Philip E Hass

Genentech, San Francisco, California, United States

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Publications (10)102.84 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Anti-factor D (AFD) (FCFD4514S, lampalizumab) is a humanized IgG Fab fragment directed against factor D (fD), a rate-limiting serine protease in the alternative complement pathway (AP). Evaluation of AFD as a potential intravitreal (IVT) therapeutic for dry age-related macular degeneration patients with geographic atrophy (GA) is ongoing. However, it is unclear whether IVT administration of AFD can affect systemic AP activation and potentially compromise host-immune responses. Here we characterize the pharmacological properties of AFD and assess the effects of AFD administered IVT (2 or 20 mg) or IV (0.2, 2, or 20 mg) on systemic complement activity in cynomolgus monkeys. For the IVT groups, serum AP activity was reduced for the 20 mg dose between 2-6 hours post-injection. For the IV groups, AFD inhibited systemic AP activity for periods of time ranging from 5 minutes (0.2 mg group) to 3 hours (20 mg group). Interestingly, the concentrations of total serum fD increased up to 10-fold relative to predose levels following administration of AFD. Furthermore, AFD was found to inhibit systemic AP activity only when the molar concentration of AFD exceeded that of fD. This occurred in the cynomolgus monkeys at serum AFD levels ≥ 2 µg/mL, a concentration 8-fold greater than the serum Cmax observed following a single 10 mg IVT dose in a clinical investigation in patients with GA. Based on these findings, the low levels of serum AFD resulting from IVT administration of a clinically relevant dose are not expected to appreciably affect systemic AP activity.
    Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 09/2014; · 3.89 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Paired Ig-like type 2 receptor (PILR)α inhibitory receptor and its counterpart PILRβ activating receptor are coexpressed on myeloid cells. In this article, we report that PILRα, but not PILRβ, is elevated in human rheumatoid arthritis synovial tissue and correlates with inflammatory cell infiltration. Pilrα(-/-) mice produce more pathogenic cytokines during inflammation and are prone to enhanced autoimmune arthritis. Correspondingly, engaging PILRα with anti-PILRα mAb ameliorates inflammation in mouse arthritis models and suppresses the production of proinflammatory cytokines. Our studies suggest that PILRα mediates an important inhibitory pathway that can dampen inflammatory responses.
    Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950). 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: In the developing brain, initial neuronal projections are formed through extensive growth and branching of developing axons, but many branches are later pruned to sculpt the mature pattern of connections. Despite its widespread occurrence, the mechanisms controlling pruning remain incompletely characterized. Based on pharmacological and biochemical analysis in vitro and initial genetic analysis in vivo, prior studies implicated a pathway involving binding of the Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP) to Death Receptor 6 (DR6) and activation of a downstream caspase cascade in axonal pruning. Here, we further test their involvement in pruning in vivo and their mechanism of action through extensive genetic and biochemical analysis. Genetic deletion of DR6 was previously shown to impair pruning of retinal axons in vivo. We show that genetic deletion of APP similarly impairs pruning of retinal axons in vivo and provide evidence that APP and DR6 act cell autonomously and in the same pathway to control pruning. Prior analysis had suggested that β-secretase cleavage of APP and binding of an N-terminal fragment of APP to DR6 is required for their actions, but further genetic and biochemical analysis reveals that β-secretase activity is not required and that high-affinity binding to DR6 requires a more C-terminal portion of the APP ectodomain. These results provide direct support for the model that APP and DR6 function cell autonomously and in the same pathway to control pruning in vivo and raise the possibility of alternate mechanisms for how APP and DR6 control pruning.
    Journal of Neuroscience 05/2014; 34(19):6438-47. · 6.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Paired immunoglobulin-like receptor (PILR) α is an inhibitory receptor that recognizes several ligands, including mouse CD99, PILR-associating neural protein, and Herpes simplex virus-1 glycoprotein B. The physiological function(s) of interactions between PILRα and its cellular ligands are not well understood, as are the molecular determinants of PILRα/ligand interactions. To address these uncertainties, we sought to identify additional PILRα ligands and further define the molecular basis for PILRα/ligand interactions. Here, we identify two novel PILRα binding partners, neuronal differentiation and proliferation factor-1 (NPDC1), and collectin-12 (COLEC12). We find that sialylated O-glycans on these novel PILRα ligands, and on known PILRα ligands, are compulsory for PILRα binding. Sialylation-dependent ligand recognition is also a property of SIGLEC1, a member of the sialic acid-binding Ig-like lectins. SIGLEC1 Ig domain shares ∼22% sequence identity with PILRα, an identity that includes a conserved arginine localized to position 97 in mouse and human SIGLEC1, position 133 in mouse PILRα and position 126 in human PILRα. We observe that PILRα/ligand interactions require conserved PILRα Arg-133 (mouse) and Arg-126 (human), in correspondence with a previously reported requirement for SIGLEC1 Arg-197 in SIGLEC1/ligand interactions. Homology modeling identifies striking similarities between PILRα and SIGLEC1 ligand binding pockets as well as at least one set of distinctive interactions in the galactoxyl-binding site. Binding studies suggest that PILRα recognizes a complex ligand domain involving both sialic acid and protein motif(s). Thus, PILRα is evolved to engage multiple ligands with common molecular determinants to modulate myeloid cell functions in anatomical settings where PILRα ligands are expressed.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 03/2012; 287(19):15837-50. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: By virtue of its amplifying property, the alternative complement pathway has been implicated in a number of inflammatory diseases and constitutes an attractive therapeutic target. An anti-factor D Fab fragment (AFD) was generated to inhibit the alternative complement pathway in advanced dry age-related macular degeneration. AFD potently prevented factor D (FD)-mediated proteolytic activation of its macromolecular substrate C3bB, but not proteolysis of a small synthetic substrate, indicating that AFD did not block access of the substrate to the catalytic site. The crystal structures of AFD in complex with human and cynomolgus FD (at 2.4 and 2.3 Å, respectively) revealed the molecular details of the inhibitory mechanism. The structures show that the AFD-binding site includes surface loops of FD that form part of the FD exosite. Thus, AFD inhibits FD proteolytic function by interfering with macromolecular substrate access rather than by inhibiting FD catalysis, providing the molecular basis of AFD-mediated inhibition of a rate-limiting step in the alternative complement pathway.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 02/2012; 287(16):12886-92. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Using RNAi screening, proteomics, cell biological and mouse genetics approaches, we have identified a complex of nine proteins, seven of which are disrupted in human ciliopathies. A transmembrane component, TMEM231, localizes to the basal body before and independently of intraflagellar transport in a Septin 2 (Sept2)-regulated fashion. The localizations of TMEM231, B9D1 (B9 domain-containing protein 1) and CC2D2A (coiled-coil and C2 domain-containing protein 2A) at the transition zone are dependent on one another and on Sept2. Disruption of the complex in vitro causes a reduction in cilia formation and a loss of signalling receptors from the remaining cilia. Mouse knockouts of B9D1 and TMEM231 have identical defects in Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signalling and ciliogenesis. Strikingly, disruption of the complex increases the rate of diffusion into the ciliary membrane and the amount of plasma-membrane protein in the cilia. The complex that we have described is essential for normal cilia function and acts as a diffusion barrier to maintain the cilia membrane as a compartmentalized signalling organelle.
    Nature Cell Biology 12/2011; 14(1):61-72. · 20.76 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Amplification of the complement cascade through the alternative pathway can lead to excessive inflammation. Targeting C3b, a component central to the alternative pathway of complement, provides a powerful approach to inhibit complement-mediated immune responses and tissue injury. In the present study, phage display technology was employed to generate an antibody that selectively recognizes C3b but not the non-activated molecule C3. The crystal structure of C3b in complex with a Fab fragment of this antibody (S77) illustrates the structural basis for this selectivity. Cleavage of C3 to C3b results in a plethora of structural changes within C3, including the rearrangement of macroglobulin domain 6 enabling binding of S77 to the adjacent macroglobulin domain 7 domain. S77 blocks binding of factor B to C3b inhibiting the first step in the formation of the alternative pathway C3 convertase. In addition, S77 inhibits C5 binding to C3b. This results in significantly reduced formations of anaphylatoxins and membrane-attack complexes. This study for the first time demonstrates the structural basis for complement inhibition by a C3b-selective antibody and provides insights into the molecular mechanisms of alternative pathway complement activation.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 03/2009; 284(16):10473-9. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: An important function of the complement cascade is to coat self and foreign particles with C3-proteins that serve as ligands for phagocytic receptors. Although tissue resident macrophages play an important role in complement-mediated clearance, the receptors coordinating this process have not been well characterized. In the present study, we identified a subpopulation of resident peritoneal macrophages characterized by high expression of complement receptor of the Ig superfamily (CRIg), a recently discovered complement C3 receptor. Macrophages expressing CRIg showed significantly increased binding and subsequent internalization of complement-opsonized particles compared with CRIg negative macrophages. CRIg internalized monovalent ligands and was able to bind complement-opsonized targets in the absence of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+), which differs from the beta(2)-integrin CR3 that requires divalent cations and polyvalent ligands for activation of the receptor. Although CRIg dominated in immediate binding of complement-coated particles, CRIg and CR3 contributed independently to subsequent particle phagocytosis. CRIg thus identifies a subset of tissue resident macrophages capable of increased phagocytosis of complement C3-coated particles, a function critical for immune clearance.
    The Journal of Immunology 01/2009; 181(11):7902-8. · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Complement is an important component of the innate and adaptive immune response, yet complement split products generated through activation of each of the three complement pathways (classical, alternative, and lectin) can cause inflammation and tissue destruction. Previous studies have shown that complement activation through the alternative, but not classical, pathway is required to initiate antibody-induced arthritis in mice, but it is unclear if the alternative pathway (AP) plays a role in established disease. Previously, we have shown that human complement receptor of the immunoglobulin superfamily (CRIg) is a selective inhibitor of the AP of complement. Here, we present the crystal structure of murine CRIg and, using mutants, provide evidence that the structural requirements for inhibition of the AP are conserved in human and mouse. A soluble form of CRIg reversed inflammation and bone loss in two experimental models of arthritis by inhibiting the AP of complement in the joint. Our data indicate that the AP of complement is not only required for disease induction, but also disease progression. The extracellular domain of CRIg thus provides a novel tool to study the effects of inhibiting the AP of complement in established disease and constitutes a promising therapeutic with selectivity for a single complement pathway.
    Journal of Experimental Medicine 07/2007; 204(6):1319-25. · 13.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The complement system is a key part of the innate immune system, and is required for clearance of pathogens from the bloodstream. After exposure to pathogens, the third component of the complement system, C3, is cleaved to C3b which, after recruitment of factor B, initiates formation of the alternative pathway convertases. CRIg, a complement receptor expressed on macrophages, binds to C3b and iC3b mediating phagocytosis of the particles, but it is unknown how CRIg selectively recognizes proteolytic C3-fragments and whether binding of CRIg to C3b inhibits convertase activation. Here we present the crystal structure of C3b in complex with CRIg and, using CRIg mutants, provide evidence that CRIg acts as an inhibitor of the alternative pathway of complement. The structure shows that activation of C3 induces major structural rearrangements, including a dramatic movement (>80 A) of the thioester-bond-containing domain through which C3b attaches to pathogen surfaces. We show that CRIg is not only a phagocytic receptor, but also a potent inhibitor of the alternative pathway convertases. The structure provides insights into the complex macromolecular structural rearrangements that occur during complement activation and inhibition. Moreover, our structure-function studies relating the structural basis of complement activation and the means by which CRIg inhibits the convertases provide important clues to the development of therapeutics that target complement.
    Nature 12/2006; 444(7116):217-20. · 38.60 Impact Factor