Young Sik Park

Seoul National University Hospital, Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea

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Publications (60)119.67 Total impact

  • The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine 10/2015; 30(6):829-836. DOI:10.3904/kjim.2015.30.6.829 · 1.43 Impact Factor
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    International Journal of COPD 10/2015; DOI:10.2147/COPD.S91901 · 3.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Rapid on-site evaluation (ROSE) for endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) has been advocated to qualitatively diagnose biopsy samples. However, adequate ROSE criteria during EBUS-TBNA are unclear. The aim of this study was to determine adequacy criteria of ROSE in EBUS-TBNA samples and suggest an appropriate algorithm. Methods: Patients who underwent EBUS-TBNA for nodal evaluation between March and July 2013 at Seoul National University Hospital were included prospectively. The ROSE slides were reviewed independently by two pathologists, and the results were compared to the final pathologic results. Diagnostic yields, sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were calculated in order to make nodal evaluations. Results: EBUS-TBNA was performed on 300 lymph nodes in 133 patients. Samples were nondiagnostic in 7.7%, 6.3%, and 1.7% of the cytologic, histologic, and overall pathologic results, respectively. On the ROSE slides, a large tissue core size (≥2 cm), microscopic anthracotic pigment (MAP), and increased lymphocyte density (LD; ≥40 cells/field [40×, mean of 10 fields]) were significantly associated with adequate final cytologic or histologic results. Malignant cells were not statistically associated with adequacy but were considered a parameter indicating an adequate diagnosis. Using four sequential criteria, tissue core size, the presence of malignant cell, MAP, and LD ≥40 cells/field, the sensitivity and accuracy rates of ROSE increased from 64.4% to 98.6% and from 64.7% to 97.3%, respectively. Conclusions: A high adequacy rate of ROSE in EBUS-TBNA can be achieved by sequentially applying four criteria: tissue core size, malignant cells, MAP, and increased LD.
    The Annals of thoracic surgery 10/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.athoracsur.2015.06.086 · 3.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Although exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS) has been associated with various medical conditions, only limited data are available on its association with health-related quality of life (HRQOL), particularly data obtained with the EQ-5D or EQ visual analogue scale (VAS). Methods: This cross-sectional study evaluated 10,532 adult never-smokers who participated in the fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. By using linear regression models to adjust for possible confounders and incorporating survey weights in analyses, the association between exposure to SHS and HRQOL-measured with the EQ-5D index and the EQ-VAS score-was evaluated. Data were further stratified by the amount of exposure time. Results: After weighted analysis and adjustment, exposure to SHS was significantly associated with lower measures on the EQ-5D index (β = -0.007, P = 0.005) and EQ-VAS score (β = -1.936, P < 0.001). When comparing the unexposed group with the groups exposed <2h/day and ≥2h/day, exposure to a longer duration of SHS was significantly associated with lower scores on the EQ-5D index and the EQ-VAS score. Conclusion: In conclusion, exposure to SHS was associated with reduced HRQOL measured by the EQ-5D index and EQ-VAS score, revealing a dose-response relationship.
    PLoS ONE 09/2015; 10(9):e0138731. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0138731 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background/aims: In assigning patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) to subgroups according to the updated guidelines of the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease, discrepancies have been noted between the COPD assessment test (CAT) criteria and modified Medical Research Council (mMRC) criteria. We investigated the determinants of symptom and risk groups and sought to identify a better CAT criterion. Methods: This retrospective study included COPD patients seen between June 20, 2012, and December 5, 2012. The CAT score that can accurately predict an mMRC grade ≥ 2 versus < 2 was evaluated by comparing the area under the receiver operating curve (AUROC) and by classification and regression tree (CART) analysis. Results: Among 428 COPD patients, the percentages of patients classif ied into subgroups A, B, C, and D were 24.5%, 47.2%, 4.2%, and 24.1% based on CAT criteria and 49.3%, 22.4%, 8.9%, and 19.4% based on mMRC criteria, respectively. More than 90% of the patients who met the mMRC criteria for the 'more symptoms group' also met the CAT criteria. AUROC and CART analyses suggested that a CAT score ≥ 15 predicted an mMRC grade ≥ 2 more accurately than the current CAT score criterion. During follow-up, patients with CAT scores of 10 to 14 did not have a different risk of exacerbation versus those with CAT scores < 10, but they did have a lower exacerbation risk compared to those with CAT scores of 15 to 19. Conclusions: A CAT score ≥ 15 is a better indicator for the 'more symptoms group' in the management of COPD patients.
    The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine 09/2015; 30(5):629-37. DOI:10.3904/kjim.2015.30.5.629 · 1.43 Impact Factor

  • Journal of Critical Care 08/2015; 30(4):845-846. DOI:10.1016/j.jcrc.2015.04.076 · 2.00 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: History of treatment for tuberculosis (TB) is a risk factor for obstructive lung disease. However, it has been unclear whether the clinical characteristics of patients with destroyed lung by TB differ according to the presence or absence of airflow limitation. The objective of the study was to evaluate differences in acute exacerbations and forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) decline in patients with destroyed lung by TB according to the presence or absence of airflow limitation. We performed a retrospective cohort study and enrolled patients with destroyed lung by TB. The presence of airflow limitation was defined as FEV1/forced vital capacity (FVC) < 0.7. One hundred and fifty-nine patients were enrolled, and 128 (80.5%) had airflow limitation. The proportion of patients who experienced acute exacerbation was higher in patients with airflow limitation compared to those without (89.1 vs. 67.7%, respectively; P = 0.009). The rate of acute exacerbation was higher in patients with airflow limitation (IRR, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.11-1.27). Low body mass index (X vs. X + 1; HR, 0.944; 95% CI, 0.895-0.996) in addition to airflow limitation (HR, 1.634; 95% CI, 1.012-2.638), was an independent risk factor for acute exacerbation. The annual decline of FEV1 was 2 mL in patients with airflow limitation and 36 mL in those without (P < 0.001). In conclusion, the presence of airflow limitation is an independent risk factor for acute exacerbation in patients with the destroyed lung by TB.
    Journal of Korean Medical Science 05/2015; 30(6):737-742. DOI:10.3346/jkms.2015.30.6.737 · 1.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Despite being a major public health problem, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) remains underdiagnosed, and only 2.4% COPD patients are aware of their disease in Korea. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of COPD detected by spirometry performed as a preoperative screening test and to determine the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) group distribution and self-awareness of COPD. We reviewed the medical records of adults (age, ≥40 years) who had undergone spirometry during preoperative screening between April and August 2013 at a tertiary hospital in Korea. COPD was defined as a postbronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 s/forced vital capacity ratio of <0.7. We analyzed self-administered COPD questionnaires for the assessment of the frequency of acute exacerbation over the previous year and dyspnea severity using the modified Medical Research Council dyspnea scale and COPD assessment test. Among 3029 patients aged >40 years who had undergone spirometry as a preoperative screening test, 474 (15.6%; 404 men; median age, 70 years; range, 44-93 years) were diagnosed with COPD. Only 26 (5.5%) patients reported previous diagnosis of COPD (2.1%), emphysema (0.8%), or chronic bronchitis (2.5%). The GOLD group distribution was as follows: 63.3% in group A, 31.2% in group B, 1.7% in group C, and 3.8% in group D. The prevalence of COPD diagnosed by preoperative spirometry was 15.6%, and only 5.5% patients were aware of their disease. Approximately one-third of the COPD patients belonged to GOLD groups B, C, and D, which require regular treatment.
    PLoS ONE 01/2015; 10(1):e0115787. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0115787 · 3.23 Impact Factor
  • Ha Youn Lee · Joohae Kim · Yong Suk Jo · Young Sik Park ·
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    ABSTRACT: Endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) is a safe and effective diagnostic tool for mediastinal evaluation. The guidelines for mediastinal evaluation of lung cancer were recently revised for both endoscopic procedures and surgical medical staging, and EBUS-TBNA is expected to be used more often in lung cancer diagnosis and staging. The major complication rate reported in previous meta-analyses is very low at 0.07-.15%; however, the mortality rate has not been reported. We present 2 cases of acute bacterial pericarditis after EBUS-TBNA, with 1 case resulting in mortality, and we discuss the appropriate management. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.
    European journal of cardio-thoracic surgery: official journal of the European Association for Cardio-thoracic Surgery 12/2014; DOI:10.1093/ejcts/ezu477 · 3.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Multiple comorbidities related to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) make it a difficult disease to treat. The relationship between these comorbidities and COPD has not been fully investigated. We aimed to determine whether COPD was independently associated with various comorbidities. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study, which used data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) V conducted between 2010 and 2012. Survey design analysis was employed to determine the association between COPD and 15 comorbidities. A COPD patient was defined as a smoker with forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1)/forced vital capacity (FVC) < 0.7 and comorbidities were defined based on objective laboratory findings and questionnaires. Results: Of a total of 9488 patient who underwent spirometry, 744 (7.84%) COPD cases and 3313 non-COPD controls were included in the analyses. Although the prevalence rates of the majority of the comorbidities were high among the COPD patients, only hypertension (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.63; 95% CI, 1.13-2.33 in Stage 1 COPD group; aOR, 1.92; 95% CI, 1.36-2.72 in Stage 2-4 COPD group) and a history of pulmonary tuberculosis (aOR, 3.38; 95% CI, 1.90-5.99 in Stage 2-4 COPD group) were independently associated with COPD after adjustment for age, smoking status, and confounders. Conclusions: Only hypertension and a history of pulmonary tuberculosis were independently associated with COPD after adjustment for confounders among 15 comorbidities. The results suggest that majority of COPD patients might have similar risk factors with its comorbidities, including age and smoking status.
    Respiratory Medicine 11/2014; 109(1). DOI:10.1016/j.rmed.2014.10.015 · 3.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a fatal lung disease of unknown causes. Three proteins (mammalian target of rapamycin, mTOR; zinc finger E-box-binding homeobox 1, ZEB1; Rho-associated, coiled-coil containing protein kinase 1, ROCK1) may be related to pulmonary fibrosis. However, they have not been assessed in human pulmonary fibrosis. We assessed the clinical significance of mTOR, ZEB1, and ROCK1 expression in human pulmonary fibrosis of usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) pattern. Methods The mTOR, ZEB1, and ROCK1 expression was evaluated by immunohistochemical staining of 30 surgical lung biopsy tissues from 26 IPF and 4 UIP pattern connective tissue disease related interstitial lung disease (CTD-ILD) patients. The expression scores correlated with the clinical features. Results The mTOR, ZEB1 and ROCK1 mainly expressed in alveolar epithelial cells of UIP lungs. The histological fibrosis scores and lung function decline in the strong mTOR expression group were higher than those in the weak and intermediate expression group. Patients with positive ZEB1 expression had higher fibrosis scores and greater decline in carbon monoxide diffusion capacity (DLCO) than patients with negative ZEB1 expression. Patients with positive mTOR or ZEB1 expression had poorer prognosis than that of patients with negative mTOR or ZEB1 expression, although it was not statistically significant. ROCK1 was not associated with the studied clinicopathological features. Conclusions The mTOR and ZEB1 expression in pulmonary fibrosis patients significantly correlated with the fibrosis score and lung function decline, indicating that it may be related to the prognosis of pulmonary fibrosis. Further studies involving large numbers of homogeneous IPF patients are warranted.
    BMC Pulmonary Medicine 10/2014; 14(1):168. DOI:10.1186/1471-2466-14-168 · 2.40 Impact Factor

  • Chest 10/2014; 146(4_MeetingAbstracts):588A. DOI:10.1378/chest.1991270 · 7.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: No study has determined whether the risk of mortality predicted by the GAP (gender, age, and physiologic variables) model matches the observed mortality from idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) in non-Western populations. We evaluated the clinical course of IPF and validated the GAP model in Korean patients with IPF. Methods: We included 268 patients who received a diagnosis of IPF at Seoul National University Hospital between 2005 and 2009. For each patient, demographics and clinical data, such as lung physiologic parameters at IPF diagnosis, were evaluated. We validated the GAP model using discrimination and calibration to predict the risk of death in Korean patients with IPF. Results: The study population comprised 181 men and 87 women (mean age, 65.9 years). The mean baseline % predicted FVC was 77, and % predicted diffusing capacity of lung for carbon monoxide was 65.9. A total of 157 deaths (58.6%) occurred during follow-up, and the median time to death was 4.64 years. The observed cumulative mortality at 1, 2, and 3 years was 10.4%, 20.9%, and 31.0%, respectively. The GAP model produced estimates of 1-year mortality risk consistent with the observed data (C statistic: GAP calculator, 0.74; GAP index and staging system, 0.72; P < .29). However, calibration of the GAP model at 3 years was not satisfactory. Conclusions: The GAP model showed similar discrimination power compared with the original cohort but did not predict the 3-year risk of death accurately. Further multinational validation studies are needed.
    Chest 09/2014; 147(2). DOI:10.1378/chest.14-0453 · 7.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Binaural hearing aids consist of two hearing devices, one for each ear. A new concept of binaural hearing aids is proposed, in which only the master hearing aid contains a Bluetooth chip for receiving stereo audio signals from an external device, and the signal in one channel is sent to the slave hearing aid from the master by a 2.4-GHz Gaussian frequency-shift keying (GFSK) RF transmission method to create the binaural hearing effect. However, a problem arises in regard to the processing necessary for the signal transmission and reception in the two hearing aids, which creates a time delay that causes the precedence effect. Therefore, an audio delay processing algorithm has been designed in the master hearing aid to synchronize with the sound output of the slave hearing aid. Experimental results show that the time difference between the two hearing aids is about 8 µs, which is effective for avoiding the precedence effect. © 2014 Institute of Electrical Engineers of Japan. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    IEEJ Transactions on Electrical and Electronic Engineering 09/2014; 9(5). DOI:10.1002/tee.22007 · 0.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction The culture-negative conversion rate of sputum after 2 months of treatment in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) is used as a reliable surrogate marker for relapse after completion of treatment. We hypothesized that culture conversion of sputum at 2 months of anti-TB treatment and the time to culture conversion are different among pulmonary TB patients who are diagnosed using different methods. Methods Culture-confirmed pulmonary TB patients who were diagnosed between 1 January, 2011 and 31 December, 2012 were classified into three groups based on the diagnostic method that prompted treatment initiation: positive acid-fast bacilli (AFB) staining of sputum (smear-positive group), negative AFB staining, but Mycobacterium tuberculosis was cultured from sputum (culture-positive group), and positive AFB staining, positive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for M. tuberculosis, or culture of M. tuberculosis from a bronchoscopic specimen (bronchoscopy group). Rates of negative mycobacterial culture conversion at 2 months of anti-TB treatment and the time to negative culture conversion of sputum were compared among the three groups. Results A total of 203 patients with culture-confirmed pulmonary TB were included in the final analysis. TB patients in the culture-positive group (94.1%) and the bronchoscopy group (97.6%) showed a higher culture conversion rate at 2 months of treatment than those in the smear-positive group (78.7%, P = 0.001). Additionally, the time to culture conversion was longer in the smear-positive group (median, 40 days) than in the culture-positive (median, 19 days; P = 0.009) and bronchoscopy groups (median, 29 days; P = 0.004). Conclusions The higher culture conversion rate at 2 months and the shorter time to culture conversion among pulmonary TB patients with a negative AFB smear suggests the feasibility of shortening treatment duration and isolation in these patients.
    PLoS ONE 08/2014; 9(8):e103768. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0103768 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    Young Sik Park ·
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    ABSTRACT: The US National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) demonstrated a 20% reduction in lung cancer mortality and a 6.7% decrease in all-cause mortality. The NLST is the only trial showing positive results in a high-risk population, such as in patients with old age and heavy ever smokers. Lung cancer screening using a low-dose chest computed tomography might be beneficial for the high-risk group. However, there may also be potential adverse outcomes in terms of over diagnosis, bias and cost-effectiveness. Until now, lung cancer screening remains controversial. In this review, we wish to discuss the evolution of lung cancer screening and summarize existing evidences and recommendations.
    Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases 08/2014; 77(2):55-9. DOI:10.4046/trd.2014.77.2.55
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    ABSTRACT: IntroductionThe solitary pulmonary nodule (SPN) is a common clinical problem usually detected incidentally during screening tests for lung cancer. Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) is performed for diagnosing SPNs when there are technical difficulties with transthoracic needle aspiration biopsy or bronchoscopic biopsy, inconclusive biopsy results, or when there is a high suspicion of malignancy.Objectives This study aimed to identify factors that can reduce unnecessary VATS for the diagnosis of SPNs.Methods We retrospectively analyzed patients with SPNs (n = 107) who had undergone diagnostic VATS at Seoul National University Hospital from January 2007 to December 2008. Clinical and radiological parameters were evaluated to compare benign and malignant SPNs.ResultsBenign SPNs were diagnosed in 31 patients (29.0%). The most common reason for patients to undergo a diagnostic VATS was a previous history of previous malignancy. The most common histological findings in patients with benign SPNs were nonspecific inflammatory lesions (29.0%) and tuberculosis (TB) (16.1%). The presence of respiratory symptoms was significantly associated with benign diseases (p = 0.004, odds ratio [OR] 0.189, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.060-0.590), and part-solid nodules were significantly related to malignancy (p = 0.026, OR 6.34, 95% CI 1.248-32.169).Conclusion Approximately 30% of SPNs resected by VATS were benign. Although we did not identify a definite factor for predicting benign disease or malignancy, the presence of respiratory symptoms was related to benign disease and the presence of part-solid nodules was associated with malignancy.
    The Clinical Respiratory Journal 08/2014; DOI:10.1111/crj.12200 · 1.51 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background and objective: There is limited data on size change during natural progression of pulmonary aspergilloma. We aimed at elucidating the clinical course and prognosis of aspergilloma according to its size change. Methods: A multicentre retrospective observational study was performed in 143 adult pulmonary aspergilloma patients with serial chest computed tomography images. The clinical course and risk of haemoptysis according to the size change of the cavity or mass of aspergillomas was evaluated. Results: Median follow-up duration was 5.1 years. The size of aspergillomas changed in 39.2% of study subjects. Decreased and increased volumes of aspergilloma were observed in 13.3% and 25.9%, respectively. Patients with decreased volume had significantly higher C-reactive protein, and more severe bronchiectasis and tuberculosis-destroyed lung. Clinically significant haemoptysis occurred in 50.3% of patients and was significantly associated with the cavity and mass volume of aspergilloma, but not the extent of volume change. A mean cavity diameter of more than 22 mm and a mass diameter of more than 18 mm increased the risk of clinically significant haemoptysis. Conclusions: A significant portion of pulmonary aspergilloma changed size in our population. The prevalence of clinically significant haemoptysis was associated with absolute size of cavity and mass of aspergilloma.
    Respirology 08/2014; 19(7). DOI:10.1111/resp.12344 · 3.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives The incidence of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) in patients without HIV infection (non-HIV PCP) has been increasing along with the increased use of chemotherapeutic agents and immunosuppressants, but the prognostic factors of non-HIV PCP remain unclear. This study aimed to identify the prognostic factors of non-HIV PCP Methods Immunocompromised patients without HIV infection who were diagnosed and treated for PCP were included. The PCP diagnosis was based on positive direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) results and compatible clinical symptoms and radiological findings. Results In total, 372 non-HIV patients with positive PCP DFA or PCR findings were screened and 173 were included. Univariate analysis indicated that age, smoking, chronic lung disease or hematologic malignancy, chemotherapeutic agents, high alveolar-arterial oxygen gradient (D[A-a]O2), C-reactive protein, albumin, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), CMV antigenemia, combined bacteremia, high percentage of neutrophils and rate of co-infection in BAL fluid, and mechanical ventilator care were related to the prognosis of non-HIV PCP. Multivariate analysis revealed that high D(A-a)O2, combined bacteremia, increased BUN and preexisting lung disease were indicators of a poor prognosis. Conclusions High D(A-a)O2, combined bacteremia, increased BUN and preexisting lung disease were independent factors of poor prognosis in non-HIV PCP patients.
    The Journal of infection 07/2014; 69(1). DOI:10.1016/j.jinf.2014.02.015 · 4.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The impact of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) on the mortality of patients with lung cancer has not been studied extensively. The objective of this study is to compare the mortality and clinical characteristics of patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) according to the presence of COPD. The medical records of 221 smokers diagnosed with NSCLC were reviewed. Eligible patients were dichotomized into the COPD group (n = 111) and the non-COPD group (n = 110). The overall survival and clinical characteristics were compared, and predictors of worse survival were analyzed using Cox proportional hazards regression. COPD was present in 50.2% of all patients with NSCLC, and most of the patients (92.8%) with COPD were unaware of the disease before the diagnosis of lung cancer. Patients in the COPD group were older and had a lower body mass index, higher pack-years smoking history, higher frequency of dyspnea, and higher incidence of previous malignancy. The overall survival of enrolled patients and propensity score-matched subjects was comparable between the two groups (log-rank test, p = 0.2 and 0.396, respectively). Old age, low body mass index, advanced disease stage (stages III and IV), non-squamous histology, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of greater than or equal to 2, weight loss, and coexistence of interstitial lung disease were independent risk factors for shorter survival. COPD frequently and subliminally coexists with NSCLC. Although differences in clinical characteristic did exist, there was no impact of COPD on the mortality of patients with NSCLC with a positive smoking history in this study.
    Journal of thoracic oncology: official publication of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer 05/2014; 9(6). DOI:10.1097/JTO.0000000000000158 · 5.28 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

189 Citations
119.67 Total Impact Points


  • 2003-2015
    • Seoul National University Hospital
      • • Department of Internal Medicine
      • • Department of Pathology
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2014
    • Chungnam National University
      • Graduate School of Drug Development and Discovery
      Daiden, Daejeon, South Korea
  • 2011-2014
    • Seoul National University
      • Department of Internal Medicine
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2002-2014
    • Kyungpook National University
      • • Department of Animal Science and Biotechnology
      • • School of Food Science and Biotechnology
      • • Animal Science
      Daikyū, Daegu, South Korea
  • 2012
    • Dongguk University
      • Quantum-functional Semiconductor Research Center
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2007
    • Korea National Sport University
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea