Eric Hernady

University Center Rochester, Rochester, Minnesota, United States

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Publications (25)31.47 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Viral infections have been associated with exacerbation of disease in human cases of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Since pulmonary fibrosis is a common outcome after irradiation to the lung, we hypothesized that viral infection after radiation exposure would exacerbate radiation-induced lung injury. Epithelial injury, a frequent outcome after infection, has been hypothesized to contribute to the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis and bronchiolar epithelial Clara cells participate in epithelial repair. Therefore, it was further hypothesized that altered responses after irradiation involve the bronchiolar epithelial Clara cells. C57BL/6J or CCSP(-/-) mice were irradiated with 0 (sham), 5, 10 or 15 Gy to the whole thorax. At ten weeks post-irradiation, animals were mock infected or infected with influenza A virus and body weight and survival were monitored. Pulmonary function was assessed by whole-body plethysmography. The Clara cell markers, CCSP and Cyp2f2, were measured in the lung by qRT-PCR, and protein expression was visualized in the lung by immunofluorescence. Following pulmonary function tests, mice were sacrificed and tissues were collected for pathological analysis. In 15 Gy irradiated animals infected with influenza A virus, accelerated respiratory rates, reduced pulmonary function, and exacerbated lung pathology occurred earlier post-irradiation than previously observed after irradiation alone, suggesting infection accelerates the development of radiation injury. After irradiation alone, CCSP and Cyp2f2 mRNA levels were reduced, correlating with reductions in the number of Clara cells lining the airways. When combined with infection, these markers further declined and an apparent delay in recovery of mRNA expression was observed, suggesting that radiation injury leads to a chronic reduction in the number of Clara cells that may potentiate the epithelial injury observed after influenza A virus infection. This novel finding may have considerable therapeutic implications with respect to both thoracic tumor patients and recipients of bone marrow transplants.
    Radiation Research 04/2013; · 2.70 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Significant differences exist between the physiology of the immature, neonatal lung compared to that of the adult lung that may affect acute and late responses to irradiation. Identifying these differences is critical to developing successful mitigation strategies for this special population. Our current hypothesis proposes that irradiation during the neonatal period will alter developmental processes, resulting in long-term consequences, including altered susceptibility to challenge with respiratory pathogens. C57BL/6J mice, 4 days of age, received 5 Gy whole-body irradiation. At subsequent time points (12, 26 and 46 weeks postirradiation), mice were intranasally infected with 120 HAU of influenza A virus. Fourteen days later, mice were sacrificed and tissues were collected for examination. Morbidity was monitored following changes in body weight and survival. The magnitude of the pulmonary response was determined by bronchoalveolar lavage, histological examination and gene expression of epithelial and inflammatory markers. Viral clearance was assessed 7 days post-influenza infection. Following influenza infection, irradiated animals that were infected at 26 and 46 weeks postirradiation lost significantly more weight and demonstrated reduced survival compared with those infected at 12 weeks postirradiation, with the greatest deleterious effect seen at the late time point. The results of these experiments suggest that radiation injury during early life may affect the lung's response to a subsequent pathogenic aerial challenge, possibly through a chronic and progressive defect in the immune system. This finding may have implications for the development of countermeasures in the context of systemic radiation exposure.
    Radiation Research 03/2012; · 2.70 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In our ongoing investigation into the consequences of a radiological terrorism or nuclear dispersion event, we assessed whether a dose range that is believed to be sub-threshold for the development of lung endpoints results in late pathological changes and, secondarily, whether those late changes affect the lung's ability to respond to subsequent challenge. C57BL/6J mice received total body irradiation (0.5-10 Gy) and were followed for 6-18 months after irradiation. At 12 and 15 months, a subset of mice was exposed to a second challenge (aerosolised lipopolysaccharide [LPS]). Cytokines shown to be upregulated early (hours) following irradiation (interleukin [IL]6, keratinocyte chemoattractant [KC], IL1B, and IL1R2) demonstrated increases in messenger ribose nucleic acid (mRNA) expression at late time points, beginning at nine months. Although persistent, dose-dependent increases in T cell counts were seen, no other overt changes in pathophysiology were observed. Nonetheless, animals that were exposed to a secondary challenge at late time points demonstrated an increased inflammatory cell recruitment and persistence in response relative to controls. We propose that, following doses that elicit little change in pathophysiology, sub-clinical radiation-induced injury increases the lungs' susceptibility to a secondary challenge, possibly through a radiation-induced alteration in the immune defense system.
    International Journal of Radiation Biology 05/2011; 87(8):902-13. · 1.84 Impact Factor
  • Fuel and Energy Abstracts 01/2011; 81(2).
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    ABSTRACT: To assess early changes in the lung after low-dose radiation exposure that may serve as targets for mitigation of lung injury in the aftermath of a terrorist event, we analyzed cytokine expression after irradiation. Adult mice were studied after whole-lung or total-body irradiation. Mouse pups of different ages were also investigated after total-body irradiation. mRNA abundance was analyzed in tissue and plasma, and pathological changes were assessed. In lung tissue, dose-related changes were seen in IL1B, IL1R2 and CXCR2 mRNA expression at 1 and 6 h after irradiation, concurrent with increases in plasma protein levels of KC/CXCL1 and IL6. However, in the pups, changes in IL1 abundance were not detected until 28 days of age, coincident with the end of postnatal lung growth, although apoptosis was detected at all ages. In conclusion, although cytokines were expressed after low doses of radiation, their role in the progression of tissue response is yet to be determined. They may be candidates for use in marker-based biodosimetry. However, the lack of cytokine induction in early life suggests that different end points (and mitigating treatments) may be required for children.
    Radiation Research 04/2010; 173(4):522-35. · 2.70 Impact Factor
  • International Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics - INT J RADIAT ONCOL BIOL PHYS. 01/2008; 72(1).
  • International Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics - INT J RADIAT ONCOL BIOL PHYS. 01/2007; 69(3).
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    ABSTRACT: Instillation of crystalline silica into the lungs of mice is a common experimental model of pulmonary fibrosis. Typically, a suspension of silica in saline is injected into the trachea via intubation or surgical tracheostomy. These techniques require a high degree of technical skill, have a lengthy training period, and can suffer from a high failure rate. In oropharyngeal aspiration, a droplet of liquid is placed in the animal's mouth while simultaneously holding its tongue (to block the swallow reflex) and pinching its nose shut, forcing it to breathe through its mouth, aspirating the liquid. To determine whether oropharyngeal aspiration (OA) could replace intratracheal instillation (IT) in a model of silica-induced fibrosis, a comparison was performed. Crystalline silica was introduced into the lungs of male C57BL/6 mice by the IT or OA procedure, and the resulting inflammation and fibrosis was assessed after 3 weeks. IT and OA instillation of silica both resulted in neutrophilic inflammation and fibrotic changes, including interstitial fibrosis and dense fibrotic foci. Mice treated via IT demonstrated a few large lesions proximal to conducting airways with little involvement of the distal parenchyma and large interanimal variability. In contrast, OA resulted in a diffuse pathology with numerous fibrotic foci distributed throughout the lung parenchyma, which is more representative of human fibrotic lung disease. OA- but not IT-treated mice exhibited significantly increased lung collagen content. Furthermore, the interanimal variability within the OA group was significantly less than in the IT group. Oropharyngeal aspiration should be considered as an alternative to intratracheal instillation of silica and other particulates in studies of respiratory toxicity and lung disease.
    Experimental Lung Research 06/2006; 32(5):181-99. · 1.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Our group's work on late radiation effects has been governed by the hypothesis that the effects observed in normal tissues are a consequence of multicellular interactions through a network of mediators. Further, we believe that inflammation is a necessary component of this process. We therefore investigated whether the recruitment of mononuclear cells, observed during the pneumonitic period in the irradiated normal lung, is dependent on the expression of chemokines, notably Mcp1. Since statins have been shown to reduce chemokine expression and inflammatory cell recruitment, we specifically examined whether statins could be used to reduce monocyte recruitment. Mice received 15 Gy whole-lung irradiation; treated groups were administered lovastatin three times weekly starting either immediately or 8 weeks postirradiation. At subsequent intervals, animals were killed humanely, and cellular, mRNA and protein analyses were undertaken. Statin-treated animals demonstrated a statistically significant reduction in both macrophage and lymphocyte populations in the lung compared to radiation alone as well as improved rates of survival and decreased collagen content. In addition, ELISA measurements showed that radiation-induced increases in Mcp1 protein were reduced by statin treatment. Additional experiments are needed to assess whether statins offer a potential treatment for the amelioration of late effects in breast and lung cancer patients undergoing radiation therapy.
    Radiation Research 06/2004; 161(5):560-7. · 2.70 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Ionizing radiation leads to a progressive injury in which a monocyte/macrophage-rich pneumonitis is followed by a chronic progressive fibrosis. In the present study, the role of macrophage/monocyte recruitment in the genesis of radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis was examined. The objectives were threefold: (i) characterize the inflammatory cells recruited into the lung during the development of radiation-induced fibrosis; (ii) investigate changes in lung response following depletion of resident alveolar macrophages in vivo prior to radiation treatment; (iii) assess if inhalation of low levels of endotoxin would potentiate the radiation-initiated injury. One group of fibrosis-sensitive C57BL/6 mice was irradiated with a single dose of 15 Gy to the thorax. In a second group, resident inflammatory cells were depleted using clodronate, encapsulated into liposomes, 48 hours prior to irradiation with a single dose of 15 Gy to the thorax. Control animals were sham irradiated. All groups of animals then were examined 8, 16, or 24 weeks post irradiation. No difference in total cell numbers or cell differentials was observed between irradiated mice or those that were both liposome treated and irradiated at any time point. At 16 weeks, mice that received radiation showed a 5- to 6-fold increase in lymphocytes regardless of treatment as compared to control animals. At 24 weeks post irradiation, select groups were exposed to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and examined 24 hours post inhalation. Lavageable protein was increased several fold in mice that received both radiation and LPS exposure as compared to 15 Gy or LPS exposure alone. These results demonstrate: (i) macrophages and lymphocytes are the predominately recruited cell types through 24 weeks post irradiation; (ii) recovery of inflammatory cells, regardless of prior macrophage depletion, were similar, suggesting that early responses are primarily driven by parenchymal cell injury; (iii) thoracic irradiation-induced injury can cause sensitization to a secondary stimulus that may result in injuries/responses not predicted by evaluating exposures individually.
    Experimental Lung Research 01/2004; 30(5):369-82. · 1.47 Impact Factor
  • International Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics - INT J RADIAT ONCOL BIOL PHYS. 01/2004; 60.
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    ABSTRACT: Isotransplants of murine fibrosarcoma (KHT) cells were inoculated i.m. into the hind limbs of 6-8 week-old female C3H/HeJ mice. Intratumoral injection of FGF1 or VEGF proteins decreased hypoxic marker uptake in murine fibrosarcoma KHT. Reduction of tumor hypoxia did not correlate with mRNA expression of transcription factors in tumors. Likewise, there was no significant alteration in either apoptotic frequency or the mRNA levels of 10 apoptotic-related molecules in FGF1- or VEGF-treated tumors. mRNA expression for MCP-1, IL-1 beta, IL-18, and IL-1Ra, however, were decreased in the tumors following FGF1 or VEGF treatment. Among the normal tissues tested (brain, kidney, liver, spleen, and lung), basal mRNA levels for cytokines and chemokines varied. Intratumoral injection of FGF1 or VEGF (6 daily intra-tumor injections of 6 micrograms/mouse) did not alter most cytokine or chemokine mRNA expression in spleen and lung. In summary, alteration of tumor oxygenation by local administration of angiogenic growth factors may be mediated by cytokine/chemokine production in the tumor.
    Advances in experimental medicine and biology 02/2003; 530:603-9. · 1.83 Impact Factor
  • International Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics - INT J RADIAT ONCOL BIOL PHYS. 01/2003; 57(2).
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    ABSTRACT: Alveolar cells of the lung are injured and killed when exposed to elevated levels of inspired oxygen. Damaged tissue architecture and pulmonary function is restored during recovery in room air as endothelial and type II epithelial cells proliferate. Although excessive fibroblast proliferation and inflammation occur when abnormal remodeling occurs, genes that regulate repair remain unknown. Our recent observation that hyperoxia inhibits proliferation through induction of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21(Cip1/WAF1/Sdi1), which also facilitates DNA repair, suggested that p21 may participate in remodeling. This hypothesis was tested in p21-wild-type and -deficient mice exposed to 100% FiO(2) and recovered in room air. p21 increased during hyperoxia, remained elevated after 1 day of recovery before returning to unexposed levels. Increased proliferation occurred when p21 expression decreased. In contrast, higher and sustained levels of proliferation, resulting in myofibroblast hyperplasia and monocytic inflammation, occurred in recovered p21-deficient lungs. Cells with DNA strand breaks and expressing p53 were observed in hyperplastic regions suggesting that DNA integrity had not been restored. Normal recovery of endothelial and type II epithelial cells, as assessed by expression of cell-type-specific genes was also delayed in p21-deficient lungs. These results reveal that p21 is required for remodeling the oxygen-injured lung and suggest that failure to limit replication of damaged DNA may lead to cell death, inflammation, and abnormal remodeling. This observation has important implications for therapeutic strategies designed to attenuate long-term chronic lung disease after oxidant injury.
    American Journal Of Pathology 11/2002; 161(4):1383-93. · 4.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Radiation pneumonitis is a distinct clinical entity that differs from other pulmonary symptoms such as allergic pneumonitis, chemical pneumonitis, or pneumonia by various infectious agents. Recent research has supported the mechanism of cellular interaction between lung parenchymal cells and circulating immune cells mediated through a variety of cytokines including proinflammatory cytokines, chemokines, adhesion molecules, and profibrotic cytokines. Identifying reliable biomarkers for radiation pneumonitis will allow us to identify individuals at risk for pneumonitis before or during the early stage of therapy. Prospective blood sampling, scoring of respiratory symptoms, and chest imaging were conducted for patients receiving thoracic radiotherapy for malignancy. Serial plasma specimens were analyzed for circulating cytokine changes before, during, and up to 12 weeks after radiation. Radiation pneumonitis was diagnosed using National Cancer Institute (NCI) common toxicity criteria. Cytokine analysis was assayed for interleukin 1alpha (IL-1alpha), interleukin 6 (IL-6), monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1), E-selectin, L-selectin, transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-beta1), and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) using enzyme linked immmunosorbant assay (ELISA). Twenty-four patients had clinical follow-up longer than 12 months after radiotherapy. Thirteen had symptomatic pneumonitis (NCI grade 2). The peak incidence of symptoms was between 6 and 13 weeks after radiotherapy. Six patients had only radiographic infiltrates (NCI grade 1). Five patients did not have clinical or radiographic pneumonitis. Both IL-1alpha and IL-6 levels were significantly higher before, during, and after radiotherapy for those who had pneumonitis. The pattern of changes of MCP-1, E-selectin, L-selectin, TGF-beta1, and bFGF varied, but none of these cytokines correlated with radiation pneumonitis. Analysis of a panel of circulating cytokines with different putative functions in radiation pulmonary injury identified IL-1alpha and IL-6 as early circulating cytokine markers for radiation pneumonitis.
    Seminars in Radiation Onchology 02/2002; 12(1 Suppl 1):26-33. · 3.97 Impact Factor
  • International Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics - INT J RADIAT ONCOL BIOL PHYS. 01/2002; 54(2):215-215.
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    ABSTRACT: To determine whether external beam irradiation delivered immediately after graft implantation can inhibit anastomotic intimal hyperplasia (IH) 1 month following polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) bypass in a sheep carotid artery model, 23 sheep underwent bilateral bypass of the ligated common carotid artery with 8-mm PTFE immediately followed by a single dose of irradiation (15, 21, or 30 Gy) to one side. The 15 animals with bilaterally patent grafts were euthanized at 1 month and graft-arterial anastomoses harvested. Using computer-aided image analysis, IH areas and thicknesses were measured. Graft patency in this model was 83% at 1 month and did not differ according to treatment administered. In the control animals, IH was greatest at mid-anastomosis, but minimal within the native vessel. All three radiation doses markedly inhibited mid-anastomotic IH area and thickness. At the proximal anastomosis, 30 Gy reduced the IH area 20-fold, from 2.06 to 0.14 mm2 (p < 0.0001 by ANOVA), and IH thickness 70-fold, from 29.0 to 0.4 micron (p < 0.0002); similar effects were seen at the distal anastomosis. No adverse effects of radiation treatment were observed. External beam irradiation in doses of 15 to 30 Gy delivered in a single fraction immediately after operation markedly inhibits development of intimal hyperplasia 1 month following end-to-side anastomosis with PTFE in sheep.
    Annals of Vascular Surgery 10/2001; 15(5):533-8. · 0.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report results from a clinical research protocol investigating circulating pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin-6 [IL-6] and tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNFalpha]) in relation to radiation pulmonary injury. In a protocol for cytokine measurement, 25 patients had clinical follow-up longer than 12 months, and 24 had serial cytokine data. Serial plasma specimens before, during, and after thoracic radiotherapy were analyzed for IL-6 and TNFalpha using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Radiation pulmonary injury was defined using National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria. Of the 24 patients, 6 had Grade 1 pneumonitis, and 13 had Grade 2 pneumonitis. There was no Grade 3/4 pneumonitis. Median time of radiation pneumonitis was between 8 and 12 weeks post-therapy. IL-6 levels before, during, and after thoracic radiation therapy were significantly higher in those who developed pneumonitis. In contrast, we did not detect a significant correlation between plasma TNFalpha and radiation pneumonitis. High pretreatment plasma levels of IL-6 predisposed patients to the risk of radiation pneumonitis. Pretreatment IL-6 level may serve as a predictor for radiation pneumonitis. Serial plasma IL-6 was consistently higher for the pneumonitis group. The role of IL-6 in the cytokine cascades that promote radiation pulmonary injury deserves further investigation.
    International Journal of Radiation OncologyBiologyPhysics 04/2001; 49(3):641-8. · 4.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We gave high single doses of external radiation to normal vessels to produce vascular injury and establish the dose tolerance in an animal model. We also performed immunohistochemical staining for macrophages and smooth muscle cells to assess qualitative changes in their populations. Following direct bilateral inguinal cutdown in New Zealand white rabbits, single doses of 15, 20 and 30 Gy were delivered to one vessel. At predetermined time intervals following treatment, the animals underwent angiography and were sacrificed. Both systems were harvested and analyzed, and their luminal and medial areas compared. No statistically significant differences were found between any treatment vessel and its contralateral control at any time point. In addition, no alterations in subintimal or medial content of macrophages or smooth muscle cells were observed. Our data suggest that single radiation doses as high as 30 Gy appear to be well tolerated in the normal, uninjured rabbit vessel over a 6-month follow-up. However, the use of a diseased vessel model and longer follow-up times need to be studied to provide a better clinical understanding of the basic radiobiology of this technique.
    Cardiovascular Radiation Medicine 01/1999; 1(2):131-7.
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    ABSTRACT: One of the most controversial issues in utilizing radiation to inhibit restenosis is the importance of the location of the radiation source. The experimental results from using external forms of radiation have been contradictory and conflicting. In this study, we undertook to externally place a brachytherapy catheter source and to determine if a dose-response effect could be observed, as has been demonstrated with endovascular locations. Neointimal hyperplasia was created in a rat carotid artery model by a balloon catheter technique. Immediately following injury, treatment groups received irradiation via an externally located high-dose rate (HDR) 192Ir brachytherapy catheter. This system allows for a more uniform dose delivery compared with endovascular radiation sources. Radiation was delivered to a 2-cm length of the injured vessel at doses of 5, 10, or 15 Gy and the animals were sacrificed at various time points following treatment (24 h to 6 months). Serial sections of tissue were stained immunohistochemically with primary antibodies for CD11b, platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), and alpha-smooth muscle actin. Radiation doses of 5, 10, and 15 Gy inhibited the appearance of neointimal hyperplasia in a dose- and time-dependent manner. That is, doses of 5-15 Gy allowed for varying degrees of neointimal hyperplasia at 3 weeks posttreatment, with a greater resurgence of monocyte/macrophage activity at 5 Gy than at 10 or 15 Gy, where an absence of macrophage activity and PDGF expression was noted. From 2 to 6 months, the 10 and 15 Gy doses were again more suppressive of neointimal hyperplasia than 5 Gy, and at 6 months posttreatment the doses were approximately 25% and 50% effective, respectively. The demonstrated effectiveness of external brachytherapy provides "proof of principle," that it is the radiation dose delivered to the arterial wall, and not the location of the source, which is critical to a successful outcome. Ablation of the resident monocyte/macrophage population (or prevention of their activation) occurs with low to moderate doses of irradiation, leading to the absence of a cytokine cascade as evi denced by a lack of PDGF expression. A favorable therapeutic ratio exists, therefore, for radiation treatment of the arterial vasculature to prevent neointimal hyperplasia postangioplasty.
    Cardiovascular Radiation Medicine 01/1999; 1(1):55-63.

Publication Stats

349 Citations
31.47 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1999–2013
    • University Center Rochester
      • • Department of Environmental Medicine
      • • Department of Radiation Oncology
      Rochester, Minnesota, United States
  • 2001–2004
    • University of Rochester
      • • Department of Environmental Medicine
      • • Department of Radiation Oncology
      Rochester, NY, United States