Paul Archier

Université d´Avignon et des Pays du Vaucluse, Avinyó, Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur, France

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Publications (15)23.77 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: A reverse phase liquid chromatography-photodiode array detection method is developed for the characterization of ancient samples of madder. In the past, modifications of the madder chemical composition were carried out by hydrolysing the plant dye precursors in order to increase its red power, the aim of this transformation being to concentrate the red colour of the matter. After extraction of madder dyes in a water-methanol mixture, different anthraquinonic compounds were identified through the chemical constituents present in a garancine sample and in the two madder species growing in the Mediterranean area: Rubia tinctorum and R. peregrina. These two species comprise alizarin, purpurin, lucidin, rubiadin and pseudopurpurin for aglycones and, lucidin primeveroside, ruberythric acid, galiosin and rubiadin primeveroside for heterosidic precursors. These compounds were identified through retention times and UV spectra in comparison with pure standards. Six ancient materials belonging to the collection of the Roure Museum in Avignon (France) and dating from the nineteenth century are characterized as hydrolysed madder (garancine), synthetic alizarin and R. tinctorum roots. A colorimetric study is performed to compare the colour of each sample according to its chemical composition.
    Journal of Cultural Heritage - J CULT HERIT. 01/2011; 12(1):98-104.
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    ABSTRACT: Madder (Rubia tinctorum) has been used since ancient times as a source of pigments for dyeing and painting. Madder dyes are localised in roots and the native chemical population is composed of glycosiled and aglycone compounds. The aim of this study is to elaborate an efficient extraction process without any chemical denaturation of dyes. To compare an optimised ultrasonic process, using for madder dye extraction, with two conventional procedures and to determine the efficiency of ultrasound on these vegetable matrix. Madder roots were extract in a methanol-water mixture in 37 : 63 (v/v) for ultrasound and 80 : 20 (v/v) for reflux and agitation. HPLC-PAD analyses showed the anthraquinone proportion for each extraction process and their denaturing effects. Finally, cytohistological observations were made to show the consequence of each process on the cell organisation in madder roots. The results showed that the amount of extracted dyes was higher with UAE than with agitation and reflux. HPLC-PAD analysis revealed that the anthraquinone composition differed according to the extraction procedure. The UAE extracts presented an important richness in terms of anthraquinonic compounds that suggests a preserving effect. Cytohistological observations showed that the main alterations concerned the cell walls of phloem. After UAE the walls exhibited numerous pitted areas reflecting an ultrasound-induced cavitation that enhances the extraction effectiveness of this method. The study has shown the improvement of madder roots extraction both quantitatively and qualitatively using the efficiency of ultrasound-assisted extraction in comparison with magnetic agitation and reflux techniques.
    Phytochemical Analysis 09/2009; 20(6):484-90. · 2.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction – Madder (Rubia tinctorum) has been used since ancient times as a source of pigments for dyeing and painting. Madder dyes are localised in roots and the native chemical population is composed of glycosiled and aglycone compounds. The aim of this study is to elaborate an e! cient extraction process without any chemical denaturation of dyes. Objective – To compare an optimised ultrasonic process, using for madder dye extraction, with two conventional procedures and to determine the e! ciency of ultrasound on these vegetable matrix. Methodology – Madder roots were extract in a methanol–water mixture in 37 : 63 (v/v) for ultrasound and 80 : 20 (v/v) for reflux and agitation. HPLC-PAD analyses showed the anthraquinone proportion for each extraction process and their denaturing effects. Finally, cytohistological observations were made to show the consequence of each process on the cell organisation in madder roots. Results – The results showed that the amount of extracted dyes was higher with UAE than with agitation and reflux. HPLC-PAD analysis revealed that the anthraquinone composition di# ered according to the extraction procedure. The UAE extracts presented an important richness in terms of anthraquinonic compounds that suggests a preserving effect. Cytohistological observations showed that the main alterations concerned the cell walls of phloem. After UAE the walls exhibited numerous pitted areas reflecting an ultrasound-induced cavitation that enhances the extraction effectiveness of this method. Conclusion – The study has shown the improvement of madder roots extraction both quantitatively and qualitatively using the efficiency of ultrasound-assisted extraction in comparison with magnetic agitation and reflux techniques.
    Phytochemical Analysis 01/2009; 20(6):484-490. · 2.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Four Nabataean samples collected in some of the monumental tombs of Madâ’in Sâlih, ancient Hegra, in Saudi Arabia, have been studied by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. These samples are textile fragments that are either covered with a black layer or bound together with some black amorphous substance. Fatty acids and triterpenoic compounds were detected. Eight triterpenic compounds were identified: ursa-9(11),12-dien-3-ol, ursa-9(11),12-dien-3-one, olean-9(11),12-dien-3β-ol, β-amyrone, β-amyrin, α-amyrone, α-amyrin and lupeol. The resinous chemical composition and these pentacyclic alcohols, in considerable proportion, indicate a resin of the Burseraceae family, possibly of the genus Canarium.
    Archaeometry 09/2008; 51(4):626 - 636. · 1.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: An HPLC and GC study has been conducted on the aromatic oleoresins styrax and benzoin produced by several American, Mediterranean and East-Asian trees, and widely used in ancient civilisations for their therapeutic and odoriferous properties. Initial experiments were performed by HPLC-PAD-fluorimetry for the analysis of several aromatic components, and then completed by GC-MS for the characterisation of both aromatic and triterpenic derivatives. In this work, it was crucial to isolate from fresh natural exudates, and to characterise by two-dimensional NMR, some of the major constituents in order to extend the standard molecular pool prior to chromatographic identifications. This study reveals coniferyl benzoate as an excellent distinctive fluorescent biomarker of Siam benzoin substrate. It also confirms that fluorimetric-coupled detection is a powerful analytical tool for the identification of compounds in Hamamelidaceae extracts that are almost undetectable by UV. GC-MS was successfully applied to the determination of the botanical origin of Sumatra benzoin, and to the identification of lupeol [3beta-lup-20(29)-en-3-ol] for the first time in such balsam-type materials.
    Phytochemical Analysis 08/2008; 19(4):301-10. · 2.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: An extraction method of madder (Rubia tinctorum) roots dyes is established and optimized to obtain the original chemical composition. A central composite design (CCD) was developed to specify the importance of the three major factors studied (time, temperature and solvent composition) affecting the ultrasound-assisted extraction of this matrix. A preliminary granulometric study of madder roots is realized in the aim to determine the optimal particles size corresponding to the best ultrasound effects. A comparison with the classical extraction method of madder dyes by reflux is described. The identification of the constituents of R. tinctorum is carried out by liquid chromatography coupled with a photodiode array detector (LC-PDA). Anthraquinonic aglycone and heterosidic dyes compounds are characterized by retention time and UV spectrum: alizarin (1,2-dihydroxyanthraquinone), purpurin (1,2,4-trihydroxyanthraquinone), lucidin (1,3-dihydroxy-2-hydroxymethylanthraquinone), rubiadin (1,3-dihydroxy-2-methylanthraquinone), xanthopurpurin (1,3-dihydroxyanthraquinone), pseudopurpurin (1,2,4-trihydroxy-3-carboxyanthraquinone), lucidin primeveroside, ruberythric acid (alizarin primeveroside), galiosin (pseudopurpurin primeveroside) and rubiadin primeveroside. The optimal experimental conditions are 18min, 36 degrees C and 37/63 MeOH/H(2)O (v/v).
    Ultrasonics Sonochemistry 07/2008; 16(1):75-82. · 3.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Four archaeological samples, unearthed from Qana in Yemen were analysed by analytical technique, currently applied in the field of petroleum geochemistry, and by gas chromatography coupled with a mass spectrometer (GC-MS). Sample no 1286 comes from a burned warehouse and samples no 964, 963 and 962 from the central sanctuary. These specimens were probably exposed to a heating source. In each case olibanum resin was identified according to the presence of their chemical markers corresponding to alpha- , beta-boswellic and lupeolic acids (3alpha-hydroxy-olean-12-en-24-oic, 3alpha-hydroxy-urs-12-en-24-oic and 3alpha-hydroxy-lup-20(29)en-24-oic acids) and their respective O-acetyled derivatives (3alpha- O-acetyl-olean-12-en-24-oic, 3alpha-O-acetyl-urs-12-en-24-oic and 3-O-acetyl-lup-20(29)-en-24-oic acids). Concerning the thermal degradation state of samples, the GC-MS results are in agreement with the geochemical ones. Sample no 1286 and 964 correspond to ageing incense which has not undergone any heating action and are consequently relatively well preserved. Lastly, samples no 963 and 962 are thermally degraded resins and their gross composition data permits to conclude that sample no 963 is only partially burnt while sample no 962 has been much more degraded.
    Annali di Chimica 08/2007; 97(7):433-45. · 0.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Anthraquinones have been widely employed for dyeing textiles in combination with various mordants. Many papers have dealt with the modification of optical properties induced by the formation of dye complexes under various pH conditions. This paper deals with the characterization of diphenolic intramolecular hydrogen bonding via molecular modeling and cetophenolic interactions by FT-IR spectroscopy to determine their effect on the spectroscopic and chromatographic properties of hydroxyanthraquinones (anthraflavic acid, alizarin, quinizarin and purpurin). The formation of cetophenolic hydrogen bonding induces a substantial bathochromic shift to the visible absorption band. Moreover, it implies that the constitution of hypercyclised aromatic systems is potentially responsible for the fluorescence of quinizarin and purpurin. This study also demonstrates the modification of the chromatographic retention of dihydroxyanthraquinones on apolar stationary phase consequent to the monopolization of polar groups involved in the formation of such interactions.
    Dyes and Pigments. 01/2007;
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    ABSTRACT: Contribution of analytical chemistry to the study of styrax and benzoin botanical exudates. For several resins, gaps in botanical classification and ambiguities in their designation induce difficulties to correlate with precision botanical species and chemical composition. It is the case of balsamic resins called styrax and benzoins, for which there are important linguistic, botanical and chemical confusions. This study by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) of several resinous samples made it possible to specify the chemical and botanical membership of these substances at the origin of many interrogations. It also provided interesting information about the ways to obtain or to transform the resinous matters while evoking the possibility of adulterations or confusions with dammar resin issued from geographically close vegetable species. To cite this article: M. Hovaneissian et al., C. R. Chimie 9 (2006).
    Comptes Rendus Chimie - C R CHIM. 01/2006; 9(9):1192-1202.
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    ABSTRACT: A simple gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method has been developed for the characterization of frankincense in archaeological samples. After trimethylsilylation of the methanolic extract, 15 triterpenoids have been found among the chemical constituents of commercial olibanum (alpha-boswellic acid, 3-O-acetyl-alpha-boswellic acid, beta-boswellic acid, 3-O-acetyl-beta-boswellic acid, alpha-amyrin, beta-amyrin, lupeol, 3-epi-beta-amyrin, 3-epi-beta-amyrin, 3-epi-lupeol, alpha-amyrenone, beta-amyrenone, lupenone, 3alpha-hydroxy-lup-20(29)-en-24-oic acid and 3-O-acetyl-hydroxy-lup-20(29)-en-24-oic acid). These compounds have been unequivocally identified by retention time and mass spectral comparison with pure standards previously isolated, for the most part, in our laboratory. Within these triterpenes, acid ones, the corresponding O-acetates, and their products of degradation were found to be characteristic of frankincense (Boswellia resin). The presence of these unusual triterpenic compounds in an archaeological resinous sample, recovered during excavations from Dahshour site (Egypt, XIIth Dynasty), enabled us to identify unambiguously frankincense resin among several other materials. Additional chromatographic peaks of this sample were assigned to broad chemical classes using retention time and mass spectra features.
    Journal of Chromatography A 02/2004; 1023(2):277-85. · 4.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic procedure has been developed: it is a simple and specific method for the determination of fifteen pentacyclic triterpenic compounds ( α-boswellic acid, 3- O-acetyl- α-boswellic acid, β-boswellic acid, 3- O-acetyl- β-boswellic acid, α-amyrin, β-amyrin, lupeol, 3- epi- α-amyrin, 3- epi- β-amyrin, 3- epi-lupeol, α-amyrenone, β-amyrenone, lupenone, lupeolic acid and 3- O-acetyl-lupeolic acid) found in the most commonly traded frankincense, usually called “Eritrean-type” olibanum. In addition, the chromatographic comparison between fresh commercial resins and botanically certified ones was described in order to determine the geographical and/or the botanical origins of commercial frankincense. According to previous botanical studies, it appears difficult to make an unequivocal distinction between Boswellia carteri and B. sacra. On the other hand, Boswellia frereana (considered as a source of high-grade frankincense) shows a characteristic chromatogram and could be unambiguously distinguished from the other producing species of commercial frankincense. In a chemical point of view, Boswellia carteri and B. sacra were more especially characterized by the presence of lupeolic acid, boswellic acids and their respective O-acetyl derivatives, whereas 3- epi-lupeol was the major compound in B. frereana methanolic extracts.
    Chromatographia 01/2004; 60(9-10):493-499. · 1.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A new lupane-type triterpene, 3alpha-hydroxy-lup-20(29)-en-24-oic acid, was isolated from the methanolic extract of "Erytrean-type" resin of commercial frankincense together with the known 3alpha-hydroxy-olean-12-en-24-oic acid (alpha-boswellic acid) and 3alpha-hydroxy-urs-12-en-24-oic acid (beta-boswellic acid). Their structures were characterized on the basis of chemical and spectral evidence including two dimensional NMR experiments and mass spectrometric techniques.
    Phytochemistry 03/2003; 62(4):537-41. · 3.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: For better identification of chemical compounds in natural resins HPLC with UV-visible detection has been complemented with spectrofluorimetric detection. The fluorimetric response of many standards has been studied and typical patterns were obtained for several resins which are also found in ancient samples.
    Chromatographia 01/2001; 53(7):380-384. · 1.44 Impact Factor
  • P. Archier, C. Vieillescazes
    Analusis 01/2000; 28(3):233-237.
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    ABSTRACT: Three samples, respectively referred L24, L42 and L36 coming from the collection Victor Loret of the Egyptologic Institute (University Lyon II, Pr J.-C. Goyon), were analyzed. They were recovered from excavations at Dashour in 1894-1895 by the archaeologist J. de Morgan. The analysis of these materials carried out by Gas Chromatography coupled to a Mass Spectrometer (GC/MS) and the results show the existence of real formulations. L24 was identified as a mixture of a resin belonging to the family of Umbellifereae and more precisely to the Ferula genus, a fatty substance and a resin of conifer.