[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The design, synthesis, X-ray crystal structure, molecular modeling, and biological evaluation of a series of new generation SARS-CoV PLpro inhibitors are described. A new lead compound 3 (6577871) was identified via high-throughput screening of a diverse chemical library. Subsequently, we carried out lead optimization and structure-activity studies to provide a series of improved inhibitors that show potent PLpro inhibition and antiviral activity against SARS-CoV infected Vero E6 cells. Interestingly, the (S)-Me inhibitor 15 h (enzyme IC(50) = 0.56 microM; antiviral EC(50) = 9.1 microM) and the corresponding (R)-Me 15 g (IC(50) = 0.32 microM; antiviral EC(50) = 9.1 microM) are the most potent compounds in this series, with nearly equivalent enzymatic inhibition and antiviral activity. A protein-ligand X-ray structure of 15 g-bound SARS-CoV PLpro and a corresponding model of 15 h docked to PLpro provide intriguing molecular insight into the ligand-binding site interactions.
Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 07/2010; 53(13):4968-79. · 5.48 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Coronaviruses encode multifunctional proteins that are critical for viral replication and for blocking the innate immune response to viral infection. One such multifunctional domain is the coronavirus papain-like protease (PLP), which processes the viral replicase polyprotein, has deubiquitinating (DUB) activity, and antagonizes the induction of type I interferon (IFN). Here we characterized the DUB and IFN antagonism activities of the PLP domains of human coronavirus NL63 and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus to determine if DUB activity mediates interferon antagonism. We found that NL63 PLP2 deconjugated ubiquitin (Ub) and the Ub-line molecule ISG15 from cellular substrates and processed both lysine-48- and lysine-63- linked polyubiquitin chains. This PLP2 DUB activity was dependent on an intact catalytic cysteine residue. We demonstrated that in contrast to PLP2 DUB activity, PLP2-mediated interferon antagonism did not require enzymatic activity. Furthermore, addition of an inhibitor that blocks coronavirus protease/DUB activity did not abrogate interferon antagonism. These results indicated that a component of coronavirus PLP-mediated interferon antagonism was independent of protease and DUB activity. Overall, these results demonstrate the multifunctional nature of the coronavirus PLP domain as a viral protease, DUB, and IFN antagonist and suggest that these independent activities may provide multiple targets for antiviral therapies.
Journal of Virology 02/2010; 84(9):4619-29. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We describe here the design, synthesis, molecular modeling, and biological evaluation of a series of small molecule, nonpeptide inhibitors of SARS-CoV PLpro. Our initial lead compound was identified via high-throughput screening of a diverse chemical library. We subsequently carried out structure-activity relationship studies and optimized the lead structure to potent inhibitors that have shown antiviral activity against SARS-CoV infected Vero E6 cells. Upon the basis of the X-ray crystal structure of inhibitor 24-bound to SARS-CoV PLpro, a drug design template was created. Our structure-based modification led to the design of a more potent inhibitor, 2 (enzyme IC(50) = 0.46 microM; antiviral EC(50) = 6 microM). Interestingly, its methylamine derivative, 49, displayed good enzyme inhibitory potency (IC(50) = 1.3 microM) and the most potent SARS antiviral activity (EC(50) = 5.2 microM) in the series. We have carried out computational docking studies and generated a predictive 3D-QSAR model for SARS-CoV PLpro inhibitors.
Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 08/2009; 52(16):5228-40. · 5.48 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report the discovery and optimization of a potent inhibitor against the papain-like protease (PLpro) from the coronavirus that causes severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV). This unique protease is not only responsible for processing the viral polyprotein into its functional units but is also capable of cleaving ubiquitin and ISG15 conjugates and plays a significant role in helping SARS-CoV evade the human immune system. We screened a structurally diverse library of 50,080 compounds for inhibitors of PLpro and discovered a noncovalent lead inhibitor with an IC(50) value of 20 microM, which was improved to 600 nM via synthetic optimization. The resulting compound, GRL0617, inhibited SARS-CoV viral replication in Vero E6 cells with an EC(50) of 15 microM and had no associated cytotoxicity. The X-ray structure of PLpro in complex with GRL0617 indicates that the compound has a unique mode of inhibition whereby it binds within the S4-S3 subsites of the enzyme and induces a loop closure that shuts down catalysis at the active site. These findings provide proof-of-principle that PLpro is a viable target for development of antivirals directed against SARS-CoV, and that potent noncovalent cysteine protease inhibitors can be developed with specificity directed toward pathogenic deubiquitinating enzymes without inhibiting host DUBs.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 11/2008; 105(42):16119-24. · 9.81 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recently, we designed a series of novel HIV-1 protease inhibitors incorporating a stereochemically defined bicyclic fused cyclopentyl (Cp-THF) urethane as the high affinity P2-ligand. Inhibitor with this P2-ligand has shown very impressive potency against multi-drug-resistant clinical isolates. Based upon the -bound HIV-1 protease X-ray structure, we have now designed and synthesized a number of meso-bicyclic ligands which can conceivably interact similarly to the Cp-THF ligand. The design of meso-ligands is quite attractive as they do not contain any stereocenters. Inhibitors incorporating urethanes of bicyclic-1,3-dioxolane and bicyclic-1,4-dioxane have shown potent enzyme inhibitory and antiviral activities. Inhibitor (K(i) = 0.11 nM; IC(50) = 3.8 nM) displayed very potent antiviral activity in this series. While inhibitor showed comparable enzyme inhibitory activity (K(i) = 0.18 nM) its antiviral activity (IC(50) = 170 nM) was significantly weaker than inhibitor . Inhibitor maintained an antiviral potency against a series of multi-drug resistant clinical isolates comparable to amprenavir. A protein-ligand X-ray structure of -bound HIV-1 protease revealed a number of key hydrogen bonding interactions at the S2-subsite. We have created an active model of inhibitor based upon this X-ray structure.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A convenient optically active synthesis of (3aS,5R,6aR)-5-hydroxy-hexahydrocyclopenta[b]furan, a high-affinity nonpeptidyl ligand for HIV protease inhibitor 2, is described. The synthesis utilizes commercially available (1R,5S)-(+)-2-oxabicyclo[3.3.0]oct-6-en-3-one as the starting material and oxymercuration or bromohydrin reaction as the key step. Enantiopure ligand was converted to protease inhibitor 2.