J L Grem

University of Nebraska at Omaha, Omaha, Nebraska, United States

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Publications (157)980.07 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Purpose. European Mistletoe (Viscum album L.) extracts (mistletoe) are commonly used for cancer treatment in Europe. This phase I study of gemcitabine (GEM) and mistletoe in advanced solid cancers (ASC) evaluated: (1) safety, toxicity, and maximum tolerated dose (MTD), (2) absolute neutrophil count (ANC) recovery, (3) formation of mistletoe lectin antibodies (ML ab), (4) cytokine plasma concentrations, (5) clinical response, and (6) pharmacokinetics of GEM. Methods. Design: increasing mistletoe and fixed GEM dose in stage I and increasing doses of GEM with a fixed dose of mistletoe in stage II. Dose limiting toxicities (DLT) were grade (G) 3 nonhematologic and G4 hematologic events; MTD was reached with 2 DLTs in one dosage level. Response in stage IV ASC was assessed with descriptive statistics. Statistical analyses examined clinical response/survival and ANC recovery. Results. DLTs were G4 neutropenia, G4 thrombocytopenia, G4 acute renal failure, and G3 cellulitis, attributed to mistletoe. GEM 1380 mg/m(2) and mistletoe 250 mg combined were the MTD. Of 44 patients, 24 developed nonneutropenic fever and flu-like syndrome. GEM pharmacokinetics were unaffected by mistletoe. All patients developed ML3 IgG antibodies. ANC showed a trend to increase between baseline and cycle 2 in stage I dose escalation. 6% of patients showed partial response, 42% stable disease. Median survival was 200 days. Compliance with mistletoe injections was high. Conclusion. GEM plus mistletoe is well tolerated. No botanical/drug interactions were observed. Clinical response is similar to GEM alone.
    Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 01/2013; 2013:964592. · 1.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To examine patterns of fatigue and other variables (sleep quality, sleep-wake variables, activity and rest, circadian rhythms, quality of life [QOL], blood counts, and demographic and medical variables) during colon and rectal cancer adjuvant chemotherapy, as well as feasibility of the study. Longitudinal, descriptive feasibility study. Two oncology clinics in the midwestern region of the United States. From April 2006-December 2008, 27% of screened subjects (n = 21) enrolled and 14 completed the study. Participants were middle aged, partnered, and employed and had postsecondary education. Measurements completed during the first week of three two-week cycles (chemotherapy 1-3) and at six weeks (before chemotherapy 4) were the Piper Fatigue Scale, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, wrist actigraphy, Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Colon, blood counts, and demographic and medical data form. Analysis included descriptive statistics and repeated-measures analysis of variance. Fatigue, sleep quality, sleep-wake variables, activity-rest, circadian activity rhythms, and QOL. Fatigue was mild at baseline and rose to moderate levels during chemotherapy 1-3. Sleep quality was poor the months prior to chemotherapy 1 and chemotherapy 4. Actigraphy data revealed disturbed sleep, low daytime activity, and impaired circadian activity rhythms during the first week after chemotherapy 1-3. QOL ratings were similar to those in other cancer populations. Fatigue increased, and white blood cell counts decreased significantly over time. During adjuvant chemotherapy, patients reported moderate fatigue and poor sleep quality; actigraphs confirmed problems with sleep maintenance as well as low daytime activity and disturbed circadian rhythms. Multiple barriers were encountered during the study. Clinicians should screen for fatigue and sleep-wake variables and use guidelines to select interventions.
    Oncology Nursing Forum 11/2010; 37(6):E359-69. · 1.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Over-expression of thymidylate synthase (TS) and dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) in tumor tissue is associated with insensitivity to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). Over-expression of ERCC1 correlates with insensitivity to oxaliplatin (OX) therapy, while high thymidine phosphorylase (TP) levels predict for increased sensitivity to capecitabine (Xel). Biopsies of metastatic tumor were taken before OX (130 mg/m2 day 1) given with Xel (1200-3000 mg/m2 in two divided doses days 1-5 and 8-12) every 3-weeks. Micro-dissected metastatic and primary tumors were analyzed for relative gene expression by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The clinical protocol prospectively identified the molecular targets of interest that would be tested. Endpoints for the molecular analyses were correlation of median, first and third quartiles for relative gene expression of each target with response, time to treatment failure (TTF), and survival. Among 91 patients participating in this trial; 97% had colorectal cancer. The median number of prior chemotherapy regimens was 2, and most had prior 5-FU and irinotecan. In paired samples, median mRNA levels were significantly higher in metastatic versus primary tumor (-fold): TS (1.9), DPD (3.8), ERCC1 (2.1) and TP (1.6). A strong positive correlation was noted between DPD and TP mRNA levels in both primary (r = 0.693, p < 0.0005) and metastatic tissue (r = 0.697, p < 0.00001). There was an association between TS gene expression and responsive and stable disease: patients whose intratumoral TS mRNA levels were above the median value had significantly greater risk of early disease progression (43% vs 17%), but this did not translate into a significant difference in TTF. ERCC1 gene expression above the third quartile was associated with a shorter TTF (median 85 vs 162 days, p = 0.046). Patients whose TS mRNA levels in metastatic tumor tissue were below the median had a longer overall survival (median 417 vs 294 days, p = 0.042). Target gene expression in primary tumor was significantly lower than that in paired metastatic tissue. High ERCC1 mRNA levels in metastatic tumor was associated with a shorter TTF. Lower expression of TS mRNA correlated with a lower chance of early PD with XelOX therapy and improved overall survival.
    BMC Cancer 12/2008; 8:386. · 3.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To develop dosing guidelines and to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of imatinib in patients with liver dysfunction (LD). Patients (N = 89) with varying solid tumors and liver function were stratified into four groups according to serum total bilirubin and AST and were treated with escalating doses of imatinib. Plasma and urine were assayed for concentrations of imatinib and its active metabolite, CGP74588. In the mild LD group, dose-limiting toxicity, specifically nausea/vomiting and fatigue, occurred in two patients at the 600 mg/d dose level. In the moderate and severe LD groups, the maximal dose evaluated was 300 mg/d. Grade 3 to 4 toxicities consisted primarily of liver function test elevations (24%), nausea/vomiting (10%), fatigue (6%), and edema (5%). After the first imatinib dose, the mean (+/- SD) dose-normalized areas under the plasma concentration-time curve from time 0 to infinity (AUC(0-infinity)) were 162 +/- 155, 171 +/- 72, 182 +/- 157, and 185 +/- 172 (mug/mL x h)/mg for normal, mild, moderate, and severe LD groups, respectively. Renal excretion of imatinib was less than 10% of the total dose in all groups. Imatinib exposure (as measured by the dose-normalized AUC) did not differ between patients with normal liver function and those with LD. The maximal recommended dose of imatinib for patients with mild LD is 500 mg/d. Dosing guidelines for patients with moderate and severe LD remain undetermined.
    Journal of Clinical Oncology 03/2008; 26(4):563-9. · 18.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study was undertaken to determine the safety, dose-limiting toxicities (DLT), maximum-tolerated dose (MTD), and pharmacokinetics of imatinib in cancer patients with renal impairment and to develop dosing guidelines for imatinib in such patients. Sixty adult patients with advanced solid tumors and varying renal function (normal, creatinine clearance [CrCL] >or= 60 mL/min; mild dysfunction, CrCL 40 to 59 mL/min; moderate dysfunction, CrCL 20 to 39 mL/min; and severe dysfunction, CrCL < 20 mL/min) received daily imatinib doses of 100 to 800 mg. Treatment cycles were 28 days long. The MTD was not reached for any group. DLTs occurred in two mild group patients (600 and 800 mg) and two moderate group patients (200 and 600 mg). Serious adverse events (SAEs) were more common in the renal dysfunction groups than in the normal group (P = .0096). There was no correlation between dose and SAEs in any group. No responses were observed. Several patients had prolonged stable disease. Imatinib exposure, expressed as dose-normalized imatinib area under the curve, was significantly greater in the mild and moderate groups than in the normal group. There was a positive correlation between serum alpha-1 acid glycoprotein (AGP) concentration and plasma imatinib, and an inverse correlation between plasma AGP concentration and imatinib clearance. Urinary excretion accounted for 3% to 5% of the daily imatinib dose. Daily imatinib doses up to 800 or 600 mg were well tolerated by patients with mild and moderate renal dysfunction, respectively, despite their having increased imatinib exposure.
    Journal of Clinical Oncology 03/2008; 26(4):570-6. · 18.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To characterize the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of oxaliplatin in cancer patients with impaired renal function. Thirty-four patients were stratified by 24-h urinary creatinine clearance (CrCL) into four renal dysfunction groups: group A (control, CrCL, >or=60 mL/min), B (mild, CrCL, 40-59 mL/min), C (moderate, CrCL, 20-39 mL/min), and D (severe, CrCL, <20 mL/min). Patients were treated with 60 to 130 mg/m2 oxaliplatin infused over 2 h every 3 weeks. Pharmacokinetic monitoring of platinum in plasma, plasma ultrafiltrates, and urine was done during cycles 1 and 2. Plasma ultrafiltrate platinum clearance strongly correlated with CrCL (r2 = 0.712). Platinum elimination from plasma was triphasic, and maximal platinum concentrations (Cmax) were consistent across all renal impairment groups. However, only the beta-half-life was significantly prolonged by renal impairment, with values of 14.0 +/- 4.3, 20.3 +/- 17.7, 29.2 +/- 29.6, and 68.1 h in groups A, B, C, and D, respectively (P = 0.002). At a dose level of 130 mg/m2, the area under the concentration time curve increased in with the degree of renal impairment, with values of 16.4 +/- 5.03, 39.7 +/- 11.5, and 44.6 +/- 14.6 mug.h/mL, in groups A, B, and C, respectively. However, there was no increase in pharmacodynamic drug-related toxicities. Estimated CrCL using the Cockcroft-Gault method approximated the measured 24-h urinary CrCL (mean prediction error, -5.0 mL/min). Oxaliplatin pharmacokinetics are altered in patients with renal impairment, but a corresponding increase in oxaliplatin-related toxicities is not observed.
    Clinical Cancer Research 08/2007; 13(16):4832-9. · 7.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Oxaliplatin, an effective cytotoxic treatment in combination with 5-fluorouracil for colorectal cancer, is associated with sensory, motor and autonomic neurotoxicity. Motor symptoms include hyperexcitability while autonomic effects include urinary retention, but the cause of these side-effects is unknown. We examined the effects on motor nerve function in the mouse hemidiaphragm and on the autonomic system in the vas deferens. In the mouse diaphragm, oxaliplatin (0.5 mM) induced multiple endplate potentials (EPPs) following a single stimulus, and was associated with an increase in spontaneous miniature EPP frequency. In the vas deferens, spontaneous excitatory junction potential frequency was increased after 30 min exposure to oxaliplatin; no changes in resting Ca(2+) concentration in nerve terminal varicosities were observed, and recovery after stimuli trains was unaffected. In both tissues, an oxaliplatin-induced increase in spontaneous activity was prevented by the voltage-gated Na(+) channel blocker tetrodotoxin (TTX). Carbamazepine (0.3 mM) also prevented multiple EPPs and the increase in spontaneous activity in both tissues. In diaphragm, beta-pompilidotoxin (100 microM), which slows Na(+) channel inactivation, induced multiple EPPs similar to oxaliplatin's effect. By contrast, blockers of K(+) channels (4-aminopyridine and apamin) did not replicate oxaliplatin-induced hyperexcitability in the diaphragm. The prevention of hyperexcitability by TTX blockade implies that oxaliplatin acts on nerve conduction rather than by effecting repolarisation. The similarity between beta-pompilidotoxin and oxaliplatin suggests that alteration of voltage-gated Na(+) channel kinetics is likely to underlie the acute neurotoxic actions of oxaliplatin.
    British Journal of Pharmacology 01/2006; 146(7):1027-39. · 5.07 Impact Factor
  • Jean L Grem
    Clinical Cancer Research 08/2005; 11(14):5067-8. · 7.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We have reported that increasing the length of infusion from 5 min to 1 h appeared to substantially reduce the toxicity associated with fluorouracil (5-FU) modulated by leucovorin (LV) and interferon alpha-2a (IFN-alpha). This phase II study assessed the antitumor efficacy of this regimen. Patients (n=38) with colorectal cancer received IFN-alpha 5 MU/m(2) SC on days 1-6; on days 2-6, LV 200 mg/m(2) IV was given with 5-FU at initial doses of 370-425 mg/m(2)/h. The regimen was well-tolerated with no grade 4 toxicity. At 425 mg/m(2) 5-FU, grade 3 toxicities included diarrhea (8.6%), anorexia, fever and fatigue (5.7% each), neutropenia and nausea/vomiting (2.9% each). Individuals tolerated 5-FU doses up to 644 mg/m(2). Objective responses occurred in 27% of 37 patients; median time to progression and survival were 6.1 and 12.9 months. Only 1 of 25 informative tumor samples had high-frequency microsatellite instability (MSI), while 7 of 23 assessable patients (30%) with MSI-negative tumors had an objective response. With 425 mg/m(2), the average 5-FU Cp and AUC(0-1 h) were 37.4 microM and 1161 microM/h. Some 6 patients had extended sampling, and the half-lives of 5-FU and FBAL (apparent) were 8.6 and 100.0 min, respectively. A 1-h infusion of 5-FU is well tolerated; individual dose escalation of 5-FU allows each patient to receive the maximum tolerable dose.
    Oncology Reports 07/2005; 13(6):1145-52. · 2.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In preclinical studies, sequential exposure to irinotecan (CPT-11) then fluorouracil (5-FU) is superior to concurrent exposure or the reverse sequence; a 24-hour infusion of CPT-11 may be better tolerated than shorter infusions. CPT-11 was first given at four levels (70-140 mg/m(2)/24 hours), followed by leucovorin 500 mg/m(2)/0.5 hours and 5-FU 2,000 mg/m(2)/48 hours on days 1 and 15 of a 4-week cycle. 5-FU was then increased in three cohorts up to 3,900 mg/m(2)/48 hours. Two patients had dose-limiting toxicity during cycle 1 at 140/3,900 of CPT-11/5-FU (2-week delay for neutrophil recovery; grade 3 nausea despite antiemetics); one of six patients at 140/3,120 had dose-limiting toxicity (grade 3 diarrhea, grade 4 neutropenia). Four of 22 patients with colorectal cancer had partial responses, two of which had prior bolus CPT-11/5-FU. The mean 5-FU plasma concentration was 5.1 micromol/L at 3,900 mg/m(2)/48 hours. The end of infusion CPT-11 plasma concentration averaged 519 nmol/L at 140 mg/m(2)/24 hours. Patients with UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT1A1; TA)6/6 promoter genotype had a lower ratio of free to glucuronide form of SN-38 than in patients with >/=1 (TA)7 allele. Thymidylate synthase genotypes for the 28-base promoter repeat were 2/2 (13%), 2/3 (74%), 3/3 (13%); all four responders had a 2/3 genotype. Doses (mg/m(2)) of CPT-11 140/24 hours, leucovorin 500/0.5 hours and 5-FU 3,120/48 hours were well tolerated.
    Clinical Cancer Research 06/2005; 11(11):4144-50. · 7.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To determine the clinical toxicities of 17-(allylamino)-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG) given as a 1-hour infusion daily for 5 days every 3 weeks. Nineteen patients received 17-AAG over six dose levels (10 to 56 mg/m(2)) using an accelerated titration scheme. Drug levels of 17-AAG were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Biologic effects of 17-AAG were monitored by changes in the content of target proteins by immunoblot analysis of lysates prepared from peripheral-blood mononuclear cells. Toxicity was acceptable at doses up to 28 mg/m(2). The cohort was expanded to three patients at 40 mg/m(2) because a second occurrence of grade 2 hepatic transaminitis occurred. Two of six assessable patients who received 56 mg/m(2) had reversible, grade 3 hepatic transaminitis. Five additional patients were enrolled at 40 mg/m(2); none had dose-limiting toxicity. The maximum plasma concentrations (C(max)) of 17-AAG at 40 and 56 mg/m(2) were 1,724 and 2,046 ng/mL, respectively; the average plasma exposures (AUC) were 2,809 and 6,708 hours.ng/mL, respectively. Less than 3% of the daily dose was excreted into the urine. Clearance did not correlate with body-surface area. Possible biologic activity was suggested by apparent increased protein content of either glucose-related 78 kd protein or heat shock protein 70 with >/= 14 mg/m(2) and decreased protein content of either Lck or Raf1 with >/= 28 mg/m(2) of 17-AAG. 17-AAG 40 mg/m(2) (median dose, 70 mg) was well tolerated when given daily for 5 days every 3 weeks.
    Journal of Clinical Oncology 03/2005; 23(9):1885-93. · 18.04 Impact Factor
  • Jean L Grem
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    ABSTRACT: Identification of molecular markers at either the intragenic, chromosomal, mRNA, or protein level that might predict whether colorectal cancer patients are likely to benefit from adjuvant or palliative therapy is a high priority. The majority of clinical studies addressing this issue, particularly those done in the adjuvant setting, analyzed tumor samples from patients treated in the era when 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) alone or combined with leucovorin or levamisole were the mainstay of therapy. This review highlights some of the intratumoral molecular markers that may have importance as predictors of benefit with 5-FU-based therapy. Although the goal of these investigations is to one day permit selection of therapy for an individual patient based on the tumor phenotype, prospective studies have yet to be conducted that test whether selection of therapy based on molecular markers results in an improved outcome.
    Seminars in Oncology 03/2005; 32(1):120-7. · 4.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: New chemotherapy regimens for patients with colorectal cancer have improved survival, but at the cost of clinical toxicity. Oxaliplatin, an agent used in first-line therapy for metastatic colorectal cancer, causes acute and chronic neurotoxicity. This study was performed to carefully assess the incidence, type and duration of oxaliplatin neurotoxicity. A detailed questionnaire was completed after each chemotherapy cycle for patients with metastatic colorectal cancer enrolled in a phase I trial of oxaliplatin and capecitabine. An oxaliplatin specific neurotoxicity scale was used to grade toxicity. Eighty-six adult patients with colorectal cancer were evaluated. Acute neuropathy symptoms included voice changes, visual alterations, pharyngo-laryngeal dysesthesia (lack of awareness of breathing); peri-oral or oral numbness, pain and symptoms due to muscle contraction (spasm, cramps, tremors). When the worst neurotoxicity per patient was considered, grade 1/2/3/4 dysesthesias and paresthesias were seen in 71/12/5/0 and 66/20/7/1 percent of patients. By cycles 3, 6, 9, and 12, oxaliplatin dose reduction or discontinuation was needed in 2.7%, 20%, 37.5% and 62.5% of patients. Oxaliplatin-associated acute neuropathy causes a variety of distressing, but transient, symptoms due to peripheral sensory and motor nerve hyperexcitability. Chronic neuropathy may be debilitating and often necessitates dose reductions or discontinuation of oxaliplatin. Patients should be warned of the possible spectrum of symptoms and re-assured about the transient nature of acute neurotoxicity. Ongoing studies are addressing the treatment and prophylaxis of oxaliplatin neurotoxicity.
    BMC Cancer 02/2005; 5:116. · 3.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Oxaliplatin-based combination chemotherapy is an option for first-line therapy of metastatic colorectal cancer. It is associated with acute hyperexcitability of motor and sensory nerves, and a cumulative sensory axonal neuropathy. We describe a 56-year-old male with metastatic colorectal cancer treated with oxaliplatin and capecitabine who developed a rapidly ascending motor and sensory neuropathy, which rendered him wheelchair-bound. Heightened clinical suspicion for possible oxaliplatin-induced motor neuropathies may be warranted.
    Anti-Cancer Drugs 09/2004; 15(7):733-5. · 2.23 Impact Factor
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    Jean Grem
    CancerSpectrum Knowledge Environment 09/2004; 96(15):1116-7. · 14.07 Impact Factor
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    Jean L Grem
    CancerSpectrum Knowledge Environment 06/2004; 96(10):727-9. · 14.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Oxaliplatin, a platinum-based chemotherapeutic agent, is effective in the treatment of solid tumors, particularly colorectal cancer. During and immediately following oxaliplatin infusion, patients may experience cold-induced paresthesias, throat and jaw tightness, and occasionally focal weakness. We assessed nerve conduction studies and findings on needle electromyography of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer before and during treatment with oxaliplatin. Twenty-two patients had follow-up studies within 48 h following oxaliplatin infusions, and 14 patients had follow-up studies after 3-9 treatment cycles. Repetitive compound muscle action potentials and neuromyotonic discharges were observed in the first 24-48 h following oxaliplatin infusion, but resolved by 3 weeks. After 8-9 treatment cycles, sensory nerve action potential amplitudes declined, without conduction velocity changes or neuromyotonic discharges. The acute neurological symptoms reflect a state of peripheral nerve hyperexcitability that likely represents a transient oxaliplatin-induced channelopathy. Chronic treatment causes an axonal neuropathy similar to other platinum-based chemotherapeutic agents.
    Muscle & Nerve 04/2004; 29(3):387-92. · 2.31 Impact Factor
  • Yan Xu, Bruce Keith, Jean L Grem
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    ABSTRACT: A liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC-MS) method has been developed and validated for the determination of the anticancer agent gemcitabine (dFdC) and its metabolite 2',2'-difluoro-2'-deoxyuridine (dFdU) in human plasma. An Oasis((R)) HLB solid phase extraction cartridge was used for plasma sample preparation. Separation of the analytes was achieved with a YMC ODS-AQ (5 microm, 120 A, 2.0 mm x 150 mm) column. The initial composition of the mobile phase was 2% methanol/98% 5mM ammonium acetate at pH 6.8 (v/v), and the flow rate was 0.2 ml/min. An isocratic gradient was used for 3min, followed by a linear gradient over 4 min to 30% methanol/70% 5mM ammonium acetate at pH 6.8. The gradient returned to the initial conditions over 2 min and remained there for 6 min. The retention times of dFdC, dFdU, and the internal standard 5'-deoxy-5-fluorouridine (5'-DFUR) were 11.46, 12.63, and 13.58 min. The mass spectrometer was operated under negative electrospray ionization conditions. Single-ion-monitoring (SIM) mode was used for analyte quantitation at m/z 262 for [dFdC-H](-), m/z 263 for [dFdU-H](-), and m/z 245 for [5'-DFUR-H](-). The average recoveries for dFdC, dFdU, and 5'-DFUR were 88.4, 84.6, and 99.3%, respectively. The linear calibration ranges were 5-1000 ng/ml for dFdC, and 5-5000 ng/ml for dFdU. The intra- and inter-assay precisions (%CV) were </=3 and </=7% at three concentration levels (50.0, 500, and 5000 ng/ml). The limits of quantitation (defined as 10 times of signal-to-noise ratio) were 3.16 ng/ml for dFdC, and 1.35 ng/ml for dFdU with 50-microl sample injections. This method has been used for measuring plasma concentrations of dFdC and dFdU in samples from adult cancer patients in a Phase I trial of weekly dFdC given as 150 (or lower) mg/(m(2) 24-h) infusion. The average plasma dFdC concentrations at 22- and 23-h into the infusion were 18.3 and 16.8 ng/ml at 150 and 100mg/m(2), respectively; the values for dFdU averaged 2950 and 1372 ng/ml.
    Journal of Chromatography B 04/2004; 802(2):263-70. · 2.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Plant extracts of the European mistletoe (MTE), Viscum album, the most widely used cancer treatment in Germany, have been used in European countries as sole intervention or as adjunct to conventional cancer therapies for more than 80 years. Preclinical data suggest immunostimulatory and cytotoxic effects of MTE. While the clinical efficacy of MTE in cancer is being investigated, toxicity and potential interactions of MTE with standard chemotherapeutic agents are unknown. Gemcitabine is an approved antimetabolite chemotherapeutic agent effective as single agent in patients with solid tumors (ST). The documented metabolism and pharmacokinetics of gemcitabine make this agent well suited for the study of botanical-chemotherapy drug interactions (BDIA) in cancer. Based on reports of altered drug metabolism associated with botanical preparations, research into BDIA has intensified. The phase I, 2-stage, dose-escalation study outlined here will test MTE with gemcitabine as a paradigm for the phase I investigation of botanical-drug combination treatments in patients with advanced ST. The protocol including the following components has been reviewed and approved by the National Cancer Institute Institutional Review Board (IRB), the National Naval Medical Center IRB, and the Navy Clinical Investigation Program (study 02-074): (1) use of a standardized MTE, approved by the Food and Drug Administration for investigational use; (2) independent verification of key MTE components considered biologically active; (3) identification of contaminants and adulterants; (4) pharmacokinetics of gemcitabine and its principal metabolites before and upon exposure to MTE; (5) safety and toxicity data collection; (6) assays of plasma ML antibody production in vivo; and (7) pharmacodynamic studies of the botanical-drug combination.
    Integrative Cancer Therapies 01/2004; 2(4):345-52. · 2.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Since preclinical studies have shown more than additive cytotoxicity and DNA damage with the combination of gemcitabine and 5-fluoro-2'-deoxyuridine (FUDR), we studied this combination in a phase I trial. Gemcitabine alone was given in cycle 1 as a 24-h, 2-h or 1-h i.v. infusion weekly for 3 of 4 weeks; if tolerated, a 24-h i.v. infusion of FUDR was added with oral leucovorin. The cycle was aborted for grade 3 thrombocytopenia, grade 4 neutropenia, and grade 2 or worse nonhematologic toxicity. During cycle 1, six of eight patients who received 150 or 100 mg/m2 over 24 h had dose-limiting neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, fatigue or mucositis. Six of seven patients treated with 1000 mg/m2 over 2 h required a gemcitabine dose reduction for cycle 2 (thrombocytopenia, neutropenia, fatigue). Of 25 assessable patients who received gemcitabine 1000 mg/m2 over 1 h, 7 did not complete cycle 1 due to thrombocytopenia (n=6) or diarrhea (n=1). Of 42 patients entered, 27 received at least one course of gemcitabine/FUDR (5-19.5 mg/m2 over 24 h) without appreciable toxicity. Due to a shortage of FUDR, the protocol was closed early. Gemcitabine plasma concentrations averaged 0.061 micro M (24 h), 16.3 micro M (2 h), and 31.9 micro M (1 h). In 21 paired bone marrow mononuclear cell samples obtained before treatment and during FUDR infusion, thymidylate synthase ternary complex was only seen during FUDR infusion. Gemcitabine 100-150 mg/m2 over 24 h was poorly tolerated, whereas toxicity was acceptable with 800-1000 mg/m2 over 1 h. Inhibition of the target enzyme was demonstrated at all FUDR doses.
    Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology 01/2004; 52(6):487-96. · 2.80 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

3k Citations
980.07 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2005–2013
    • University of Nebraska at Omaha
      • Department of Internal Medicine
      Omaha, Nebraska, United States
  • 2004–2008
    • The Nebraska Medical Center
      Omaha, Nebraska, United States
    • Cleveland State University
      • Department of Chemistry
      Cleveland, OH, United States
  • 2004–2005
    • University of Nebraska Medical Center
      Omaha, Nebraska, United States
  • 1987–2005
    • National Cancer Institute (USA)
      • • Center for Cancer Research
      • • Cancer Therapy Evaluation Program
      • • Developmental Therapeutics Program
      • • Community Clinical Oncology Program (CCOP)
      • • Surgery Branch
      Bethesda, MD, United States
    • Southern Research Institute
      Birmingham, Alabama, United States
  • 2003
    • University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio
      • Cancer Therapy & Research Center
      San Antonio, TX, United States
  • 1991–2003
    • National Institutes of Health
      • • Center for Cancer Research
      • • Program of Developmental Therapeutics
      • • Branch of Medical Oncology Branch and Affiliates
      • • Branch of Medical Genetics
      Bethesda, MD, United States
  • 2000
    • NCI-Frederick
      Maryland, United States
  • 1985–1990
    • University of Wisconsin, Madison
      • Department of Human Oncology
      Madison, MS, United States