[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The management of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) depends, among other factors, on its histopathologic subtype. Although dermoscopic criteria of BCC have been investigated, the possible role of dermoscopy in predicting the tumor subtype remains unclear.
We sought to assess the diagnostic accuracy of dermoscopic criteria for differentiating superficial BCC (sBCC) from other BCC subtypes.
Dermoscopic images of histopathologically confirmed BCCs were retrospectively evaluated for the presence of predefined criteria. Univariate and adjusted odds ratios were calculated. Discriminant functions were used to plot receiver operating characteristic curves.
In all, 77 sBCCs and 258 non-sBCCs were included. Maple leaf-like areas, short fine superficial telangiectasia, multiple small erosions, and shiny white-red structureless areas were potent predictors of sBCC, each making its diagnosis over 5-fold more likely. Conversely, the presence of arborizing vessels, blue-gray ovoid nests, and ulceration gave 11-fold, 15-fold, and 3-fold increased possibility for the diagnosis of non-sBCCs, respectively. Based on the results of the multivariate analysis, we propose a diagnostic algorithm that can predict the diagnosis of sBCC with a sensitivity of 81.9% and a specificity of 81.8%.
The retrospective design and the inclusion of only Caucasian patients are limitations.
Dermoscopy is reliable in differentiating sBCC from other BCC subtypes.
Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology 11/2013; · 4.91 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Spitz nevus can clinically present either in the classical (reddish pink) or the pigmented (brownish black) variant. Dermoscopy demonstrates that the pigmented variant is much more common than the classical variant; however, none of these show dermoscopic patterns clearly distinguishable from melanoma. Even histopathologically, a clear-cut differentiation between benign and malignant spitzoid neoplasms is often difficult, so that intermediate diagnostic categories (atypical Spitz nevus and Spitz tumor) are admitted. Because of these difficulties in clinical and histopathologic evaluation, surgical excision is recommended for clinically atypical spitzoid lesions of childhood and for all spitzoid lesions of adulthood.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Thirteen melanocytic skin neoplasms with a consultation diagnosis by A. Bernard Ackerman were submitted to immunohistochemistry for HMB-45, Ki67, cyclin D1, e-cadherin, and p16; 9/13 cases underwent fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) test targeting 6p25 (RREB1), 6q23 (MYB), centromere 6 (Cep6), and 11q13 (CCND1), as well as the centromere 7 (Cep7). A "consensus diagnosis" among 3 experts was also advocated both before and after morphomolecular information. Three neoplasms with a consultation diagnosis of Spitz nevus showed at least 3 abnormal immunohistochemical patterns; 2 of these cases were also FISH-positive for CCND1 gain, but none of them had a final consensus diagnosis of melanoma. Two neoplasms with a consultation diagnosis of congenital nevus received a consensus diagnosis of melanoma. Molecular morphology techniques can highlight the atypical features of melanocytic neoplasms and support existence of a morphobiologic "spectrum": This should be mirrored in the final report by abandoning the dichotomic (benign vs malignant) diagnostic approach.
International Journal of Surgical Pathology 06/2013; · 0.76 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Spitz nevi and early melanomas lacking significant pigmentation exhibit overlapping dermoscopic patterns of regularly arranged dotted vessels over a pink background. Although white network has been described in both tumors, little is known about the frequency of this pattern in both tumors. OBJECTIVE: We sought to compare the frequency of white network in Spitz nevi and early melanomas lacking significant pigmentation and to correlate this feature with histopathology. METHODS: Two independent dermoscopists scored the presence of white network in a series of retrospectively collected images of histopathologically diagnosed cases of Spitz nevi and melanomas, dermoscopically typified by dotted vessels. RESULTS: A total of 65 cases including 39 melanomas (median thickness 0.4 mm) and 26 Spitz nevi were analyzed. Patients with Spitz nevi were significantly younger compared to patients with melanoma (mean age: 26.8 vs 51.2 years, respectively; P < .001). The 2 observers scored white network being present in 23 (88.5%) and 24 (92.3%) Spitz nevi compared with 10 (25.6%) and 8 (20.5%) cases of 39 melanomas, respectively (P < .001). Interobserver agreement for white network was good (kappa = 0.67; 95% confidence interval 0.44-0.90). Histopathologically, elongated rete ridges were observed in 22 (88.5%) Spitz nevi and 11 (36.7%) melanomas (P < .001). LIMITATIONS: We did not evaluate other dermoscopic-histopathologic correlates commonly seen in Spitz nevi and melanomas in our study. CONCLUSION: Although white network occurs at significantly higher frequency among hypopigmented/amelanotic Spitz nevi compared with early melanoma, it is not exclusively seen in Spitz nevi. Thus, excision of melanocytic tumors showing this pattern is mandatory.
Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology 02/2013; · 4.91 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Granuloma annulare (GA) is characterized histopathologically by 3 patterns: necrobiotic granuloma, interstitial incomplete form and, rarely, sarcoidal or tuberculoid granuloma. The amount of lymphoid infiltrate in GA is usually limited. We describe 10 cases of GA with prominent "pseudolymphomatous" lymphoid infiltrates mimicking cutaneous lymphoid hyperplasia. Patients were 6 males and 4 females (mean age 49.9 years, median age 47 years, age range 25-70). Lesions were localized to a limited area of the body (n = 6), or involved the entire trunk (n = 3), or were generalized (n = 1). The correct clinical diagnosis of GA was provided only in 30% of the cases. In all cases, histopathologic features were characterized by dense, nodular, superficial, and deep infiltrates of lymphocytes. Immunohistology revealed predominance of T lymphocytes in 7 of 7 tested cases. This "pseudolymphomatous" variant of GA represents a pitfall in the histopathologic diagnosis of the disease and may be misinterpreted as other types of cutaneous lymphoproliferative disorders.
The American Journal of dermatopathology 12/2011; 34(3):259-62. · 1.30 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Early excision is the only strategy to reduce melanoma mortality, but unnecessary excision of benign lesions increases morbidity and healthcare costs.
To assess accuracy in melanoma detection based on number-needed-to-excise (NNE) values over a 10-year period.
Information was retrieved on all histopathologically confirmed cutaneous melanomas or melanocytic nevi that were excised between 1998 and 2007 at participating clinics. NNE values were calculated by dividing the total number of excised lesions by the number of melanomas. Analyses included changes in NNE over time, differences in NNE between specialized clinical settings (SCS) versus non-specialized clinical settings (NSCS), and patient factors influencing NNE.
The participating clinics contributed a total of 300,215 cases, including 17,172 melanomas and 283,043 melanocytic nevi. The overall NNE values achieved in SCS and NSCS in the 10-year period were 8.7 and 29.4, respectively. The NNE improved over time in SCS (from 12.8 to 6.8), but appeared unchanged in NSCS. Most of the effect on NNE in SCS was due to a greater number of excised melanomas. Higher NNE values were observed in patients younger than 40 years and for lesions located on the trunk.
No data concerning the use of dermatoscopy and digital monitoring procedures were collected from the participating centers.
Over the 10-year study period, accuracy in melanoma detection improved only in specialized clinics maybe because of a larger use of new diagnostic techniques such as dermatoscopy.
Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology 10/2011; 67(1):54-9. · 4.91 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Data on early lesions of primary cutaneous follicle center lymphoma (PCFCL), diffuse type are very limited.
We sought to elucidate the early clinicopathologic features of PCFCL, diffuse type.
Clinical, histologic, immunohistologic, molecular, and fluorescence in situ hybridization data from 24 patients with early lesions of PCFCL, diffuse type (male:female = 19:5; median age: 57 years) were determined.
Lesions consisted mostly of solitary or clustered papules and small nodules located on the trunk (21 cases), arm (two cases), and scalp (one case). In 3 patients small papules were located at a distance from the main affected area. All biopsy specimens from early lesions showed aggregates of medium and large centrocytes admixed with small lymphocytes without formation of clear-cut lymph follicles. Staining for Bcl-2 was positive in only 7 cases, one revealing also a rearranged BCL2 signal by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Data on treatment and follow-up were available for 22 patients. At last examination 13 patients were in complete remission (median follow-up: 60 months), 6 were alive with skin disease alone (median follow-up: 60 months), two were alive with skin disease and bone-marrow or lymph node involvement, respectively, and one died of unrelated causes while in complete remission.
The retrospective study and the fact that patients were treated at different institutions are limitations.
Early lesions of PCFCL, diffuse type present with characteristic clinicopathologic features. Dermatologists should be alert particularly to the early clinical manifestations of this lymphoma and to the presence of small, inconspicuous lesions at a distance from the main affected area in order to plan treatment properly.
Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology 06/2011; 65(5):991-1000. · 4.91 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The natural evolution of melanocytic nevi is a complex, multifactorial process that can be studied by monitoring nevi on a long-term basis.
To assess the evolution pathway of Spitz nevi, lesions with clinical and dermoscopic features suggestive of Spitz nevi were monitored and baseline and follow-up images compared.
Sixty-four patients (mean age 10.4 years) with lesions suggestive of Spitz nevi were included. Lesions were monitored for a mean follow-up period of 25 months. Upon side-by-side evaluation of baseline and follow-up images, 51 (79.7%) lesions showed an involution pattern and 13 (20.3%) lesions showed a growing or stable pattern. No significant differences were found between growing and involving lesions in terms of patient age and sex and the location and palpability of lesions. The great majority of growing lesions were pigmented or partially pigmented (92.3%), whereas 47.1% of lesions in involution were amelanotic (p = 0.005).
In this series of lesions clinically and dermoscopically diagnosed as Spitz nevi, spontaneous involution seems to be the most common biologic behavior.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We describe a rare case of primary cutaneous marginal zone B-cell lymphoma (PCMZL) in a 33-year-old male affected by hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related chronic active hepatitis. The patient presented with multiple cutaneous papulonodular lesions characterized by polymorphic immunomorphology, with inverse pattern of immunoglobulin light chain restriction in two different lesions, coupled with mucin deposition and anetoderma in a third lesion. The involution of lesions of PCMZL with secondary anetoderma has been previously described, but this has not been reported in the context of multiple lesions showing differing immunoglobulin light chain restriction. We speculate that these findings may be secondary to a variable interaction between a chronic antigenic stimulus (i.e. HBV) and its specific immune response.
Journal of Cutaneous Pathology 04/2011; 38(4):342-5. · 1.77 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 58-year-old white woman with stasis dermatitis developed a solitary, slowly growing keratotic nodule of the dorsum of the foot. The excision biopsy specimen of this lesion showed a biphasic pattern of eccrine syringofibroadenoma and clear cell acanthoma. Such a previously unreported association is neither necessarily by chance nor necessarily a collision. Because a reactive histogenesis has been postulated for both eccrine syringofibroadenoma and clear cell acanthoma, this case could represent a morphologically biphasic pattern of epidermal and ductal hyperplasia as a consequence of the stasis-induced chronic inflammation coupled with the footwear-induced chronic trauma.
The American Journal of dermatopathology 01/2011; 33(2):195-8. · 1.30 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dermoscopy is a noninvasive tool that can be helpful in the diagnosis of nonpigmented skin tumors. This is because dermoscopy permits the visualization of key vascular structures that are usually not visible to the naked eye. Much work has concentrated on the identification of specific morphologic types of vessels that allow a classification into melanocytic versus nonmelanocytic and benign versus malignant nonpigmented skin tumors. Among a broad spectrum of different types of vascular patterns, six main morphologies can be identified. These are comma-like, dotted, linear-irregular, hairpin, glomerular, and arborizing vessels. With some exceptions, comma, dotted, and linear irregular vessels are associated with melanocytic tumors, while the latter three vascular types are generally indicative of keratinocytic tumors. Aside from vascular morphology, the architectural arrangement of vessels within the tumor and the presence of additional dermoscopic clues are equally important for the diagnosis. This article provides a general overview of the dermoscopic evaluation of nonpigmented skin tumors and is divided into two parts. Part I discusses the dermoscopic vascular patterns of benign and malignant melanocytic skin tumors. Part II discusses the dermoscopic vascular patterns of benign and malignant nonmelanocytic nonpigmented skin tumors. In each part, additional special management guidelines for melanocytic and nonmelanocytic nonpigmented skin tumors, respectively, will be discussed.
Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology 09/2010; 63(3):361-74; quiz 375-6. · 4.91 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nonmelanoma skin cancer refers to a broad class of tumors, including actinic keratosis, basal cell carcinoma, and squamous cell carcinoma, and as a group these are the most frequent cancers occurring in light skinned humans. In contrast to the rarity of amelanotic melanoma, nonmelanoma skin cancer commonly lacks pigmentation. Although these tumors rarely cause death related to metastases, they commonly destroy underlying tissues and should be removed at the earliest possible stage. Dermoscopy improves the clinical diagnosis of nonpigmented skin tumors by allowing the visualization of specific vascular structures that are usually not visible to the naked eye. Dermoscopic vascular patterns of several nonmelanocytic nonpigmented skin tumors, such as sebaceous hyperplasia, seborrheic keratosis, clear cell acanthoma, Bowen disease, or nodular cystic basal cell carcinoma are highly specific, allowing a ready diagnosis in most cases. Others, such as actinic keratosis, pyogenic granuloma, or uncommon adnexal tumors, may be difficult to differentiate even with the aid of dermoscopy. For this reason, general guidelines have been established to assist in making the most appropriate management decision. In the second part of this review of dermoscopic vascular structures of nonpigmented skin tumors, the dermoscopic patterns associated with benign and malignant nonmelanocytic skin tumors and recommendations for the management of these tumors will be discussed.
Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology 09/2010; 63(3):377-86; quiz 387-8. · 4.91 Impact Factor