Young Sik Park

Seoul National University, Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea

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Publications (28)33.89 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Pulmonary artery tumor embolism (PATE) is a rare disease without an established diagnostic method. In an autopsy series, however, the incidence of PATE was relatively high, between 3% and 26% in patients with a solid tumor. Here we report a case of a patient with a massive PATE from hepatocellular carcinoma diagnosed safely and promptly by endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration.
    Thoracic Cancer. 03/2014; 5(2).
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Patients with interstitial lung disease (ILD) have a high incidence of postoperative pulmonary complications (PPCs) after lung resection, but there is little data about these complications in ILD after other types of surgery. Objectives: The aim of this study was to examine the characteristics and predictors of PPCs after major surgery in patients with ILD. Methods: We included 336 patients with ILD who underwent major surgery between January 2005 and December 2010 at two tertiary hospitals in Korea. All types of surgery that had been performed under general anesthesia were included. Demographic characteristics, preoperative lung function, and operative conditions including anesthesia time and estimated blood loss were compared between patients with and without PPCs. Results: PPCs occurred in 37 patients (11%). Thirteen patients developed pneumonia, the most common PPC, and 11 had acute exacerbation of ILD. In multivariable analysis, BMI <23 (OR = 2.488, 95% CI: 1.084-5.710, p = 0.031), emergency surgery (OR = 23.992, 95% CI: 2.629-218.949, p = 0.005), lung surgery (OR = 5.090, 95% CI: 1.391-18.628, p = 0.014), and longer anesthesia time (OR = 1.595, 95% CI: 1.143-2.227, p = 0.006) were statistically significant risk factors. Conclusions: The incidence of PPCs detected over all surgeries was not as high as that reported for lung surgery alone in ILD patients. Lower BMI, emergency surgery, lung surgery, and longer anesthesia time were risk factors. Operative conditions as well as lung function should be considered in preoperative planning and management for ILD patients undergoing major surgery. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    Respiration 02/2014; · 2.62 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Blood lactate levels and central venous oxygen saturation (ScvO2) are known to be useful indicators of global tissue hypoxia. However, it is unclear whether ScvO2 correlates with lactate levels when measured simultaneously and whether changes in ScvO2 or lactate levels in serial measurements have prognostic value. We investigated the correlation between ScvO2 and lactate levels measured simultaneously and their association with clinical outcomes. We performed a prospective observational study of patients with severe systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and severe sepsis who were admitted to the medical intensive care unit. ScvO2 and lactate levels were measured simultaneously at the time of study enrollment, every 6 h for 24 h, and then every 24 h until the goal was reached. Twenty-five patients were enrolled in the study; 13 have died and 12 have survived. There was no correlation between lactate levels and ScvO2. Neither lactate levels nor ScvO2 at the time of admission differed between nonsurvivors and survivors. Normalization of lactate levels within 48 h was significantly associated with survival. In patients with severe SIRS and severe sepsis, simultaneously measured ScvO2 and lactate levels showed no correlation, and normalization of lactate levels within 48 h was a predictive factor for survival.
    Beiträge zur Klinik der Tuberkulose 02/2014; · 2.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There have been few studies of pulmonary actinomycosis, which is an uncommon anaerobic infection. Consequently, the optimal therapeutic regimen, appropriate duration of treatment, long-term prognosis, and factors predicting prognosis are not well established. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of histopathologically confirmed cases of pulmonary actinomycosis seen between November 2003 and December 2012. The study included 68 patients with a mean age of 58.4 +/- 11.6 years. Of the 68, initial surgery was performed in 15 patients (22.1%), while the remaining 53 (77.9%) received antibiotic therapy initially. In the initial antibiotic group, 45/53 (84.9%) were cured without relapse (median antibiotic duration 5.3 months). 5/53 (9.4%) patients were refractory medically (median antibiotic duration 9.7 months), and 3/53 (5.7%) experienced a recurrence (median time to relapse 35.3 months). In the initial surgery group, 14/15 (93.3%) were cured and treatment failure occurred in one (6.7%). In the multivariate analysis, the absence of an antibiotic response at 1 month was the only independent factor associated with a poor treatment outcome, with an adjusted odds ratio of 49.2 (95% CI, 3.34-724.30). There was no significant difference in treatment outcome based on the size of the parenchymal lesion, comorbidities, whether intravenous antibiotics were used, antibiotic therapy duration, or whether the initial treatment was surgical. Antibiotic treatment with or without surgery was effective for treatment of pulmonary actinomycosis. Nevertheless, treatment failure or recurrence occurred in a considerable proportion of patients, especially those resistant to the initial antibiotic treatment.
    BMC Infectious Diseases 01/2014; 14(1):10. · 3.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema (CPFE) might be relevant to lung cancer, no comparison studies have been done. We evaluated the risk of lung cancer among CPFE patients compared to IPF and emphysema patients. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients who were diagnosed as CPFE, IPF and emphysema using chest CT scans at Seoul National University Hospital from Jan 2000 to Dec 2011. Patients with CPFE were enrolled and matched (1:1:2) with IPF and emphysema patients based on the radiological criteria. The main outcome was time to diagnosis of lung cancer and evaluated with Cox-proportional hazard regression. Forty-eight CPFE, 48 IPF, and 96 emphysema patients were included in this study. Twenty-five cases of lung cancer occurred. The CPFE group had a higher risk of lung cancer (adjusted HR 4.62, 95% CI 1.58-13.55) than that of the emphysema group. Also, IPF group had a higher risk of lung cancer (adjusted HR 4.15, 95% CI 1.03-16.78) than that of emphysema group. However, there was no statistically significant difference in lung cancer risk between the CPFE and IPF group. Additionally, the CPFE group had a higher risk of lung cancer or death (adjusted HR 4.62, 95% CI 2.25-9.47) than that of the emphysema group. In conclusion, patients with CPFE and IPF had a higher risk of lung cancer than those with emphysema, although lung cancer risk was similar between CPFE and IPF.
    Respiratory medicine 01/2014; · 2.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Cigarette smoking is one of the major causes of lung cancer. However, the correlation between smoking status and the survival of patients with lung cancer is uncertain. The present study aimed to evaluate the impact of smoking status on the mortality of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods The medical records of 313 patients newly diagnosed with NSCLC between January 2005 and January 2006 were reviewed. Eligible patients were divided into ever-smokers (221 patients) and never-smokers (92 patients), and the overall survival and clinical characteristics of the two groups were compared. Predictors of survival were analyzed using Cox's proportional hazards regression. ResultsIn ever-smokers, the mean age was higher, and male gender and squamous histology were predominant compared to never-smokers. The median survival time was longer in never-smokers (21.1 vs. 41.9 months, ever-smokers vs. never-smokers, respectively; P = 0.027). Overall survival estimates at 12, 24, and 60 months were 62.9 versus 82.6%, 43.4 versus 65.2%, and 31.2 versus 42.4%, in each group. Advanced age, advanced disease stage (stages III and IV), and coexistence of interstitial lung disease were analyzed as independent risk factors for shorter survival. Although ever-smoking was not an independent risk factor, current smoking was a risk factor for higher mortality. Conclusions The overall mortality of ever-smokers was higher than that of never-smokers in patients with newly diagnosed NSCLC, and current smoking was an independent risk factor for a poorer prognosis.
    Thoracic Cancer. 01/2014; 5(1).
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives The incidence of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) in patients without HIV infection (non-HIV PCP) has been increasing along with the increased use of chemotherapeutic agents and immunosuppressants, but the prognostic factors of non-HIV PCP remain unclear. This study aimed to identify the prognostic factors of non-HIV PCP Methods Immunocompromised patients without HIV infection who were diagnosed and treated for PCP were included. The PCP diagnosis was based on positive direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) results and compatible clinical symptoms and radiological findings. Results In total, 372 non-HIV patients with positive PCP DFA or PCR findings were screened and 173 were included. Univariate analysis indicated that age, smoking, chronic lung disease or hematologic malignancy, chemotherapeutic agents, high alveolar-arterial oxygen gradient (D[A-a]O2), C-reactive protein, albumin, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), CMV antigenemia, combined bacteremia, high percentage of neutrophils and rate of co-infection in BAL fluid, and mechanical ventilator care were related to the prognosis of non-HIV PCP. Multivariate analysis revealed that high D(A-a)O2, combined bacteremia, increased BUN and preexisting lung disease were indicators of a poor prognosis. Conclusions High D(A-a)O2, combined bacteremia, increased BUN and preexisting lung disease were independent factors of poor prognosis in non-HIV PCP patients.
    The Journal of infection 01/2014; · 4.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A decrease of bone mass is a major risk factor for fracture. Several natural products have traditionally been used as herbal medicines to prevent and/or treat bone disorders including osteoporosis. Praeruptorin A is isolated from the dry root extract of Peucedanum praeruptorum Dunn and has several biological activities, but its anti-osteoporotic activity has not been studied yet. The effect of praeruptorin A on the differentiation of bone marrow-derived macrophages into osteoclasts was examined by phenotype assay and confirmed by real-time PCR and immunoblotting. The involvement of NFATc1 in the anti-osteoclastogenic action of praeruptorin A was evaluated by its lentiviral ectopic expression. Intracellular Ca(2+) levels were also measured. Praeruptorin A inhibited the RANKL-stimulated osteoclast differentiation accompanied by inhibition of p38 and Akt signaling, which could be the reason for praeruptorin A-downregulated expression levels of c-Fos and NFATc1, transcription factors that regulate osteoclast-specific genes, as well as osteoclast fusion-related molecules. The anti-osteoclastogenic effect of praeruptorin A was rescued by overexpression of NFATc1. Praeruptorin A strongly prevented the RANKL-induced Ca(2+) oscillation without any changes in the phosphorylation of PLCγ. Praeruptorin A could exhibit its anti-osteoclastogenic activity by inhibiting p38/Akt-c-Fos-NFATc1 signaling and PLCγ-independent Ca(2+) oscillation.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(2):e88974. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Endobronchial metastasis of leiomyosarcoma is rare, but it can cause life-threatening complications, such as massive hemoptysis, respiratory failure or even death. The development of new endoscopic modalities allows for effective endobronchial management. We report three patients with endobronchial metastases from advanced leiomyosarcomas which caused bronchial obstruction. The bronchoscopic examinations revealed masses obstructing the left main bronchus in all three patients. After removing the endobronchial tumor via interventional bronchoscopy, there was symptomatic and radiologic improvement. Moreover, the patients were able to undergo additional palliative chemotherapy. Therefore, endobronchial management of endobronchial tumors should be considered in the treatment of endobronchial metastasis, even in patients with advanced malignancies.
    Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases 12/2013; 75(6):250-5.
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    ABSTRACT: Dirofilariasis is a rare disease in humans. We report here a case of a 48-year-old male who was diagnosed with pulmonary dirofilariasis in Korea. On chest radiographs, a coin lesion of 1 cm in diameter was shown. Although it looked like a benign inflammatory nodule, malignancy could not be excluded. So, the nodule was resected by video-assisted thoracic surgery. Pathologically, chronic granulomatous inflammation composed of coagulation necrosis with rim of fibrous tissues and granulations was seen. In the center of the necrotic nodules, a degenerating parasitic organism was found. The parasite had prominent internal cuticular ridges and thick cuticle, a well-developed muscle layer, an intestinal tube, and uterine tubules. The parasite was diagnosed as an immature female worm of Dirofilaria immitis. This is the second reported case of human pulmonary dirofilariasis in Korea.
    The Korean Journal of Parasitology 10/2013; 51(5):569-72. · 0.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence rate of latent TB infection (LTBI) and active TB among homeless in Seoul metropolitan city, South Korea, and to compare the TB burden among homeless people with that of a control group. The homeless participants were recruited from five sites between October 30, 2009 and April 12, 2010. LTBI was diagnosed through the QuantiFERON(R) TB Gold In-Tube(QFT-GIT) assay and a tuberculin skin test(TST) and, and active PTB was diagnosed based on chest radiography. Among 313 participants, the prevalence of LTBI was 75.9% (95% CI, 71.1-80.8%) and 79.8% (95% CI, 74.9-84.7%) based on a QFT-GIT assay and the TST, respectively, and that of active PTB was 5.8% (95% CI, 3.2-8.3%). The prevalence of LTBI among homeless participants was about five times higher than controls. Also, the age-specific prevalence rate ratio of active PTB was as high as 24.86. The prevalence rate of LTBI as well as active PTB among homeless people was much higher than that of the general population in South Korea. Thus, adequate strategies to reduce the TB burden among homeless people are needed.
    BMC Public Health 08/2013; 13(1):720. · 2.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background The aspirates from EBUS-TBNA were examined using the tissue core and cytology. We thought tissue core was more reliable specimens and had a question about how many discrepancies between two specimens there were. We investigated diagnostic concordance rate between histology and cytology. Methods From Jan 2011 to Dec 2011, a total of 267 consecutive patients with lung cancer who underwent EBUS-TBNA were included in this retrospective study. ResultsFrom the 267 lung cancer patients, 207 (77.5%) were men. Median age was 65 years old. The most common pathologic type was adenocarcinoma (120, 44.9%) followed by squamous cell carcinoma (79, 29.6%). Among the 267 patients, 579 mediastinal and hilar lymph nodes were punctured. The right lower paratracheal (204, 35.2%) and subcarinal (172, 29.7%) lymph nodes were the most common nodal stations. Among the 579 lymph nodes, malignant cells were observed in 267 (46.1%) nodes, in either the histologic, cytologic or both slides: 209 in both histology and cytology, 37 in histology only and 21 in cytology only slides. The diagnostic concordance rate between the tissue core and cytology was 90.0% (95% CI, 87.1-92.2) (κ=0.79). Conclusions The diagnostic concordance rate between the histology and cytology of EBUS-TBNA in lung cancer was 90.0% (95% CI, 87.1-92.2) (κ=0.79).
    Thoracic Cancer. 08/2013;
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    Young Sik Park, Chul-Gyu Yoo
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    ABSTRACT: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a lethal pulmonary fibrotic disease. In general, the exaggerated activation of the coagulation cascade has been observed during initiation or maintenance of the fibrotic disease. In our recent study, immunohistochemical expression of protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR-2), which plays a key role in coagulation cascade, was observed in surgical specimen of IPF patients, and associated with poor clinical outcome. The aim of this study was to evaluate the overexpression of PAR-2 in inflammatory cells from peripheral blood and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in IPF patients. From May 2011 to March 2012, IPF patients and controls were enrolled in Seoul National University Hospital. Peripheral blood and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were collected for analysis of PAR-2 expression. Flow cytometry and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction were used for PAR-2 receptor and mRNA assessment. Twelve IPF patients and 14 controls were included in this study. Among them, flow cytometry analysis was conducted from 26 peripheral blood (patient group, 11; control group, 13) and 7 bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (patient group, 5; control group, 2). The expression of PAR-2 receptor was not different between patient and control groups (p=0.074). Among all 24 population, PAR-2 mRNA assessment was performed in 19 persons (patient group, 10; control group, 9). The mRNA expression of PAR-2 was not significant different (p=0.633). In IPF patients, PAR-2 receptor and mRNA expression were not different from control group.
    Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases 06/2013; 74(6):264-8.
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    ABSTRACT: Microscopic anthracotic pigment (MAP) is frequently observed in endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) specimen in non-small cell lung cancer, but its clinical interpretation is not well-known. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical implication of MAP in mediastinal staging of non-small cell lung cancer. From May 2010 to July 2011, consecutive potentially operable non-small cell lung cancer patients who underwent EBUS-TBNA for mediastinal staging were recruited. Of the total 133 patients, 102 (76.7%) were male patients. Median age was 68 yr. Total 279 mediastinal lymph nodes were sampled by EBUS-TBNA; station 4R (100, 35.8%) and station 7 (86, 30.8%) were the most common sites. Malignant lymph nodes were 100 (35.8%). MAP was observed in 61 (21.7%) lymph nodes, and among them only 3 were malignant lymph nodes (P < 0.001). The lymph nodes with MAP were smaller (9.0 vs 10.8 mm, P = 0.001) and showed low standard uptake values on FDG-PET (4.4 vs 4.7, P = 0.256). In multivariate analysis, MAP was negatively associated with malignant lymph node (adjusted OR, 0.12; 95% CI, 0.03-0.42; P < 0.001). In potentially operable non-small cell lung cancer patients, MAP in endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration specimens is strongly associated with benign mediastinal and hilar lymph nodes.
    Journal of Korean medical science 04/2013; 28(4):550-4. · 0.84 Impact Factor
  • Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging. 01/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: The Xpert MTB/RIF assay was introduced for timely and accurate detection of tuberculosis (TB). The aim of this study was to determine the diagnostic accuracy and turnaround time (TAT) of Xpert MTB/RIF assay in clinical practice in South Korea. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients in whom Xpert MTB/RIF assay using sputum were requested. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) for the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and detection of rifampicin resistance were calculated. In addition, TAT of Xpert MTB/RIF assay was compared with those of other tests. Total 681 patients in whom Xpert MTB/RIF assay was requested were included in the analysis. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of Xpert MTB/RIF assay for diagnosis of PTB were 79.5% (124/156), 100.0% (505/505), 100.0% (124/124) and 94.0% (505/537), respectively. Those for the detection of rifampicin resistance were 57.1% (8/14), 100.0% (113/113), 100.0% (8/8) and 94.9% (113/119), respectively. The median TAT of Xpert MTB/RIF assay to the report of results and results confirmed by physicians in outpatient settings were 0 (0-1) and 6 (3-7) days, respectively. Median time to treatment after initial evaluation was 7 (4-9) days in patients with Xpert MTB/RIF assay, but was 21 (7-33.5) days in patients without Xpert MTB/RIF assay. Xpert MTB/RIF assay showed acceptable sensitivity and excellent specificity for the diagnosis of PTB and detection of rifampicin resistance in areas with intermediate TB burden. Additionally, the assay decreased time to the initiation of anti-TB drugs through shorter TAT.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(10):e77456. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Differentiating cardiogenic pulmonary edema from other bilateral lung diseases such as pneumonia is frequently difficult. We conducted a retrospective study to identify predictors for cardiogenic pulmonary edema and non-cardiogenic causes of bilateral lung infiltrates in chest radiographs. The study included patients who had newly developed bilateral lung infiltrates in chest radiographs and patients who underwent echocardiography. Cases were divided into two groups based on the echocardiographic findings: the cardiogenic pulmonary edema group and the non-cardiogenic group. Clinical characteristics and basic laboratory findings were analyzed to identify predictors for differential diagnosis between cardiogenic and non-cardiogenic causes of bilateral chest infiltrates. We analyzed 110 subjects. Predictors of cardiogenic pulmonary edema were higher brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels, lower C-reactive protein (CRP) levels on the day of the event (<7 mg/dL), age over 60 years, history of heart disease, and absence of fever and sputum. CRP on the day of the event was an independent factor to differentiate cardiogenic and non-cardiogenic causes of newly developed bilateral chest infiltrates. Also, the validity was comparable to BNP. Clinical symptoms (sputum and fever), medical history (dyslipidemia and heart disease), and laboratory findings (BNP and CRP) could be helpful in the differential diagnosis of patients with acute bilateral lung infiltrates in chest radiographs.
    Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases 01/2013; 74(1):15-22.
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    ABSTRACT: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a lethal pulmonary disease which is characterized by progressive fibrosis. In general, the exaggerated activation of the coagulation cascade has been observed during initiation or maintenance of the fibrotic disease. In a recent study, protease-activated receptor (PAR)-2, which plays a key role in coagulation cascade, was up-regulated in IPF patients, however, its clinical implications have not been understood. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the clinical significance of PAR-2 expression in the alveolar epithelial cells of IPF patients. PAR-2 expression was evaluated by immunohistochemical method in formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissues of surgical lung biopsies from patients with IPF. Fibrosis scores from hematoxylin and eosin-stained lung sections and honeycombing scores in chest CT were calculated. Medical records were retrospectively reviewed and the correlation between the expression of PAR-2 and clinical profiles were assessed. Among thirty-three IPF patients, PAR-2 expression was observed in 25 (75.8%). The lymphocyte counts in peripheral blood (2317 vs. 1753, p = 0.044) and honeycombing scores in chest CT (4.0 vs. 3.0 p = 0.046) were higher in PAR-2 positive group compared with PAR-2 negative group. During a follow-up duration of median 40.3 months, 7 (21.2%) patients died and they were all included in the PAR-2 positive group (p = 0.113). We conclude that PAR-2 is expressed in the alveolar epithelial cells of a substantial number of IPF patients, and the expression of PAR-2 significantly correlates with the extent of honeycombing shown in chest CT.
    Respiratory medicine 11/2012; · 2.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Tadalafil is a phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor (PDE5I), which is widely used to treat erectile dysfunction. Although PDE5Is have excellent safety profiles, and most of the side effects are mild, rare serious adverse events have been reported in association with PDE5Is. Thrombosis is one of those events, and a few previous reports have suggested the association of PDE5Is with thrombosis. We report the case of a 61-year-old male who developed pulmonary embolism combined with pulmonary infarction directly after taking tadalafil. Both the patient and the physician suspected tadalafil as the culprit drug, as the patient was in an otherwise healthy condition. However, after extensive evaluation, we noticed that factor VIII levels were elevated. Prior reports suggesting the association between thrombosis and PDEIs either lack complete information on coagulation factors, or show inconsistencies in their results. Physicians should operate caution prior to accepting the diagnosis of adverse drug reaction.
    Tuberculosis and respiratory diseases. 10/2012; 73(4):231-3.
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    ABSTRACT: Tracheostomy is a common procedure for patients requiring prolonged mechanical ventilation. However, the timing of tracheostomy is quite variable. This study was performed to find out the factors determining the timing of tracheostomy in medical intensive care unit (ICU). Patients who were underwent tracheostomy between January 2008 and December 2009 in the medical ICU of Seoul National University Hospital were included in this retrospective study. Among the 59 patients, 36 (61.0%) were male. Median Acute Physiology And Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II scores and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment scores on the admission day were 28 and 7, respectively. The decision of tracheostomy was made on 13 days, and tracheostomy was performed on 15 days after endotracheal intubation. Of the 59 patients, 21 patients received tracheostomy before 2 weeks (group I) and 38 were underwent after 2 weeks (group II). In univariate analysis, days until the decision to perform tracheostomy (8 vs. 14.5, p<0.001), days before tracheostomy (10 vs. 18, p<0.001), time delay for tracheostomy (2.1 vs. 3.0, p<0.001), cardiopulmonary resuscitation (19.0% vs. 2.6%, p=0.049), existence of neurologic problem (38.1% vs. 7.9%, p=0.042), APACHE II scores (24 vs. 30, p=0.002), and PaO(2)/FiO(2)<300 mm Hg (61.9% vs. 91.1%, p=0.011) were different between the two groups. In multivariate analysis, APACHE II scores≥20 (odds ratio [OR], 12.44; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.14~136.19; p=0.039) and time delay for tracheostomy (OR, 1.97; 95% CI, 1.11~3.55; p=0.020) were significantly associated with tracheostomy after 2 weeks. APACHE II scores≥20 and time delay for tracheostomy were associated with tracheostomy after 2 weeks.
    Tuberculosis and respiratory diseases. 06/2012; 72(6):481-5.