[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aim and Objectives: Web-based Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) decision aids are known to promote informed decision-making. There is also some evidence that informed decision-making can result in reduced uptake of PSA testing, thus reducing subsequent costs related to urological intervention, specifically prostate biopsies. The aim of this study was to assess these potential financial benefits. The objectives were: first, to develop a mathematical simulation model based on data from a randomised controlled trial of a web-based PSA decision aid, Prosdex; second, to examine the effect of changes in PSA testing on prostate biopsy numbers and costs.
Methods: The simulation model was built using an animated simulation package, Simul8, which allowed for the input of parameter data: 1) Setting; 2) Intention to undertake a PSA test, derived from a RCT of a web-based PSA decision aid; 3) Costs related to PSA tests and prostate biopsies.
Results: Total costs varied with changes in the number of PSA tests at a single GP practice, all-Wales and UK level. At the single GP practice level, the effect on costs of changes in PSA testing was minimal. For example, a reduction in PSA testing from 4.6% to 3.6% reduced total costs for the practice by only £1,800. At the UK level, the same reduction in PSA testing lowered costs by approximately £10 million; a relatively small amount of financial resource in the context of a national health budget such as that of the UK National Health Service.
Conclusions: The financial impact of web-based PSA decision aids is minimal. The benefit of using PSA decision aids should be viewed in ethical terms and not in financial terms.
European Journal of Person Centered Healthcare. 10/2013; 1(1).
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Physicians play a crucial role in teaching residents in clinical practice. Feedback on their teaching performance to support this role needs to be provided in a carefully designed and constructive way. Aims: We investigated an evaluation system for evaluating supervisors and providing formative feedback. Method: In a design based research approach, the 'Evaluation and Feedback For Effective Clinical Teaching System' (EFFECT-S) was examined by conducting semi-structured interviews with residents and supervisors of five departments in five different hospitals about feedback conditions, acceptance and its effects. Interviews were analysed by three researchers, using qualitative research software (ATLAS-Ti). Results: Principles and characteristics of the design are supported by evaluating EFFECT-S. All steps of EFFECT-S appear necessary. A new step, team evaluation, was added. Supervisors perceived the feedback as instructive; residents felt capable of providing feedback. Creating safety and honesty require different actions for residents and supervisors. Outcomes include awareness of clinical teaching, residents learning feedback skills, reduced hierarchy and an improved learning climate. Conclusions: EFFECT-S appeared useful for evaluating supervisors. Key mechanism was creating a safe environment for residents to provide honest and constructive feedback. Residents learned providing feedback, being part of the CanMEDS and ACGME competencies of medical education programmes.
Medical Teacher 09/2013; 35(9):e1485-92. · 1.82 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract Objective. To study the effectiveness of a comprehensive diabetes programme in general practice that integrates patient-centred lifestyle counselling into structured diabetes care. Design and setting. Cluster randomised trial in general practices. Intervention. Nurse-led structured diabetes care with a protocol, record keeping, reminders, and feedback, plus training in motivational interviewing and agenda setting. Subjects. Primary care nurses in 58 general practices and their 940 type 2 diabetes patients with an HbA1c concentration above 7%, and a body mass index (BMI) above 25 kg/m(2). Main outcome measures. HbA1c, diet, and physical activity (medical records and patient questionnaires). Results. Multilevel linear and logistic regression analyses adjusted for baseline outcomes showed that despite active nurse participation in the intervention, the comprehensive programme was no more effective than usual care after 14 months, as shown by HbA1c levels (difference between groups = 0.13; CI 20.8-0.35) and diet (fat (difference between groups = 0.19; CI 20.82-1.21); vegetables (difference between groups = 0.10; CI-0.21-0.41); fruit (difference between groups = 20.02; CI 20.26-0.22)), and physical activity (difference between groups = 21.15; CI 212.26-9.97), or any of the other measures of clinical parameters, patient's readiness to change, or quality of life. Conclusion. A comprehensive programme that integrated lifestyle counselling based on motivational interviewing principles integrated into structured diabetes care did not alter HbA1c or the lifestyle related to diet and physical activity. We thus question the impact of motivational interviewing in terms of its ability to improve routine diabetes care in general practice.
Scandinavian journal of primary health care 06/2013; 31(2):119-27. · 2.21 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Many studies report on the validation of instruments for facilitating feedback to clinical supervisors. There is mixed evidence whether evaluations lead to more effective teaching and higher ratings. We assessed changes in resident ratings after an evaluation and feedback session with their supervisors. Supervisors of three medical specialities were evaluated, using a validated instrument (EFFECT). Mean overall scores (MOS) and mean scale scores were calculated and compared using paired T-tests. 24 Supervisors from three departments were evaluated at two subsequent years. MOS increased from 4.36 to 4.49. The MOS of two scales showed an increase >0.2: 'teaching methodology' (4.34-4.55), and 'assessment' (4.11-4.39). Supervisors with an MOS <4.0 at year 1 (n = 5) all demonstrated a strong increase in the MOS (mean overall increase 0.50, range 0.34-0.64). Four supervisors with an MOS between 4.0 and 4.5 (n = 6) demonstrated an increase >0.2 in their MOS (mean overall increase 0.21, range -0.15 to 53). One supervisor with an MOS >4.5 (n = 13) demonstrated an increase >0.02 in the MOS, two demonstrated a decrease >0.2 (mean overall increase -0.06, range -0.42 to 0.42). EFFECT-S was associated with a positive change in residents' ratings of their supervisors, predominantly in supervisors with relatively low initial scores.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: There is only limited understanding of why hand hygiene improvement strategies are successful or fail. It is therefore important to look inside the 'black box' of such strategies, to ascertain which components of a strategy work well or less well. This study examined which components of two hand hygiene improvement strategies were associated with increased nurses' hand hygiene compliance. METHODS: A process evaluation of a cluster randomised controlled trial was conducted in which part of the nursing wards of three hospitals in the Netherlands received a state-of-the-art strategy, including education, reminders, feedback, and optimising materials and facilities; another part received a team and leaders-directed strategy that included all elements of the state-of-the-art strategy, supplemented with activities aimed at the social and enhancing leadership. This process evaluation used four sets of measures: effects on nurses' hand hygiene compliance, adherence to the improvement strategies, contextual factors, and nurses' experiences with strategy components. Analyses of variance and multiple regression analyses were used to explore changes in nurses' hand hygiene compliance and thereby better understand trial effects. RESULTS: Both strategies were performed with good adherence to protocol. Two contextual factors were associated with changes in hand hygiene compliance: a hospital effect in long term (p < 0.05), and high hand hygiene baseline scores were associated with smaller effects (p < 0.01). In short term, changes in nurses' hand hygiene compliance were positively correlated with experienced feedback about their hand hygiene performance (p < 0.05). In the long run, several items of the components 'social influence' (i.e., addressing each other on undesirable hand hygiene behaviour p < 0.01), and 'leadership' (i.e., ward manager holds team members accountable for hand hygiene performance p < 0.01) correlated positively with changes in nurses' hand hygiene compliance. CONCLUSION: This study illustrates the use of a process evaluation to uncover mechanisms underlying change in hand hygiene improvement strategies. Our study results demonstrate the added value of specific aspects of social influence and leadership in hand hygiene improvement strategies, thus offering an interpretation of the trial effects.Trial registration: The study is registered in ClinicalTrials.gov, dossier number: NCT00548015.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Richtlijnen staan fraai op papier, maar hoe werken ze in de praktijk? Welke hobbels zijn er op de weg en wanneer loopt het gesmeerd? De professionals mochten het zeggen. Angststoornissen en depressie behoren in Nederland tot de meest voorkomende psychische stoornissen, met een jaarprevalentie onder volwassenen van respectievelijk 12,4% en 5,8% (Bijl e.a., 1997). De afgelopen decennia zijn voor beide stoornissen diverse behandelingen ontwikkeld en getest in grote gerandomiseerde klinische studies (Nathan & Gorman 1998; Cuijpers & Dekker 2005). Toch zien we in de praktijk grote variatie in de aard en de duur van de hulp aan mensen met dezelfde psychische klachten (Volkers e.a., 2005). In sommige gevallen is dat terecht; mensen willen immers zorg op maat. Maar de keuze voor een bepaalde behandeling mag niet afhangen van de voorkeur van de behandelaar of hulpverlener. De zorg bij angststoornissen en depressie wordt niet alleen gekenmerkt door een grote verscheidenheid aan behandelvormen met meer of minder wetenschappelijke evidentie, maar ook door een multidisciplinair karakter. Verschillende disciplines, zoals huisarts, psycholoog, psychotherapeut, psychiater en verpleegkundige, participeren in deze zorg. Zij zijn gezamenlijk verantwoordelijk voor het zorgproces. Om evidence based handelen te bevorderen en om de kennis en ervaring van diverse beroepsgroepen op elkaar af te stemmen, is onlangs zowel voor angststoornissen als voor depressie een multidisciplinaire richtlijn ontwikkeld (LSM GGZ, 2003; 2005). De implementatie van vernieuwingen als deze verloopt echter soms moeizaam (Grol & Wensing, 2001), waardoor patiënten niet altijd de optimale zorg krijgen. Een groot aantal factoren heeft hier invloed op. Ze kunnen betrekking hebben op de individuele hulpverlener, de patiënt, de maatschappelijke context, de organisatorische setting, of de richtlijn zelf (Cabana e.a., 1999; Grol & Grimshaw, 2003; Peters e.a., 2003). * Drs A.H.W. Smolders (1972) is junior-onderzoeker / promovendus bij de Afdeling Kwaliteit van Zorg (wok) van het umc St Radboud te Nijmegen. Adres: Universitair Medisch Centrum St Radboud, Afdeling Kwaliteit van Zorg (code: 117 kwazo), Postbus 9101, 6500 HB Nijmegen E-mail: M.Smolderskwazo.umcn.nl Drs M.G.H. Laurant (1971) is senior-onderzoeker bij de Afdeling Kwaliteit van Zorg (wok) van het umc St Radboud te Nijmegen. Drs D. van Duin (1974), psycholoog, is wetenschappelijk medewerker bij het Trimbosinstituut te Utrecht. De auteurs danken de hulpverleners die deelgenomen hebben aan de interviews voor hun bijdrage aan deze studie. Dr M. Wensing (1967) is universitair hoofddocent bij de Afdeling Kwaliteit van Zorg (wok) van het umc St Radboud te Nijmegen. Prof. dr R.P.T.M. Grol (1946) is hoogleraar kwaliteit van zorg / directeur van de Afdeling Kwaliteit van Zorg (wok) van het umc St Radboud te Nijmegen. De auteurs danken de hulpverleners die deelgenomen hebben aan de interviews voor hun bijdrage aan deze studie.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The effectiveness of nurse-led motivational interviewing (MI) in routine diabetes care in general practice is inconclusive. Knowledge about the extent to which nurses apply MI skills and the factors that affect the usage can help to understand the black box of this intervention. The current study compared MI skills of trained versus non-trained general practice nurses in diabetes consultations. The nurses participated in a cluster randomized trial in which a comprehensive program (including MI training) was tested on improving clinical parameters, lifestyle, patients' readiness to change lifestyle, and quality of life. METHODS: Fifty-eight general practices were randomly assigned to usual care (35 nurses) or the intervention (30 nurses). The ratings of applying 24 MI skills (primary outcome) were based on five consultation recordings per nurse at baseline and 14 months later. Two judges evaluated independently the MI skills and the consultation characteristics time, amount of nurse communication, amount of lifestyle discussion and patients' readiness to change. The effect of the training on the MI skills was analysed with a multilevel linear regression by comparing baseline and the one-year follow-up between the interventions with usual care group. The overall effect of the consultation characteristics on the MI skills was studied in a multilevel regression analyses. RESULTS: At one year follow up, it was demonstrated that the nurses improved on 2 of the 24 MI skills, namely, "inviting the patient to talk about behaviour change" (mean difference=0.39, p=0.009), and "assessing patient's confidence in changing their lifestyle" (mean difference=0.28, p=0.037). Consultation time and the amount of lifestyle discussion as well as the patients' readiness to change health behaviour was associated positively with applying MI skills. CONCLUSIONS: The maintenance of the MI skills one year after the training program was minimal. The question is whether the success of MI to change unhealthy behaviour must be doubted, whether the technique is less suitable for patients with a complex chronic disease, such as diabetes mellitus, or that nurses have problems with the acquisition and maintenance of MI skills in daily practice. Overall, performing MI skills during consultation increases, if there is more time, more lifestyle discussion, and the patients show more readiness to change.Trial registration: Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN68707773.
BMC Family Practice 03/2013; 14(1):44. · 1.61 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The patient-centered medical home is a US model for comprehensive care. This model features a personal physician or registered nurse who is augmented by a proactive team and information technology. Such a model could prove useful for advanced European systems as they strive to improve primary care, particularly for chronically ill patients. We surveyed 6,428 chronically ill patients and 152 primary care providers in five European countries to assess aspects of the patient-centered medical home. Although most patients reported that they had a personal physician and no problems in contacting the practice after hours, for example, other aspects of the patient-centered medical home, such as provision of written self-management support to patients, were not as widespread. We conclude that despite strong organizational structures, European primary care systems need additional efforts to recognize chronically ill patients as partners in care and can embrace patient-centered medical homes to improve care for European patients.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Many strategies have been designed and evaluated to address poor hand hygiene compliance. Unfortunately, well-designed economic evaluations of hand hygiene improvement strategies are lacking. OBJECTIVE: To compare the cost-effectiveness of two successful implementation strategies for improving nurses' hand hygiene compliance and reducing hospital acquired infections (HAI's). DESIGN AND SETTING: A cost-effectiveness analysis alongside a cluster randomised controlled trial was conducted in 67 nursing wards of three hospitals in the Netherlands. The evaluation used a hospital perspective. PARTICIPANTS: All affiliated nurses of the nursing wards. Wards were randomly assigned to either the control group (n=30) or the experimental group (n=37). METHODS: The control group received a state-of-the-art strategy including education, reminders feedback and optimising materials and facilities. The experimental group received a team and leaders-directed strategy which included all elements of the state-of-the-art strategy supplemented with interventions aimed at the social context of teams and enhancing leadership. The most efficient implementation strategy was determined by the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio per extra percentage of hand hygiene compliance gained and the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio per additional percentage reduction in the HAI rate. Bootstrap methods were used to determine confidence intervals for these incremental cost-effectiveness ratio's. Two scenarios of 15 and 30% were used to express the association between increased hand hygiene compliance and the reduction in HAIs. RESULTS: The team and leaders-directed strategy was significantly more effective in improving hand hygiene compliance. The mean difference effect was 8.91% (95% CI, 0.75-17.06). This extra increase was achieved at an average cost of €5497 per ward. The incremental cost per extra percentage of hand hygiene gained on ward level was €622. The incremental cost per additional percentage reduction in the HAI rate on ward level was €2074 (30% scenario) and €4125 (15% scenario). Within the 30% scenario, there is a probability of 90% that the team and leaders-directed strategy is cost-effective and within the 15% scenario, there is a probability of 70% that the team and leaders-directed strategy is cost-effective. CONCLUSIONS: Optimising hand hygiene compliance through a team and leaders-directed strategy is cost-effective as compared to a state-of-the-art strategy.
International journal of nursing studies 12/2012; · 1.91 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: STUDY QUESTION: Is optimal adherence to guideline recommendations in intrauterine insemination (IUI) care cost-effective from a societal perspective when compared with suboptimal adherence to guideline recommendations? SUMMARY ANSWER: Optimal guideline adherence in IUI care has substantial economic benefits when compared with suboptimal guideline adherence. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Fertility guidelines are tools to help health-care professionals, and patients make better decisions about clinically effective, safe and cost-effective care. Up to now, there has been limited published evidence about the association between guideline adherence and cost-effectiveness in fertility care. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: In a retrospective cohort study involving medical record analysis and a patient survey (n = 415), interviews with staff members (n = 13) and a review of hospitals' financial department reports and literature, data were obtained about patient characteristics, process aspects and clinical outcomes of IUI care and resources consumed. In the cost-effectiveness analyses, restricted to four relevant guideline recommendations, the ongoing pregnancy rate per couple (effectiveness), the average medical and non-medical costs of IUI care, possible additional IVF treatment, pregnancy, delivery and period from birth up to 6 weeks after birth for both mother and offspring per couple (costs) and the incremental net monetary benefits were calculated to investigate if optimal guideline adherence is cost-effective from a societal perspective when compared with suboptimal guideline adherence. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: Seven hundred and sixty five of 1100 randomly selected infertile couples from the databases of the fertility laboratories of 10 Dutch hospitals, including 1 large university hospital providing tertiary care and 9 public hospitals providing secondary care, were willing to participate, but 350 couples were excluded because of ovulatory disorders or the use of donated spermatozoa (n = 184), still ongoing IUI treatment (n = 143) or no access to their medical records (n = 23). As a result, 415 infertile couples who started a total of 1803 IUI cycles were eligible for the cost-effectiveness analyses. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: Optimal adherence to the guideline recommendations about sperm quality, the total number of IUI cycles and dose of human chorionic gonadotrophin was cost-effective with an incremental net monetary benefit between € 645 and over € 7500 per couple, depending on the recommendation and assuming a willingness to pay € 20 000 for an ongoing pregnancy. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION: Because not all recommendations applied to all 415 included couples, smaller groups were left for some of the cost-effectiveness analyses, and one integrated analysis with all recommendations within one model was impossible. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS: Optimal guideline adherence in IUI care has substantial economic benefits when compared with suboptimal guideline adherence. For Europe, where over 144 000 IUI cycles are initiated each year to treat ∼32 000 infertile couples, this could mean a possible cost saving of at least 20 million euro yearly. Therefore, it is valuable to make an effort to improve guideline development and implementation. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S): This study was supported financially by the Netherlands Organisation for Health Research and Development, Grant No. 945-12-012, The Hague, The Netherlands. The funding source had no involvement in the study. The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: STUDY QUESTION: What is the relationship between the rate of elective single-embryo transfer (eSET) and couples' exposure to different elements of a multifaceted implementation strategy? SUMMARY ANSWER: Additional elements in a multifaceted implementation strategy do not result in an increased eSET rate. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: A multifaceted eSET implementation strategy with four different elements is effective in increasing the eSET rate by 11%. It is unclear whether every strategy element contributes equally to the strategy's effectiveness. STUDY DESIGN AND SIZE: An observational study was performed among 222 subfertile couples included in a previously performed randomized controlled trial. PARTICIPANTS, SETTINGSAND METHODS: Of the 222 subfertile couples included, 109 couples received the implementation strategy and 113 couples received standard IVF care. A multivariate regression analysis assessed the effectiveness of four different strategy elements on the decision about the number embryos to be transferred. Questionnaires evaluated the experiences of couples with the different elements. MAIN RESULTS AND ROLE OF CHANCE: Of the couples who received the implementation strategy, almost 50% (52/109) were exposed to all the four elements of the strategy. The remaining 57 couples who received two or three elements of the strategy could be divided into two further classes of exposure. Our analysis demonstrated that additional elements do not result in an increased eSET rate. In addition to the physician's advice, couples rated a decision aid and a counselling session as more important for their decision to transfer one or two embryos, compared with a phone call and a reimbursement offer (P < 0.001). LIMITATIONS AND REASONS FOR CAUTION: The differences in eSET rate between exposure groups failed to reach significance, probably because of the small numbers of couples in each exposure group. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS: Adding more elements to an implementation strategy does not always result in an increased effectiveness, which is in concordance with recent literature. This in-depth evaluation of a multifaceted intervention strategy could therefore help to modify strategies, by making them more effective and less expensive. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTERESTS: There are no funding sources or competing interests to be declared.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Primary care has an important role in cardiovascular risk management (CVRM) and a minimum size of scale of primary care practices may be needed for efficient delivery of CVRM . We examined CVRM in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) in primary care and explored the impact of practice size. METHODS: In an observational study in 8 countries we sampled CHD patients in primary care practices and collected data from electronic patient records. Practice samples were stratified according to practice size and urbanisation; patients were selected using coded diagnoses when available. CVRM was measured on the basis of internationally validated quality indicators. In the analyses practice size was defined in terms of number of patients registered of visiting the practice. We performed multilevel regression analyses controlling for patient age and sex. RESULTS: We included 181 practices (63% of the number targeted). Two countries included a convenience sample of practices. Data from 2960 CHD patients were available. Some countries used methods supplemental to coded diagnoses or other inclusion methods introducing potential inclusion bias. We found substantial variation on all CVRM indicators across practices and countries. We computed aggregated practice scores as percentage of patients with a positive outcome. Rates of risk factor recording varied from 55% for physical activity as the mean practice score across all practices (sd 32%) to 94% (sd 10%) for blood pressure. Rates for reaching treatment targets for systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure and LDL cholesterol were 46% (sd 21%), 86% (sd 12%) and 48% (sd 22%) respectively. Rates for providing recommended cholesterol lowering and antiplatelet drugs were around 80%, and 70% received influenza vaccination. Practice size was not associated to indicator scores with one exception: in Slovenia larger practices performed better. Variation was more related to differences between practices than between countries. CONCLUSIONS: CVRM measured by quality indicators showed wide variation within and between countries and possibly leaves room for improvement in all countries involved. Few associations of performance scores with practice size were found.
BMC Family Practice 10/2012; 13(1):96. · 1.61 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Evidence for pay-for-performance (P4P) has been searched for in the last decade as financial incentives increased to influence behaviour of health care professionals to improve quality of care. The effectiveness of P4P is inconclusive, though some reviews reported significant effects. OBJECTIVE: To assess changes in performance after introducing a participatory P4P program. DESIGN: An observational study with a pre- and post-measurement.Setting and subjects.Sixty-five general practices in the south of the Netherlands.Intervention.A P4P program designed by target users containing indicators for chronic care, prevention, practice management and patient experience (general practitioner's [GP] functioning and organization of care). Quality indicators were calculated for each practice. A bonus with a maximum of 6890 Euros per 1000 patients was determined by comparing practice performance with a benchmark. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Quality indicators for clinical care (process and outcome) and patient experience. RESULTS: We included 60 practices. After 1 year, significant improvement was shown for the process indicators for all chronic conditions ranging from +7.9% improvement for cardiovascular risk management to +11.5% for asthma. Five outcome indicators significantly improved as well as patients' experiences with GP's functioning and organization of care. No significant improvements were seen for influenza vaccination rate and the cervical cancer screening uptake. The clinical process and outcome indicators, as well as patient experience indicators were affected by baseline measures. Smaller practices showed more improvement. CONCLUSIONS: A participatory P4P program might stimulate quality improvement in clinical care and improve patient experiences with GP's functioning and the organization of care.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Many strategies have been designed and evaluated to address the problem of low hand hygiene (HH) compliance. Which of these strategies are most effective and how they work is still unclear. Here we describe frequently used improvement strategies and related determinants of behaviour change that prompt good HH behaviour to provide a better overview of the choice and content of such strategies. METHODS: Systematic searches of experimental and quasi-experimental research on HH improvement strategies were conducted in Medline, Embase, CINAHL, and Cochrane databases from January 2000 to November 2009. First, we extracted the study characteristics using the EPOC Data Collection Checklist, including study objectives, setting, study design, target population, outcome measures, description of the intervention, analysis, and results. Second, we used the Taxonomy of Behavioural Change Techniques to identify targeted determinants. RESULTS: We reviewed 41 studies. The most frequently addressed determinants were knowledge, awareness, action control, and facilitation of behaviour. Fewer studies addressed social influence, attitude, self-efficacy, and intention. Thirteen studies used a controlled design to measure the effects of HH improvement strategies on HH behaviour. The effectiveness of the strategies varied substantially, but most controlled studies showed positive results. The median effect size of these strategies increased from 17.6 (relative difference) addressing one determinant to 49.5 for the studies that addressed five determinants. CONCLUSIONS: By focussing on determinants of behaviour change, we found hidden and valuable components in HH improvement strategies. Addressing only determinants such as knowledge, awareness, action control, and facilitation is not enough to change HH behaviour. Addressing combinations of different determinants showed better results. This indicates that we should be more creative in the application of alternative improvement activities addressing determinants such as social influence, attitude, self-efficacy, or intention.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Improving hand hygiene compliance is still a major challenge for most hospitals. Innovative approaches are needed. OBJECTIVE: We tested whether an innovative, theory based, team and leaders-directed strategy would be more effective in increasing hand hygiene compliance rates in nurses than a literature based state-of-the-art strategy. DESIGN AND SETTING: A cluster randomised controlled trial called HELPING HANDS was conducted in 67 nursing wards of three hospitals in the Netherlands. PARTICIPANTS: All affiliated nurses of the nursing wards. Wards were randomly assigned to either the team and leaders-directed strategy (30 wards) or the state-of-the-art strategy (37 wards). METHODS: The control arm received a state-of-the-art strategy including education, reminders, feedback and targeting adequate products and facilities. The experimental group received all elements of the state-of-the-art strategy supplemented with interventions based on social influence and leadership, comprising specific team and leaders-directed activities. Strategies were delivered during a period of six months. We monitored nurses' HH compliance during routine patient care before and directly after strategy delivery, as well as six months later. Secondary outcomes were compliance with each type of hand hygiene opportunity, the presence of jewellery and whether the nurses wore long-sleeved clothes. The effects were evaluated on an intention-to-treat basis by comparing the post-strategy hand hygiene compliance rates with the baseline rates. Multilevel analysis was applied to compensate for the clustered nature of the data using mixed linear modelling techniques. RESULTS: During the study, we observed 10,785 opportunities for appropriate hand hygiene in 2733 nurses. The compliance in the state-of-the-art group increased from 23% to 42% in the short term and to 46% in the long run. The hand hygiene compliance in the team and leaders-directed group improved from 20% to 53% in the short term and remained 53% in the long run. The difference between both strategies showed an Odds Ratio of 1.64 (95% CI 1.33-2.02) in favour of the team and leaders-directed strategy. CONCLUSIONS: Our results support the added value of social influence and enhanced leadership in hand hygiene improvement strategies. The methodology of the latter also seems promising for improving team performance with other patient safety issues. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov [NCT00548015].
International journal of nursing studies 08/2012; · 1.91 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: CONTEXT: The apparent inconsistency between the widespread use of quality improvement collaboratives and the available evidence heightens the importance of thoroughly understanding the relative strength of the approach. More insight into factors influencing outcome would mean future collaboratives could be tailored in ways designed to increase their chances of success. This review describes potential determinants of team success and how they relate to effectiveness. METHOD: We searched Medline, CINAHL, Embase, Cochrane, and PsycINFO databases from January 1995 to June 2006. The 1995-2006 search was updated in June 2009. Reference lists of included papers were reviewed to identify additional papers. We included papers that were written in English, contained data about the effectiveness of collaboratives, had a healthcare setting, met our definition for collaborative, and quantitatively assessed a relationship between any determinant and any effect parameter. FINDINGS: Of 1367 abstracts identified, 23 papers (reporting on 26 collaboratives) provided information on potential determinants and their relationship with effectiveness. We categorised potential determinants of success using the definition for collaboratives as a template. Numerous potential determinants were tested, but only a few related to empirical effectiveness. Some aspects of teamwork and participation in specific collaborative activities enhanced short-term success. If teams remained intact and continued to gather data, chances of long-term success were higher. There is no empirical evidence of positive effects of leadership support, time and resources. CONCLUSIONS: These outcomes provide guidance to organisers, participants and researchers of collaboratives. To advance knowledge in this area we propose a more systematic exploration of potential determinants by applying theory and practice-based knowledge and by performing methodologically sound studies that clearly set out to test such determinants.