Sun-Hee Yoon

Eulji University, Daiden, Daejeon, South Korea

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Publications (8)32.27 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanosine triphosphate (8-oxoGTP) has been regarded simply as a oxidative mutagenic byproduct. The results obtained in this study imply that it may act as a down-regulator of respiratory burst of neutrophils. Human neutrophils treated with PMA produced superoxides and at the same time, the cytosol of these cells was intensely immunostained by 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanosine(8-oxoG) antibody, indicating that 8-oxoG-containing chemical species including 8-oxoGTP are produced. Human neutrophil lysates treated with PMA also produced superoxides, which was stimulated by GTPgammaS but inhibited by 8-oxoGTPgammaS. Moreover, 8-oxoGTPgammaS suppressed the stimulatory action of GTPgammaS. Likewise, GTPgammaS stimulated Rac activity in neutrophil lysates but 8-oxoGTPgammaS and GDP inhibited it. The inhibitory effect of GDP was one tenth that of 8-oxoGTPgammaS. Here again, 8-oxoGTPgammaS also suppressed the stimulatory action of GTPgammaS on Rac activity. These results imply the possibility that 8-oxoGTP is formed during respiratory burst of neutrophils and limits neutrophil production of superoxides by antagonizing GTP toward Rac.
    Free Radical Research 07/2007; 41(6):655-62. · 3.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To identify potential biomarkers for the monitoring and risk assessment of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), the oxidative stress-related DNA damage and p53 modification were investigated in human hepatoma HepG2 cells. Benzo[a]pyrene exposure induced a decrease in the cell viability, but increased the antioxidant enzyme activity as well as the DNA and lipid damage. The p53 protein activation appeared to have been a downstream response to the benzo[a]pyrene-induced DNA damage, suggesting p53 plays important roles in the defense against benzo[a]pyrene-induced genotoxicity. The response of phosphorylated p53 may be more sensitive towards benzo[a]pyrene exposure than normal p53. Following DNA damage, the activation of p53 acts as a transcriptional regulator of several target genes, including, p21 protein; a gene that encodes the Cdk inhibitor and is induced by exposure to benzo[a]pyrene. The p53 mRNA level was increased after the treatment of cells with benzo[a]pyrene, as well as following the induction of p53 protein, suggesting the benzo[a]pyrene-stimulated p53 accumulation may also be transcriptionally induced. The overall results suggest that benzo[a]pyrene leads to serious DNA damage, which leads to the transcription of the p53 gene; that the subsequent p53 protein accumulation up-regulates the cellular p21 protein. Oxidative DNA damage and p53 accumulation seem to be related to benzo[a]pyrene toxicity; however, their potential as biomarkers in environmental monitoring and risk assessment needs to be validated in the context of their specificity and sensitivity.
    Toxicology Letters 12/2006; 167(1):27-33. · 3.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Aberrantly enhanced vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) gene expression is associated with increased tumor growth and metastatic spread of solid malignancies, including human renal carcinomas. Persistent activation of STAT3 is linked to tumor-associated angiogenesis, but underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Therefore, we examined whether STAT3 modulates the stability and activity of hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha), and in turn enhances VEGF expression. We found that STAT3 was activated in ischemic rat kidneys and hypoxic human renal carcinoma cells. We also found that hypoxia-induced activation of STAT3 transactivated the VEGF promoter and increased the expression of VEGF transcripts. Consistent with these findings, STAT3 inhibition attenuated the hypoxic induction of VEGF. Interestingly, activated STAT3 increased HIF-1alpha protein levels due to the HIF-1alpha stability by blocking HIF-1alpha degradation and accelerated its de novo synthesis. The novel interaction of STAT3 with HIF-1alpha was identified in hypoxic renal carcinoma cells. Furthermore, hypoxia recruited STAT3, HIF-1alpha, and p300 to the VEGF promoter and induced histone H3 acetylation. Therefore, these findings provide compelling evidence that a causal relationship exists between STAT3 activation and HIF-1-dependent angiogenesis and suggest that therapeutic modalities designed to disrupt STAT3 signaling hold considerable promise for the blocking tumor growth and enhancing apoptosis of cancer cells and tissues.
    The FASEB Journal 09/2005; 19(10):1296-8. · 5.70 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Oxygen radicals attack guanine bases in DNA but they also attack cytoplasmic GTP forming 8-oxoGTP. The presence of 8-oxoGTP in cytoplasm is evidenced by the fact that cells contain MutT/MTH1 which hydrolyze 8-oxoGTP into 8-oxoGMP. In this study, the interaction between 8-oxoGTP and Ras, a small GTP-binding protein, was tested in vitro, and the action of 8-oxoGTP was compared to that of GTP. When purified Ras was treated with 8-oxoGTPgammaS, Ras was activated, as indicated by the enhanced binding of Ras with Raf-1. GTPgammaS also activated Ras but 8-oxoGTPgammaS had a much more potent effect. In lysates of human embryo kidney 293 cells, 8-oxoGTPgammaS activated not only Ras but also the downstream effectors of the Ras-ERK pathway, i.e., Raf-1 and ERK1/2. In contrast to Ras, other small GTP-binding proteins, Rac1 and Cdc42, were inactivated by 8-oxoGTPgammaS, whereas both of these proteins were activated by GTPgammaS, indicating that the biological natures of 8-oxoGTP and GTP differ. These results suggest the possibility that 8-oxoGTP is not a simple by-product but a functional molecule transmitting an oxidative signal to small GTP-binding proteins like Ras.
    Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 03/2005; 327(1):342-8. · 2.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In Escherichia coli, MutM (8-oxoG DNA glycosylase/lyase or Fpg protein), MutY (adenine DNA glycosylase) and MutT (8-oxodGTPase) function cooperatively to prevent mutation due to 7, 8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine (8-oxoG), a highly mutagenic oxidative DNA adduct. MutM activity has been demonstrated to be induced by oxidative stress. Its regulation is under the negative control of the global regulatory genes, fur, fnr and arcA. However, interestingly the presence of MutY increases the mutation frequency in mutT- background because of MutY removes adenine (A) from 8-oxoG:A which arises from the misincorporation of 8-oxoG against A during DNA replication. Accordingly we hypothesized that the response of MutY to oxidative stress is opposite to that of MutM and compared the regulation of MutY activity with MutM under various oxidative stimuli. Unlike MutM, MutY activity was reduced by oxidative stress. Its activity was reduced to 30% of that of the control when E. coli was treated with paraquat (0.5mM) or H2O2 (0.1 mM) and induced under anaerobic conditions to more than twice that observed under aerobic conditions. The reduced mRNA level of MutY coincided with its reduced activity by paraquat treatment. Also, the increased activity of MutY in anaerobic conditions was reduced further in E. coli strains with mutations in fur, fnr and arcA and the maximum reduction in activity was when all mutations were present in combination, indicating that MutY is under the positive control of these regulatory genes. Therefore, the down-regulation of MutY suggests that there has been complementary mechanism for its mutagenic activity under special conditions. Moreover, the efficacy of anti-mutagenic action should be enhanced by the reciprocal co-regulation of MutM.
    Free Radical Research 09/2003; 37(8):873-9. · 3.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Our previous study showed that KG-1, a human acute leukemia cell line, has mutational loss of 8-oxoguanine (8-hydroxyguanine; oh(8)Gua) glycosylase 1 (OGG1) activity and that its viability is severely affected by 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-oxodeoxyguanosine; oh(8)dG). In the present study, the nature of the killing action of oh(8)dG on KG-1 was investigated. Signs observed in oh(8)dG-treated KG-1 cells indicated that death was due to apoptosis, as demonstrated by: increased sub-G(1) hypodiploid (apoptotic) cells, DNA fragmentation, and apoptotic body formation; loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential, the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria into the cytosol, and the down-regulation of bcl-2; and the activation of caspases 8, 9, and 3, and the efficient inhibition of the apoptotic process by caspases inhibitors. This apoptosis appears not to be associated with Fas/Fas ligand because the expressions of these proteins were unchanged. Apoptotic KG-1 cells showed a high concentration of oh(8)Gua in DNA. Moreover, the increased concentration of oh(8)Gua in DNA, and the apoptotic process were not suppressed by the antioxidant, N-acetylcysteine, and thus the process is independent of reactive oxygen species. Of the 18 cancer cell lines treated with oh(8)dG, 3 cell lines (H9, CEM-CM3, and Molt-4) were found to be committed to apoptosis, and all of these showed very low OGG1 activity and a marked increase in the concentration of oh(8)Gua in DNA. These observations indicate that in addition to its mutagenic action, oh(8)Gua in DNA disturbs cell viability by inducing apoptosis.
    Molecular Cancer Research 03/2003; 1(4):290-9. · 4.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, an attempt was made to develop a method to estimate oxidative damage of individual genes for assessing chemopreventive potential of dietary or medicinal plants. Oxidative damage was investigated on the two genes in gastric mucosal tissue infected with Helicobacter pylori, which were genes of glyceraldehydes-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), a house-keeping gene, and gene of insulin-like growth factor II receptor (IGFIIR), a gene known to be mutated frequently in gastric carcinoma. The oxidative damage in genomic DNA in the above tissue was confirmed by immunohistochemical study using monoclonal antibody to 8-hydroxyguanine (oh(8)G), which showed much higher degree of staining in their nuclei. Using the method we developed, it was demonstrated that the number of oh(8)G (indicated by 8-hydroxyguanine glycosylase (OGG1) sensitive sites) in GAPDH was almost not changed in H. pylori-infected tissue but in IGFIIR, it increased significantly. These results indicate that this method is valid for the estimate of oxidative damage of individual genes and also showed that the susceptibility of genomic DNA to attack of reactive oxygen species is not homogeneous but different depending upon the region of DNA. We expect to use this method in studies of carcinogenic mechanism and chemoprevention since it can provide more specific information pertaining to individual genes we are interested in.
    Mutation Research/Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis 01/2003; 523-524:225-35. · 3.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To study the status of oxidative DNA damage in Helicobacter pylori infection in more detail, we examined oxidative DNA damage to individual genes by determining the loss of PCR product of a targeted gene before and after gastric mucosal DNA was treated with 8-hydroxyguanine glycosylase, which cleaves DNA at the 8-hydroxyguanine residues. The results showed that, of the 5 genes tested, p53, insulin-like growth factor II receptor and transforming growth factor-beta receptor type II showed significant oxidative DNA damage in H. pylori-positive tissues and that the BAX and beta-ACTIN genes were relatively undamaged. These results suggest that in H. pylori infection, oxidative DNA damage does not occur homogeneously throughout the genomic DNA but, rather, in a gene-specific manner. We conclude that the progressive accumulation of preferential oxidative DNA damage in certain genes, such as p53, likely contributes to gastric carcinogenesis.
    International Journal of Cancer 07/2002; 99(4):485-90. · 6.20 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

204 Citations
32.27 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2007
    • Eulji University
      Daiden, Daejeon, South Korea
  • 2003–2007
    • Seoul National University Hospital
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • University of Seoul
      • College of Urban Sciences
      Seoul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2002–2006
    • Seoul National University
      • Department of Pharmacology
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea