Ronald J Mandel

Van Andel Research Institute, Grand Rapids, Michigan, United States

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Publications (71)401.01 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Intrastriatal injection of recombinant adeno-associated viral vector serotype 2/1 (rAAV2/1) to overexpress the neurotrophic factor pleiotrophin (PTN) provides neuroprotection for tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive (THir) neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc), increases THir neurite density in the striatum (ST) and reverses functional deficits in forepaw use following 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) toxic insult. Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) gene transfer studies suggest that optimal neuroprotection is dependent on the site of nigrostriatal overexpression. The present study was conducted to determine whether enhanced neuroprotection could be accomplished via simultaneous rAAV2/1 PTN injections into the ST and SN compared with ST injections alone. Rats were unilaterally injected in the ST alone or injected in both the ST and SN with rAAV2/1 expressing either PTN or control vector. Four weeks later, all rats received intrastriatal injections of 6-OHDA. Rats were euthanized 6 or 16 weeks relative to 6-OHDA injection. A novel selective total enumeration method to estimate nigral THir neuron survival was validated to maintain the accuracy of stereological assessment. Long-term nigrostriatal neuroprotection and functional benefits were only observed in rats in which rAAV2/1 PTN was injected into the ST alone. Results suggest that superior preservation of the nigrostriatal system is provided by PTN overexpression delivered to the ST and restricted to the ST and SN pars reticulata and is not improved with overexpression of PTN within SNpc neurons.Gene Therapy advance online publication, 8 May 2014; doi:10.1038/gt.2014.42.
    Gene therapy 05/2014; · 4.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The field of in vivo gene therapy has matured to the point where there are numerous clinical trials underway including late-stage clinical trials. Several viral vectors are especially efficient and support lifetime protein expression in the brain and a number of clinical trials are underway for various progressive or chronic neurological disorders including Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, and Batten's disease. To date, however, none of the vectors in clinical use have any direct way to reverse or control their transgene product in the event continued protein expression should become problematic. Several schemes that use elements within the vector design have been developed that allow an external drug or pro-drug to alter ongoing protein expression after in vivo gene transfer. The most promising and most studied regulated protein expression methods for in vivo gene transfer are reviewed. In addition, potential scientific and clinical advantages of transgene regulation for gene therapy are discussed.
    Neurobiology of Disease 03/2012; 48(2):212-21. · 5.62 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Neurotrophic factors are integrally involved in the development of the nigrostriatal system and in combination with gene therapy, possess great therapeutic potential for Parkinson's disease (PD). Pleiotrophin (PTN) is involved in the development, maintenance, and repair of the nigrostriatal dopamine (DA) system. The present study examined the ability of striatal PTN overexpression, delivered via psueudotyped recombinant adeno-associated virus type 2/1 (rAAV2/1), to provide neuroprotection and functional restoration from 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA). Striatal PTN overexpression led to significant neuroprotection of tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive (THir) neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) and THir neurite density in the striatum, with long-term PTN overexpression producing recovery from 6-OHDA-induced deficits in contralateral forelimb use. Transduced striatal PTN levels were increased threefold compared to adult striatal PTN expression and approximated peak endogenous developmental levels (P1). rAAV2/1 vector exclusively transduced neurons within the striatum and SNpc with approximately half the total striatal volume routinely transduced using our injection parameters. Our results indicate that striatal PTN overexpression can provide neuroprotection for the 6-OHDA lesioned nigrostriatal system based upon morphological and functional measures and that striatal PTN levels similar in magnitude to those expressed in the striatum during development are sufficient to provide neuroprotection from Parkinsonian insult.
    Molecular Therapy 03/2012; 20(3):544-54. · 6.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recent studies have implicated an N-terminal caspase-6 cleavage product of mutant huntingtin (htt) as an important mediator of toxicity in Huntington's disease (HD). To directly assess the consequences of such fragments on neurologic function, we produced transgenic mice that express a caspase-6 length N-terminal fragment of mutant htt (N586) with both normal (23Q) and disease (82Q) length glutamine repeats. In contrast to mice expressing N586-23Q, mice expressing N586-82Q accumulate large cytoplasmic inclusion bodies that can be visualized with antibodies to epitopes throughout the N586 protein. However, biochemical analyses of aggregated mutant huntingtin in these mice demonstrated that the inclusion bodies are composed largely of a much smaller htt fragment (terminating before residue 115), with lesser amounts of full-length N586-82Q fragments. Mice expressing the N586-82Q fragment show symptoms typical of previously generated mice expressing mutant huntingtin fragments, including failure to maintain weight, small brain weight and reductions in specific mRNAs in the striatum. Uniquely, these N586-82Q mice develop a progressive movement disorder that includes dramatic deficits in motor performance on the rotarod and ataxia. Our findings suggest that caspase-6-derived fragments of mutant htt are capable of inducing novel HD-related phenotypes, but these fragments are not terminal cleavage products as they are subject to further proteolysis. In this scenario, mutant htt fragments derived from caspase 6, or possibly other proteases, could mediate HD pathogenesis via a 'hit and run' type of mechanism in which caspase-6, or other larger N-terminal fragments, mediate a neurotoxic process before being cleaved to a smaller fragment that accumulates pathologically.
    Human Molecular Genetics 07/2011; 20(14):2770-82. · 6.68 Impact Factor
  • Fredric P Manfredsson, Ronald J Mandel
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    ABSTRACT: The use of recombinant lentiviral vectors (rLV) is emerging as a viable candidate for clinical gene therapy of the central nervous system. New generation vectors are being produced while addressing viral safety concerns as well as production capabilities. Furthermore, the ability to combine envelope proteins targeting specific cell types with specific promoters guiding the expression of the genetic payload will allow researchers and clinicians to precisely guide transgene expression to anatomically and phenotypically distinct populations of cells. In a recent issue of Experimental Neurology, Cannon and colleagues demonstrate the ability to transduce specific populations of cells in the rat midbrain by using differently pseudotyped lentiviral vectors which results in significant differences in transgene spread throughout the nigrostriatal tract. These results highlight the potential utility of rLV in clinical applications as well as in research involving neurodegenerative disease.
    Experimental Neurology 03/2011; 229(2):201-6. · 4.62 Impact Factor
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    Ronald J Mandel, Pedro R Lowenstein, Barry J Byrne
    Molecular Therapy 02/2011; 19(2):231-3. · 6.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The discovery of the gene mutation responsible for Huntington's disease (HD), huntingtin, in 1993 allowed for a better understanding of the pathology of and enabled the development of animal models. HD is caused by the expansion of a polyglutamine repeat region in the N-terminal of the huntingtin protein. Here we examine the behavioral, transcriptional, histopathological and anatomical characteristics of a knock-in HD mouse model with a 140 polyglutamine expansion in the huntingtin protein. This CAG 140 model contains a portion of the human exon 1 with 140 CAG repeats knocked into the mouse huntingtin gene. We have longitudinally examined the rearing behavior, accelerating rotarod, constant speed rotarod and gait for age-matched heterozygote, homozygote and non-transgenic mice and have found a significant difference in the afflicted mice. However, while there were significant differences between the non-transgenic and the knock-in mice, these behaviors were not progressive. As in HD, we show that the CAG 140 mice also have a significant decrease in striatally enriched mRNA transcripts. In addition, striatal neuronal intranuclear inclusion density increases with age. Lastly these CAG 140 mice show slight cortical thinning compared to non-transgenic mice, similarly to the cortical thinning recently reported in HD.
    Experimental Neurology 12/2010; 228(2):173-82. · 4.62 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present genetic evidence that an in vivo role of α-synuclein (α-syn) is to inhibit phospholipase D2 (PLD2), an enzyme that is believed to participate in vesicle trafficking, membrane signaling, and both endo- and exocytosis. Overexpression of PLD2 in rat substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) caused severe neurodegeneration of dopamine (DA) neurons, loss of striatal DA, and an associated ipsilateral amphetamine-induced rotational asymmetry. Coexpression of human wild type α-syn suppressed PLD2 neurodegeneration, DA loss, and amphetamine-induced rotational asymmetry. However, an α-syn mutant defective for inhibition of PLD2 in vitro also failed to inhibit PLD toxicity in vivo. Further, reduction of PLD2 activity in SNc, either by siRNA knockdown of PLD2 or overexpression of α-syn, both produced an unusual contralateral amphetamine-induced rotational asymmetry, opposite to that seen with overexpression of PLD2, suggesting that PLD2 and α-syn were both involved in DA release or reuptake. Finally, α-syn coimmunoprecipitated with PLD2 from extracts prepared from striatal tissues. Taken together, our data demonstrate that α-syn is an inhibitor of PLD2 in vivo, and confirm earlier reports that α-syn inhibits PLD2 in vitro. Our data also demonstrate that it is possible to use viral-mediated gene transfer to study gene interactions in vivo.
    Molecular Therapy 10/2010; 18(10):1758-68. · 6.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Two small-interfering RNAs (siRNAs) targeting alpha-synuclein (alpha-syn) and three control siRNAs were cloned in an adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector and unilaterally injected into rat substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc). Reduction of alpha-syn resulted in a rapid (4 week) reduction in the number of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) positive cells and striatal dopamine (DA) on the injected side. The level of neurodegeneration induced by the different siRNAs correlated with their ability to downregulate alpha-syn protein and mRNA in tissue culture and in vivo. Examination of various SNc neuronal markers indicated that neurodegeneration was due to cell loss and not just downregulation of DA synthesis. Reduction of alpha-syn also resulted in a pronounced amphetamine induced behavioral asymmetry consistent with the level of neurodegeneration. In contrast, none of the three control siRNAs, which targeted genes not normally expressed in SNc, showed evidence of neurodegeneration or behavioral asymmetry, even at longer survival times. Moreover, co-expression of both rat alpha-syn and alpha-syn siRNA partially reversed the neurodegenerative and behavioral effects of alpha-syn siRNA alone. Our data show that alpha-syn plays an important role in the rat SNc and suggest that both up- and downregulation of wild-type alpha-syn expression increase the risk of nigrostriatal pathology.
    Molecular Therapy 08/2010; 18(8):1450-7. · 6.43 Impact Factor
  • Ronald J Mandel
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    ABSTRACT: To date, only five drugs have been approved for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD); however, these agents impact the symptoms rather than the progression of the disease. It is well established that nerve growth factor (NGF) enhances the function and survival of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons that are vulnerable in AD. However, NGF does not cross the blood-brain barrier, and intraventricular NGF injections in animals and humans were associated with significant side effects. Adeno-associated virus (AAV)-based gene delivery is a novel technology being developed for administration of NGF to the brain to treat AD symptoms and progression. Indeed, the efficacy of ex vivo gene delivery was demonstrated in patients with AD who experienced improvements in cerebral metabolism and cognition compared with pre-operative function without adverse events. CERE-110 (AAV2-NGF), under development by Ceregene Inc, is an AAV serotype 2-based vector expressing human NGF delivered to the nucleus basalis of Meynert by stereotactic injection for the treatment of AD. Animal studies have established the preclinical efficacy of CERE-110, revealing an excellent safety profile. CERE-110 has passed phase I clinical testing and a multicenter phase II clinical trial has commenced. CERE-110 is a promising candidate for the treatment of AD.
    Current opinion in molecular therapeutics 04/2010; 12(2):240-7. · 3.42 Impact Factor
  • Fredric P Manfredsson, Ronald J Mandel
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    ABSTRACT: Given improvements in viral vector design, production and efficiency of transduction in the central nervous system (CNS), as well as increased knowledge of neuropathological mechanisms in neurological disorders, success in treating a CNS disorder with gene transfer seems inevitable. Several different vector systems have been studied extensively and the adeno-associated viral vector system has been utilized in most early stage clinical trials in neurological disorders. Other vector systems, such as lentivirus, adenovirus, and herpes simplex virus are also viable vector platforms that should fill significant clinical niches based on their specific characteristics. In addition to the choice of the appropriate vector, the proper choice of transgene for the appropriate strategy to treat a neurological disorder is also critical. The example of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor ligands to treat Parkinson's disease is used to illustrate the importance of the interface between interpretation of pre-clinical data and consideration of the natural history of the disorder. This interface dictates the proper design of clinical trials that are capable of testing whether the treatment is actually successful.
    Discovery medicine 03/2010; 9(46):204-11. · 3.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) family of ligands (GDFLs) as well as other trophic factors have, in animal models of Parkinson's disease (PD), demonstrated the potential for excellent ameliorative properties. Clinical trials that have mechanically injected GDNF intracerebrally, while demonstrating relative safety, have been clinically disappointing to date. Likewise, recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) delivered neurturin (cere-120) has also been demonstrated to be safe in humans, however clinical results have been negative. The failure of the major clinical trials has cast some doubt in the field about trophic factor delivery for the treatment of PD. In this review, we make the case that GDFLs are likely to function only when there are remaining dopamine neurons in the nigrostriatal pathway as opposed to other candidate modes of action. Thus, it is our view that utilizing earlier stage PD patients who have significant nigrostriatal dopamine innervation remaining would be more ideal to demonstrate the efficacy of GDFLs. This is particularly true when considering a novel delivery method such as gene transfer. However, if earlier stage patients are to be enrolled in GDFL gene transfer trials, then a much better safety profile must be demonstrated by preclinical experiments. One important safety advance might be the use of an external regulation system to control the expression level of the transgene. However, gene regulation systems pose unique safety issues and we will discuss these in detail. It is our view that GDFLs still remain as a promising therapeutic approach for PD.
    Current Gene Therapy 10/2009; 9(5):375-88. · 4.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) gene transfer is being developed as a treatment for Parkinson's disease (PD). Due to the potential for side effects, external transgene regulation should enhance this strategy's safety profile. Here, we demonstrate dynamic control during long-term expression of GDNF using a recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV)-based bicistronic tetracycline (tet)-off construct. Nigrostriatal GDNF overexpression induces body weight alterations in rodents, enabling longitudinal in vivo tracking of GDNF expression after nigral vector delivery. Regulated GDNF expression was highly sensitive to dietary doxycycline (DOX), displaying undetectable striatal GDNF levels at serum DOX levels below those required for antimicrobial activity. However, in the absence of DOX, striatal GDNF levels exceeded levels required for efficacy in PD models. We also demonstrate the absence of a series of known GDNF-associated side effects when using direct intrastriatal vector delivery. Therefore, this single rAAV vector system meets most of the requirements for an experimental reagent for treatment of PD.
    Molecular Therapy 09/2009; 17(11):1857-67. · 6.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We examined the transduction efficiency of different adeno-associated virus (AAV) capsid serotypes encoding for green fluorescent protein (GFP) flanked by AAV2 inverted terminal repeats in the nonhuman primate basal ganglia as a prelude to translational studies, as well as clinical trials in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Six intact young adult cynomolgus monkeys received a single 10 microl injection of AAV2/1-GFP, AAV2/5-GFP, or AAV2/8-GFP pseudotyped vectors into the caudate nucleus and putamen bilaterally in a pattern that resulted in each capsid serotype being injected into at least four striatal sites. GFP immunohistochemistry revealed excellent transduction rates for each AAV pseudotype. Stereological estimates of GFP+ cells within the striatum revealed that AAV2/5-GFP transduces significantly higher number of cells than AAV2/8-GFP (P < 0.05) and there was no significant difference between AAV2/5-GFP and AAV2/1-GFP (P = 0.348). Consistent with this result, Cavalieri estimates revealed that AAV2/5-GFP resulted in a significantly larger transduction volume than AAV2/8-GFP (P < 0.05). Each pseudotype transduced striatal neurons effectively [>95% GFP+ cells colocalized neuron-specific nuclear protein (NeuN)]. The current data suggest that AAV2/5 and AAV2/1 are superior to AAV2/8 for gene delivery to the nonhuman primate striatum and therefore better candidates for therapeutic applications targeting this structure.
    Molecular Therapy 09/2009; 18(3):579-87. · 6.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Viral vector-mediated gene transfer is emerging as a novel therapeutic approach with clinical utility in treatment of Parkinson's disease. Recombinant adeno-associated viral (rAAV) vector in particular has been utilized for continuous l-3,4 dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) delivery by expressing the tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and GTP cyclohydrolase 1 (GCH1) genes which are necessary and sufficient for efficient synthesis of DOPA from dietary tyrosine. The present study was designed to determine the optimal stoichiometric relationship between TH and GCH1 genes for ectopic DOPA production and the cellular machinery involved in its synthesis, storage, and metabolism. For this purpose, we injected a fixed amount of rAAV5-TH vector and increasing amounts of rAAV5-GCH1 into the striatum of rats with complete unilateral dopamine lesion. After 7 weeks the animals were killed for either biochemical or histological analysis. We show that increasing the availability of 5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-l-biopterin (BH4) in the same cellular compartment as the TH enzyme resulted in better efficiency in DOPA synthesis, most likely by hindering inactivation of the enzyme and increasing its stability. Importantly, the BH4 synthesis from ectopic GCH1 expression was saturable, yielding optimal TH enzyme functionality between GCH1 : TH ratios of 1 : 3 and 1 : 7.
    Journal of Neurochemistry 09/2009; 111(2):355-67. · 4.24 Impact Factor
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    Molecular Therapy 04/2009; 17(3):403-5. · 6.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Intraventricular administration of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) in primate and humans to study Parkinson's disease (PD) has revealed the potential for GDNF to induce weight loss. Our previous data indicate that bilateral continuous hypothalamic GDNF overexpression via recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) results in significant failure to gain weight in young rats and weight loss in aged rats. Based on these previous results, we hypothesized that because the nigrostriatal tract passes through the lateral hypothalamus, motor hyperactivity mediated by nigrostriatal dopamine (DA) may have been responsible for the previously observed effect on body weight. In this study, we compared bilateral injections of rAAV2/5-GDNF in hypothalamus versus substantia nigra (SN) in aged Brown-Norway X Fisher 344 rats. Nigrostriatal GDNF overexpression resulted in significantly greater weight loss than rats treated in hypothalamus. The nigral or hypothalamic GDNF-induced weight loss was unrelated to motor activity levels of the rats, though some of the weight loss could be attributed to a transient reduction in food intake. Forebrain DA levels did not account for the observed effects on body weight, although GDNF-induced increases in nucleus accumbens DA may have partially contributed to this effect in the hypothalamic GDNF-treated group. However, only nigrostriatal GDNF overexpression induced activation of phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (p-ERK) in a small population of corticotrophin-releasing factor [corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH)] neurons located specifically in the medial parvocellullar division (MPD) of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus. Activation of these hypothalamic CRH neurons likely accounted for the observed metabolic effects leading to weight loss in obese rats.
    Molecular Therapy 04/2009; 17(6):980-91. · 6.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In vivo gene transfer using viral vectors is an emerging therapy for neurodegenerative diseases with a clinical impact recently demonstrated in Parkinson's disease patients. Recombinant adeno-associated viral (rAAV) vectors, in particular, provide an excellent tool for long-term expression of therapeutic genes in the brain. Here we used the [(11)C]raclopride [(S)-(-)-3,5-dichloro-N-((1-ethyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)methyl)-2-hydroxy-6-methoxybenzamide] micro-positron emission tomography (PET) technique to demonstrate that delivery of the tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and GTP cyclohydrolase 1 (GCH1) enzymes using an rAAV5 vector normalizes the increased [(11)C]raclopride binding in hemiparkinsonian rats. Importantly, we show in vivo by microPET imaging and postmortem by classical binding assays performed in the very same animals that the changes in [(11)C]raclopride after viral vector-based enzyme replacement therapy is attributable to a decrease in the affinity of the tracer binding to the D(2) receptors, providing evidence for reconstitution of a functional pool of endogenous dopamine in the striatum. Moreover, the extent of the normalization in this non-invasive imaging measure was highly correlated with the functional recovery in motor behavior. The PET imaging protocol used in this study is fully adaptable to humans and thus can serve as an in vivo imaging technique to follow TH + GCH1 gene therapy in PD patients and provide an additional objective measure to a potential clinical trial using rAAV vectors to deliver l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylanaline in the brain.
    Journal of Neuroscience 03/2009; 29(5):1544-53. · 6.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) expresses no viral genes after transduction. In addition, because the brain is relatively immunoprivileged, intracranial rAAV transduction may be immunologically benign due to a lack of antigen presentation. However, preexposure to AAV allows neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) to block brain transduction and rAAV readministration in the brain leads to an inflammatory response in the second-injection site. In this study, we replicate our striatal rAAV2/2-GDNF readministration results and extend this effect to a second transgene, green fluorescent protein (GFP). Unlike rAAV2/2-GDNF readministration, striatal rAAV2/2-GFP readministration leads to a loss of transgene in the second site in the absence of detectable circulating nAbs. In order to determine whether the transgene or the AAV2 capsid is the antigenic stimulus in brain for the immune response in the second site, we readministered rAAV2/2-GFP using two different rAAV serotypes (rAAV2/2 followed by rAAV2/5). In this case, there was no striatal inflammation or transgene loss detected in the second-injection site. In addition, striatal readministration of rAAV2/5-GFP also resulted in no detectable immune response. Furthermore, delaying rAAV2/2 striatal readministration to a 11-week interval abrogated the immune response in the second-injection site. Finally, while striatal readministration of rAAV2/2 leads to significant loss of transgene in the second-injection site, this effect is not due to loss of vector genomes as determined by quantitative real-time PCR. We conclude that intracellular processing of AAV capsids after transduction is the immunogenic antigen and capsid serotypes that are processed more quickly than rAAV2/2 are less immunogenic.
    Molecular Therapy 02/2009; 17(3):524-37. · 6.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Huntington's disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by an elongation of CAG repeats in the HD gene, which encodes a mutant copy of huntingtin with an expanded polyglutatmine repeat. Individuals who are affected by the disease suffer from motor, cognitive, and emotional impairments. Levels of certain striatal-enriched mRNAs decrease in both HD patients and transgenic HD mice prior to the development of motor symptoms and neuronal cell death. Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) has been shown to protect neurons against chemically induced toxic insults in vitro and in vivo. To test the hypothesis that CNTF might protect neurons from the negative effects of the mutant huntingtin protein in vivo, CNTF was continuously expressed following transduction of the striatum by recombinant adeno-associated viral vectors (rAAV2). Wild-type and R6/1 HD transgenic (R6/1) mice that received bilateral or unilateral intrastriatal injections of rAAV2-CNTF experienced weight loss. The CNTF-treated R6/1 HD transgenic mice experienced motor impairments at an earlier age than expected compared with age-matched control R6/1 HD transgenic animals. CNTF also caused abnormal behavior in WT mice. In addition to behavioral impairments, in situ hybridization showed that, in both WT and R6/1 mice, CNTF expression caused a significant decrease in the levels of striatal-enriched transcripts. Overall, continuous expression of striatal CNTF at the dose mediated by the expression cassette used in this study was detrimental to HD and wild-type mice.
    Journal of Neuroscience Research 07/2008; 86(8):1748-57. · 2.73 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

3k Citations
401.01 Total Impact Points


  • 2012
    • Van Andel Research Institute
      Grand Rapids, Michigan, United States
  • 2002–2012
    • McKnight Brain Institute
      Gainesville, Florida, United States
  • 2011
    • Michigan State University
      • College of Human Medicine
      East Lansing, MI, United States
  • 2002–2010
    • University of Florida
      • • Department of Neuroscience
      • • Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology
      • • Department of Pediatrics
      Gainesville, FL, United States
  • 2009
    • French National Centre for Scientific Research
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 1990–2009
    • Lund University
      • • Department of Experimental Medical Science
      • • Wallenberg Neuroscience Center
      • • Division of Neurology
      Lund, Skane, Sweden
  • 2008
    • Dalhousie University
      • Department of Pharmacology
      Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada
  • 2007
    • National Institutes of Health
      • Laboratory of Neurogenetics
      Bethesda, MD, United States
  • 2006
    • National Institute on Aging
      • Invertebrate Molecular Genetics Unit
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
  • 2005
    • University of Toronto
      • Department of Medicine
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    • University of Cambridge
      • Department of Psychology
      Cambridge, ENG, United Kingdom
  • 2003
    • University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston
      • Department of Pediatrics
      Galveston, TX, United States