of light/tone cues that had been previously paired with cocaine infusions during self-administration training. Cues elicited reinstatement of cocaine-seeking behavior and were accompanied by increased Arc mRNA levels in the orbitofrontal, prelimbic, and anterior cingulate cortices, suggesting Arc involvement in conditioned plasticity associated with incentive motivational effects of cocaine cues. Additionally, rats with a history of cocaine self-administration and extinction exhibited upregulation of Arc expression in several limbic and cortical regions relative to saline-yoked controls regardless of cue exposure condition, suggesting persistent neuroadaptations involving Arc within these regions.
    Synapse 07/2008; 62(6):421-31. · 2.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Amyloid containing deposits are a defining neuropathological feature of a wide range of dementias and movement disorders. The positron emission tomography tracer PIB (Pittsburgh Compound-B, 2-[4'-(methylamino)phenyl]-6-hydroxybenzothiazole) was developed to target senile plaques, an amyloid containing pathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease, formed from the amyloid-beta peptide. Despite the fact that PIB was developed from the pan-amyloid staining dye thioflavin T, no detailed characterisation of its interaction with other amyloid structures has been reported. In this study, we demonstrate the presence of a high affinity binding site (K(d) approximately 4 nM) for benzothiazole derivatives, including [3H]-PIB, on alpha-synuclein (AS) filaments generated in vitro, and further characterise this binding site through the use of radioligand displacement assays employing 4-N-methylamino-4'-hydroxystilbene (SB13) (K(i) = 87 nM) and 2-(1-{6-[(2-fluoroethyl(methyl)amino]-2-naphthyl}ethylidene)malononitrile (FDDNP) (K(i) = 210 nM). Despite the presence of a high-affinity binding site on AS filaments, no discernible interaction of [3H]-PIB was detected with amygdala sections from Parkinson's disease cases containing frequent AS-immunoreactive Lewy bodies and related neurities. These findings suggest that the density and/or accessibility of AS binding sites in vivo are significantly less than those associated with amyloid-beta peptide lesions. Lewy bodies pathology is therefore unlikely to contribute significantly to the retention of PIB in positron emission tomography imaging studies.
    Journal of Neurochemistry 06/2008; 105(4):1428-37. · 3.97 Impact Factor
  • Brain Behavior and Immunity - BRAIN BEHAV IMMUN. 01/2008; 22(4):41-41.
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    ABSTRACT: The in vivo imaging probe [11C]-PIB (Pittsburgh Compound B, N-methyl[11C]2-(4'-methylaminophenyl-6-hydroxybenzathiazole) is under evaluation as a key imaging tool in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and to date has been assumed to bind with high affinity and specificity to the amyloid structures associated with classical plaques (CPs), one of the pathological hallmarks of the disease. However, no studies have systematically investigated PIB binding to human neuropathological brain specimens at the tracer concentrations achieved during in vivo imaging scans. Using a combination of autoradiography and histochemical techniques, we demonstrate that PIB, in addition to binding CPs clearly delineates diffuse plaques and cerebrovascular amyloid angiopathy (CAA). The interaction of PIB with CAA was not fully displaceable and this may be linked to the apolipoprotein E-epsilon4 allele. PIB was also found to label neurofibrillary tangles, although the overall intensity of this binding was markedly lower than that associated with the amyloid-beta (Abeta) pathology. The data provide a molecular explanation for PIB's limited specificity in diagnosing and monitoring disease progression in AD and instead indicate that the ligand is primarily a non-specific marker of Abeta-peptide related cerebral amyloidosis.
    Brain 11/2007; 130(Pt 10):2607-15. · 10.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In Parkinson's disease (PD) and animal models of parkinsonism the destruction of nigrostriatal (NSB) system results in a marked loss of the dopamine D(3) receptor and mRNA in the islands of Calleja (ICj) and the nucleus accumbens shell (NAS). In animal models, it has been reported that both measures are elevated by repeated intermittent administration of L-dopa. However, a large proportion of PD cases are resistant to L-dopa-induced elevation of D(3) receptor number. The zitter mutant (Zi/Zi) rat replicates the slow progressive degeneration of the NSB observed in PD and also exhibits a loss of D(3) receptor number in the NAS or ICj. To test if this could be reversed with subchronic L-dopa treatment, injections of carbidopa (10 mg/kg i.p.) were followed an hour later with injection of L-dopa (100 mg/kg i.p.) twice a day for 10 days. In control Sprague-Dawley (SD) and zitter heterozygote (Zi/-) rats that do not show a loss of D(3) receptors with vehicle treatment, L-dopa produced no change in D(3) receptor number or in DA terminal density as measured by dopamine transporter (DAT) binding and tyrosine hydroxylase immunoautoradiography (TH-IR). There was a marked loss of DAT and TH-IR in caudate-putamen (CPu) and NA, as well as D(3) receptors in NAS and ICj in Zi/Zi rats but no further change with L-dopa treatment. To determine if the resistance to L-dopa-induced increase in D(3) receptor was due to a deficiency in expression of cortical BDNF or its receptor, TrkB, in CPu and NAS, we examined BDNF mRNA by ISHH in frontal cortex and TrkB mRNA in frontal cortex, CPu, and NA. The loss of the NSB in the Zi/Zi did not alter levels of BDNF or TrkB mRNA, nor did L-dopa administration alter levels BDNF or TrkB mRNA. Thus, unlike in 6-hydroxydopamine-treated rats, in Zi/Zi rats administered L-dopa does not reverse the loss of BDNF mRNA or lead to an elevation of D(3) receptor number.
    Experimental Neurology 06/2004; 187(1):178-89. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Depletion of dopamine (DA) reduces D(3) receptor number, but D(3) receptor expression is also regulated by brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). We took advantage of transgenic heterozygous BDNF mutant mice (+/-) to determine if reduced BDNF and loss of DA fibers produced by methamphetamine were additive in their impact on D(3) receptor number. We assessed selective markers of the dopaminergic system including caudate-putamen DA concentrations and quantitative autoradiographic measurement of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) levels, DA transporter (DAT), and DA D(3) receptor binding between vehicle and methamphetamine-treated BDNF +/- and their wildtype (WT) littermate control mice. Caudate-putamen DA concentrations, TH and DAT levels were significantly reduced following methamphetamine treatment in both WT and BDNF +/- mice. The extent of methamphetamine-induced reduction in TH and DAT was greater for the WT than BDNF +/- mice and DAT levels were also decreased to a greater extent in nucleus accumbens of WT as compared to BDNF +/- mice. Lower D(3) receptor existed in caudate-putamen and nucleus accumbens in BDNF +/- mice and these differences were not affected by methamphetamine treatment. Taken together, these results not only substantiate the importance of BDNF in controlling D(3) receptor expression, but also indicate that a methamphetamine-induced depletion of DA fibers fails to produce an additive effect with lowered BDNF for control of D(3) receptor expression. In addition, the reduction of D(3) receptor expression is associated with a decreased neurotoxic response to methamphetamine in BDNF +/- mice.
    Synapse 05/2004; 52(1):11-9. · 2.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The effects of a deletion for the brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) allele (+/- BDNF) upon age-related changes in nigrostriatal dopaminergic (NSDA) function were assessed. Behavioral (beam crossing and spontaneous activity) and neurochemical (potassium-stimulated dopamine release from superfused striatum) measures were compared among Young (4-5 month), Middle (11-13 month) and Aged (19-21 month) +/- BDNF and their wild type littermate control (+/+ BDNF) mice. No statistically significant differences were obtained between +/+ and +/- BDNF mice at the Young age sampling period for any of the behavioral or neurochemical measures. Behavioral and neurochemical responses indices of NSDA function begin to diverge between +/+ and +/- Middle age BDNF mice and maximal differences were observed at the Aged period. For both movement and stereotypy times, scores obtained from +/+ mice were significantly decreased compared with +/- BDNF mice at the Aged period and center time scores of +/+ mice were decreased at both the Middle and Aged periods compared with +/- BDNF mice. Neurochemically, potassium-stimulated DA release of +/+ mice was significantly greater than +/- BDNF mice with maximal differences obtained at the Aged period. These results demonstrate marked differences in age-related changes of NSDA function between +/+ and +/- BDNF mice and suggest that the deletion of one allele for BDNF may make these mice more susceptible to age-related declines in NSDA function.
    Neuroscience 02/2004; 128(1):201-8. · 3.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The novel naphtoxazine derivative and preferential D(3) vs D(2) receptor agonist, S32504, restores perturbed motor function in rodent and primate models of antiparkinsonian activity with a potency superior to those of two further, preferential D(3) receptor agonists, pramipexole and ropinirole. However, potential neuroprotective properties of S32054 have not, to date, been evaluated. Herein, employing several measures of cellular integrity, we demonstrate that S32504 robustly, concentration-dependently and completely protects terminally differentiated SH-SY5Y cells against 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+)-induced cell death in vitro. Further, S32504 was substantially more potent than pramipexole and ropinirole, the latter of which was neurotoxic at high concentrations. In vivo, subchronic treatment with low (0.25 mg/kg) and high (2.5 mg/kg) doses of S32504 prior to and during treatment of mice with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine, MPTP, provided complete protection against MPTP-induced tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive (TH-IR) neuronal death in the substantia nigra pars compacta and ventral tegmental area. A high dose of ropinirole (2.5 mg/kg) provided some protection but statistical significance was not attained, and a low dose (0.25 mg/kg) was ineffective. Neither drug afforded protection against the MPTP-induced loss of DA fibers in the striatum, as measured by TH-IR and dopamine transporter immunoreactive fiber counts. In conclusion, the novel naphotoxazine and dopaminergic agonist, S32504, robustly protects dopaminergic neurones against the neurotoxic effects of MPP(+) and MPTP in in vitro and in vivo models, respectively. The underlying mechanisms and therapeutic pertinence of these actions will be of interest to further evaluate in view of its potent actions in behavioral models of antiparkinson activity.
    Experimental Neurology 12/2003; 184(1):393-407. · 4.65 Impact Factor